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Qualitative vs.

Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research
Objective

Quantitative Research To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action

To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of nonrepresentative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding

Sample

Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome


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Primary vs. Secondary Data


Primary data are originated by a researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the problem at hand. Secondary data are data which have already been collected for purposes other than the problem at hand. These data can be located quickly and inexpensively.

Classification of Secondary Data

Secondary Data

Internal

External

Ready to Use

Requires Further Processing

Published Materials

Computerized Databases

Syndicated Services

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A Classification of Marketing Research Data


Research Data

Secondary Data

Primary Data

Qualitative Data

Quantitative Data

Descriptive Survey Data

Causal Experimental Data


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A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Fig. 5.2


Qualitative Research Procedures

Direct (Non disguised)

Indirect (Disguised)

Focus Groups

Depth Interviews

Projective Techniques

Association Techniques
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Completion Techniques

Construction Techniques

Expressive Techniques
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Focus Groups
A loosely structured interview conducted by a trained moderator among a small number of informants simultaneously.

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Tiered viewing room with wrap-around mirror offers multi-perspective viewing. Room is generously equipped with outlets so laptop computers can be utilized during session. Strategically placed state-of-the-art audio and video taping offer unobstructed viewing. Attached Conference Room offers closed circuit television viewing for additional 12-14 viewers.

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Characteristics of Focus Groups


Table 5.2

Group Size Group Composition

8-12 Homogeneous, respondents, prescreened Relaxed, informal atmosphere 1-3 hours Use of audiocassettes and videotapes Observational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator
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Physical Setting Time Duration Recording Moderator


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Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators

1. Kindness with firmness: The moderator must combine a disciplined detachment with understanding empathy so as to generate the necessary interaction. 2. Permissiveness: The moderator must be permissive yet alert to signs that the group s cordiality or purpose is disintegrating. 3. Involvement: The moderator must encourage and stimulate intense personal involvement. 4. Incomplete understanding: The moderator must encourage respondents to be more specific about generalized comments by exhibiting incomplete understanding.
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Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators

5. Encouragement: The moderator must encourage unresponsive members to participate. 6. Flexibility: The moderator must be able to improvise and alter the planned outline amid the distractions of the group process. 7. Sensitivity: The moderator must be sensitive enough to guide the group discussion at an intellectual as well as emotional level.

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Variations in Focus Groups


Two-way focus group. This allows one target group to listen to and learn from a related group. For example, a focus group of physicians viewed a focus group of arthritis patients discussing the treatment they desired. Dual-moderator group. A focus group conducted by two moderators: One moderator is responsible for the smooth flow of the session, and the other ensures that specific issues are discussed. Dueling-moderator group. There are two moderators, but they deliberately take opposite positions on the issues to be discussed. This allows the researcher to explore both sides of controversial issues.

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Respondent-moderator group. The moderator asks selected participants to play the role of moderator temporarily to improve group dynamics. Client-participant groups. Client personnel are identified and made part of the discussion group. Eg. For service improvement discussion. Mini groups. These groups consist of a moderator and only 4 or 5 respondents. Tele-session groups. Focus group sessions by phone using the conference call technique. Online Focus groups. Focus groups conducted online over the Internet.
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Common Applications of Focus Groups


Understanding Consumers perceptions, opinions, and behavior concerning products and services Product Planning generating ideas about new products Advertising Develop creative concepts and copy material

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Advantages
Availability of Wide range of data Snowballing effect gives in-depth information Ability to study special respondents Children, Professionals (doctors, lawyers) Participant feel comfortable Easily understandable Flexibility in covering topics May cover unanticipated ideas that are important Data collection is faster than other techniques

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Disadvantages
Lack of generalizability (small sample size) High selection bias - Results dependent on skill of moderator in running the group and analysis Might be misused focus group is not a replacement for quantitative research Coding, analysis and Interpretation is difficult because of the unstructured nature of responses. Cost-per-respondent is high (compared to survey) May be the response in the moment which may change over time
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What is an In-depth Interview?


A conversation on a given topic between a respondent and an interviewer
Used to obtain detailed insights and personal thoughts Flexible and unstructured, but usually with an interview guide Purpose: to probe informants motivations, feelings, beliefs Lasts about an hour (30 mins to 1 hr) Interviewer creates relaxed, open environment Wording of questions and order are determined by flow of conversation
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Depth Interview Techniques: Laddering


In laddering, the line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics. This technique allows the researcher to tap into the consumer's network of meanings. Q : Which cosmetic brand you use? (product characteristic) A : Ponds Q : Why Ponds ? A : because it is good brand name at reasonable cost Q: Why reasonably priced cosmetics are important to you? A : well, buying a quality product that isn t high priced makes me feel good about myself because I am spending my money wisely. (user characteristic)
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Advantages Find out more in-depth information Free exchange of information is possible as it is not possible in focus group because there is no special pressure to conform to group response Disadvantages Skilled interviewer expensive and difficult to find Data obtained are difficult to analyse and interpret Length of interview and high cost : small number of depth interview in project

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Marketing Research is needed when : Information need is identified decisions need not be made immediately Organization can afford the research Value of the research outweigh the cost of the research

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Subject which is overdone should not be normally chosen, for it will be a difficult task to throw any new light in such a case. Controversial subject should not become the choice of average researcher. Too narrow & too vague problems should be avoided Subject should be familiar and feasible Cost involved should be minimum. Similarly time factor should also be considered.
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Step 1
Defining the research problem involves: Identification, selection and formulation of problem Identification : felt need or difficulty Selection: Utility or usefulness of research for org./community Financial support Practicability Time constraint
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Problem formulation
Steps in Problem formulation: Introduction to the problem : discussion with DM, Sec Data, Qualitative research. Review of previous studies : literature review Identifying gaps in earlier studies Need for the present study Objectives of the present study

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Criteria for a good Hypothesis


1. Must be conceptually clear 2. Should never be framed as questions 3. Should be related to the body of the theory 4. Must be specific and stated in simple terms Eg. UV rays may cause skin cancer.

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Exploratory research
Exploratory research is undertaken when the researcher does not know much about the issue / concern / topic and needs additional information or desires new or more recent information. Such types of research are conducted in an unstructured manner and depends largely on primary data . The outcome of this Research is in the form of objectives and hypothesis .
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Conclusive Research
This is research having clearly defined objectives. In this type of research specific courses of action are taken to solve the problem. Two types : 1. Descriptive Research 2. Causal Research

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DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
A type of conclusive research that has its major objective as the description of something usually market characteristics or functions.

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When to use descriptive study


To determine characteristics of market (such as size of the market, product usage pattern etc) To determine the association of two variables such as advertisement expenditure and sales. To estimate the proportion of people in a specific population, who behave in a particular way e.g. Shopping behavior of South African people.

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Cross Sectional Design


A type of cross sectional design involving the collection of information from any given sample of population elements only once. Single cross sectional design. Multiple cross sectional design.

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Longitudinal Design Or Panel Study


A type of research design involving a fixed sample of population elements that is measured repeatedly. The sample remains the same over time, thus providing a series of pictures which, when viewed together portray a vivid illustration of the situation and the changes that are taking place over time.

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What is an In-depth Interview?


A conversation on a given topic between a respondent and an interviewer
Used to obtain detailed insights and personal thoughts Flexible and unstructured, but usually with an interview guide Purpose: to probe informants motivations, feelings, beliefs Lasts about an hour (30 mins to 1 hr) Interviewer creates relaxed, open environment Wording of questions and order are determined by flow of conversation
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Advantages Find out more in-depth information Free exchange of information is possible as it is not possible in focus group because there is no special pressure to conform to group response Disadvantages Skilled interviewer expensive and difficult to find Data obtained are difficult to analyse and interpret Length of interview and high cost : small number of depth interview in project

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Projective Techniques
Projective techniques are unstructured and indirect forms of questioning which encourage the respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern.

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Main Types of Projective Techniques


Word Association
asks the respondents to give the first word or phase that comes to mind after the researcher presents a word or phrase

Completion Test
asks the respondents to complete sentences, dialogs, or stories, etc.

Picture Drawing and Interpretation Third Person Techniques Role Playing


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Primary Scales of Measurement


Scale Nominal
Numbers Assigned to Runners Rank Order of Winners
Third place Second place 9.1 First place 9.6 Finish
7 8 3

Ordinal

Finish

Interval

Performance Rating on a 0 to 10 Scale Time to Finish, in Seconds

8.2

Ratio
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14.1

13.4
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Comparative Scaling Techniques Paired Comparison Scaling


A respondent is presented with two objects and asked to select one according to some criterion. The data obtained are ordinal in nature. Paired comparison scaling is used when the stimulus objects are physical products. With n brands, [n(n - 1) /2] paired comparisons are required Under the assumption of transitivity, it is possible to convert paired comparison data to a rank order.

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Comparative Scaling Techniques Rank Order Scaling


Respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion. It is possible that the respondent may dislike the brand ranked 1 in an absolute sense. Furthermore, rank order scaling also results in ordinal data. Only (n - 1) scaling decisions need be made in rank order scaling.

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Comparative Scaling Techniques Constant Sum Scaling


Respondents allocate a constant sum of units, such as 100 points to attributes of a product to reflect their importance. If an attribute is unimportant, the respondent assigns it zero points. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute, it receives twice as many points. The sum of all the points is 100. Hence, the name of the scale.

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CONTINUOUS RATING SCALE


Also called as graphic rating scale, respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on the line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other. It is easy to construct but data feeding is difficult and cubersome.

LIKERT SCALE
It is scale in which respondents indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of the series of statements about stimulus object. Each scale item has five response categories ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree

SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE


It is a seven point rating scale with endpoints associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. The respondents mark the blank that best indicates how they would describe the object being rated. Eg. Samsung Laptops are Reliable :-:-:-:-:-:-:-: Unreliable