NANO RAM

NILANCHAL KUMAR ROLL NO:27 MCA B5

RAM
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Random access memory ( RAM) is a type of data storage RAM) used in computers. It takes the form of integrated circuits that allow the stored data to be accessed in any order ² that is, at random and without the physical movement of the storage medium or a physical reading head.

Types of RAM
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NonNon-volatile random access memory (NVRAM) is the NVRAM) general name used to describe any type of random access memory which does not lose its information when power is turned off. ROM EPROM (Erasable programmable read-only memory) (Erasable readmemory) EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only ReadMemory) Flash memory Upcoming MRAM (Magneto resistive Random Access Memory ) (Magneto RRAM (Resistive Random Access Memory ) NRAM

Volatile memory:( volatile storage or primary storage device) is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information, unlike non-volatile memory which nondoes not require a maintained power supply. ‡ DRAM ‡ SRAM ‡ Upcoming ‡ Z-RAM (Zero capacitor RAM ) (Zero ‡ TTRAM (Twin Transistor RAM)
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INTRODUCTION
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Nano-RAM, is a proprietary computer memory Nano-RAM, technology from the company NANTERO. It is a type of nonvolatile random access memory based on the mechanical position of carbon nano tube deposited on a chip-like substrate. chipThe proprietary NRAMΠdesign, invented by Dr. Thomas Rueckes, Nantero's Chief Technology Officer, uses carbon nano tubes as the active memory elements.

What is carbon Nano tube? ‡ Carbon nano tubes (CNTs) are a recently discovered allotrope of carbon. ‡ Carbon nano tubes have amazing properties . ‡ It is stronger than steel and as hard as diamond. ‡ The wall of a single-walled singlecarbon Nano tube is only one carbon atom thick and the tube diameter is approximately 50,000 times smaller than a human hair.

Nantero has created multiple prototype devices, including an array of ten billion suspended nano tube junctions on a single silicon wafer. ‡ NRAM technology will achieve very high memory densities: at least 10-100 times our 10current best.
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Nantero's design for NRAMΠinvolves the use of suspended nanotube junctions as memory bits, with the "up" position representing bit zero (Off) and the "down" position representing bit one (On).

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Bits are switched between states through the application of electrical fields. The wafer (A small adhesive disk of paste) was produced using only standard semiconductor processes, maximizing compatibility with existing semiconductor factories.

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NRAMΠwill be considerably faster and denser than DRAM, have substantially lower power consumption than DRAM or flash, be as portable as flash memory, and be highly resistant to environmental forces (heat, cold, magnetism).

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And as a nonvolatile chip, it will provide permanent data storage even without power. Possible uses include the enabling of instant-on instantcomputers, which boot and reboot instantly, as well as high-density portable memory - MP3 players with high1000s of songs, PDAs with 10 gigabytes of memory, highhigh-speed network servers and much more.

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In Nantero's technology, each NRAM "cell" consists of a number of nano tubes suspended on insulating "lands" over a metal electrode. ‡ At rest the nano tubes lie above the electrode "in the air", about 13 nm above it in the current versions.

Architecture of suspended nano tube memory

How it works?
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Nantero¶s nanotech RAM chip applies electrical charges to nanotubes suspended over an electrode. Applying the opposite type of charge to the tubes and the electrode causes the tubes to bend down, touch, and bind to the electrode, creating an electrical connection. Applying the same type of charge to the tubes and electrode causes the tubes to bend upward, creating no electrical connection. The system reads these two states as binary data¶s ones and zeros. The highcapacity NRAM chip maintains stored data when a host device¶s power is shut off and promises to be fast and energy efficient.

WORKING OF NANORAM

Benefits of NRAM
Permanently nonvolatile ‡ High speed (comparable to SRAM ) ‡ Small cell size ( comparable to DRAM ) ‡ Unlimited lifetime ‡ Immunes to soft errors
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CMOS-compatible Process Flow
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Can be manufactured in any CMOS semiconductor fab ± Requires no new equipment ± No technology limitation for scaling

Applications
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Computers and Laptops (Enabling instant-on performance, with no waiting for instantbootboot-up) Mobile devices (Faster storage of more data for PDA¶s and handhelds) Embedded memory (More powerful microprocessor, micro controller, other logic devices ) Replacement of hard drives

Future
Nonvolatile memories will enable instant booting of computers. ‡ Large memories can be build with nanotube technology. ‡ Nonvolatile memories offer much better performance combined with data storage when the power is turned OFF.
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