HVAC for Comfort, Health & Safety

ASHRAE Std 55- “ the condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the environment.” •It is a cognitive process •Influence by physical inputs, physiology and personal preference Engineer’s practical rule-of-thumb: 1.Absence of discomfort (no complaint) 2.neutrality

Perception of Comfort
• ASHRAE attempts to define objectively “what is comfort conditions?” • ASHRAE thermal sensation scale: • +3 hot • +2 warm • +1 slightly warm • 0 neutral • -1 slightly cool • -2 cool • -3 cold

Percentage of people dissatisfied





Comfort Conditions

• • • •

Human comfort occurs when the healthy person can maintain thermal balance with the surrounding. The physical factors for human comfort are: DB temperature Humidity Relative velocity of air Temperature of nearby surfaces (radiative exchange)

Most people are not discomforted by the following.

Thermal environment for comfort
Condition Air Temperature Relative humidity Air speed Radiant heat Clothing Activity Value 19-24 C 40-70% 0.1-0.2 m/s (no draught) No direct exposure to radiant heat source Light clothing (personal) Sedentary (personal)

Comfort Zone According to ASHRAE

WHO -“ A state of complete physical , mental and social well - being , not merely the absence of diseases and infirmity ” Indoor Environmental Health is related to indoor air quality (IAQ). Building-related illnesses due to poor IAQ as a result of •Tight enclosure •Pollutants •Long exposure duration

Poor IAQ
• Inadequate ventilation (50% of all cases) • Poor intake/exhaust location • Inadequate filtration or dirty filter • Poor air distribution • Inadequate operation & maintenance

The Concerns of IAQ
• To protect equipment from
– Corrosion – Dirt – Reduce energy cost

• To protect occupants
– Clean air is important

(Everyday, we breath in 20-30 kg of air. Compare to just about 1 kg of food and 3 kg of liquid.)

What is this?
“ W e d o n o t fi te r a i w e b re a th o u tsi e , l r d w h y b o th e r w i H V A C fi tra ti n ? ” th l o

Airborne Pollutants
Particulates • Nonbiological -Dusts, fumes, smokes , mists • Bio-aerosols – viruses, bacteria, fungal spores •Gases & Vapors • Organic (VOC, methane, benzene) • Inorganic (CO2, SO2, H2S, NO2) •Units of measurement: •Particulates : mg/m3 •Gases : ppm •To convert: ppm = (mg/m3) x 24.45 • molecular weight

• •

Sources of Contamination
Category Outside air Equipment Human Processes Accidental Sources Examples Contaminated air Industrial emission Moisture Dust HVAC Refrigerant leak Office VOC Personal Carbon dioxide Cooking Odor Smoking VOC Laboratory Chemicals Battery Gases Fire Combustion products Spills Flue gases

Health Effect of Exposure
• Health effects depends on dose, size, toxicity • A particulate must first be inhale to be hazardous • Respirable particulates from <1 to 10μm • Particles smaller than 3μm is of primary concern as it is most likely to be retained in the lung • Particles larger than 10μm are separated by the respiratory tract

Common Air Contaminant Sizes

Source: ASHRAE Report

What to Filter?
Particulate Viruses Bacteria Fungal spores Pollen Dust Human hair Respirable particles Size (μm) 0.003-0.1 0.4-5 2-10 10-100 <100 100-150 <10

• Typical 1 ft3 air contains 2.5 billion particles
– 99% is smaller than 1μm – 70% by weight comes from particles

Hazard Control
The principles for controlling the indoor environment are: • Substitution, Isolation ( but sometimes not possible) • Ventilation • Air cleaning (i.e. filtering)

V e n ti a ti n a n d a i cl a n i g a re l o r e n E n g i e e ri g co n tro lco m m o n l u se d n n y i H V A C syste m s. n

Control by Air Cleaning

Two Types of air filters • Particulate filter • Gas phase filter • Basic questions • What are available? • How are they rated? • How to select?

• •

Particulate Air Filter
P l a te d Fi te r e l

Pa n e lFi te r l

B a g Fi te r l

Air Filter Selection
Filter selection depends on the degree of air cleanliness required. The factors to consider: 1. Efficiency • Ability to remove particulates from air stream •2. Air-flow resistance • Loss of total pressure • Increase energy 3. Dust holding capacity • Amount of particulates it can hold before becoming inefficient •4. Space and cost required
• •

ASHRAE 52.1 Filter Tests
Two methods of testing filter efficiency • By weight fraction that filter removes from air stream

– Weight arrestance efficiency

• By particulate size that filter removes from the air stream
– Dust spot efficiency

The filter efficiency required depends on the indoor air quality that one would like to achieve.

Air Filter Rating (ASHRAE 52.11992)
1.% Arrestance efficiency • Measures how much dirt the filter can hold. Captures larger particles (>10 micron) 2.% Dust spot Efficiency • Measures how well the filter captures smaller particles (0.3 -10 micron) •Problems are:
– average efficiency – Test result is not reliable due to in consistent dust size – confusion

ASHRAE 52.2-1999
• ASHRAE 52.2 – 1999 specifies efficiency by MERV rating • Ranges from level 1-20
• 1-6 for low efficiency filter (prefilter) • 7-12 medium efficiency (main filter) • 13-20 higher efficiency

Media Throw-away fiberglass media



30% pleated media 8 65% pleated media 13 95% pleated media 15

52.1 OR 52.2
52.1 • Expresses efficiency as overall percentage • Suitable for low efficiency filter • Many local standards still refer to this

5 2 .2 •E xp re sse s e ffi e n cy a s a ci fu n cti n o f o sp e ci c p a rti e fi cl si s ze •G a i i g p o p u l ri n n a ty •S o m e m a n u fa ctu re rs te st n e w p ro d u cts

DEP: HVAC Filter Requirements
DEP STANDARD (% dust spot efficiency) Control Room Fresh air intake/return 95/65 Electrical Aux Room air air intake/return 95/65 Fresh air air intake Analyzer house Fresh 85 Office/Meeting /Mess Fresh air intake 65 DEP Office Kitchen/canteen Laboratory Computer room AREA Fresh air intake Fresh air intake Fresh air intake Fresh air intake/return STANDARD (% dust spot) 65 65 65 65/65 AREA

ASHRAE 62.1- 2004
• Ventilation with outdoor air of acceptable quality • The minimum of MERV 6 filter must be used and it should be located upstream of cooling coils and wetted surfaces. •

Acceptable Outdoor Air Quality

Applying the Right Filter for Offshore
• Minimum MERV 6 before cooling coil • Minimum 65% dust spot efficiency for indoor environment which are occupied on regular basis

One More Thing

10mm gap between filters can make MERV rating drop by 2 leve

What filter static pressure should be used?
• Filter manufacturers provide both clean and dirty filter pressure drops • Example: a 30% DS filter is 0.5”/ 1.0” wg • Use the mean value for fan calculation • Choose a fan with very steep fan curve so changes in static pressure result only in small changes in air volume

Gas Phase Contaminants
• Organic & inorganic gases of industrial origin • Harmful effects – toxicity, odor, irritation, corrosion • ACGIH publishes Threshold Limit Values (TLV)
– – – – FEV (Fatal Exposure Value) STEL (short term exposure level) TWA8 (Time weighted average 8-h) Example, for H2S, FEV= 302 ppmSTEL= 50; TWA8= 22

• ASHRAE 62 “ concentration values of toxic gases be kept below one-tenth

How should gases and vapor be removed?
• HEPA filter can remove down to 0.3 μm range • Gases and vapor is smaller than 0.1μm • Particulate filter cannot remove gases & vapor • In HVAC when gas concentration low, gas adsorption by activated carbon is the most effective method

Gas Filter

M e d i : A cti te d ca rb o n ( g ra n u l r a va a o r p e l e ti d ). U su a l y p re ce d e d b y l ze l a p re -fi te r l

What is activated carbon?

Activated Carbon
• Coconut shell, charcoal, coal heat treated to increase internal pores • Gas molecules attach to the surface i.e. adsorbed by activated carbon • Has large capacity for organic molecules • Can be impregnated with potassium permanganate • Adsorbs and retain a wide variety of chemicals • Adsorbs odor • Inert and safe

Gas Filter Typical Configuration

eter-sized media are held between perforated retaining sheets or fibrous l efficiency depends on filter and housing effectiveness.

Moisture Coalescer
1st stage – vane to remove droplets 2nd stage- filter to remove mist

Using moisture coalescer to remove salt-laden mist
• Protects ventilation system against weather elements such as rain, spray, splash containing sea-salt • Usually design in 2 or 3-stages • DEP required salt aerosols reduced to 5 ppm

Any Question?

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