You are on page 1of 68

POTASSIUM INDUSTRIES Potassium, Potassium Chloride, Potassium Carbonate, Potassium Sulfate, Potassium Hydroxide, Potassium Dichromate, Potassium Nitrate,

NITROGEN INDUSTRIES Nitrogen, Nitric Acid, Ammonia, Urea, Ammonium Nitrate, Ammonium Sulfate, Ammonium Phosphate,


i. occurs in nature only in the form of its compounds/ minerals ii. the ten most common elements in the earth s crust iii. are obtained almost entirely by the mining of salt deposits iv. was first isolated using an electrolysis apparatus (1807) v. potassium superoxide (K2O) vi. potassium hydroxide (KOH)

Manufacturing Processes

A. Leaching-crystallization (1918) B. Flotation (1934) C. Electrostatic treatment (1974)

Fine KCl

Carnallite Leach Tank

Coarse KCl



Crushed Carnallite

Amine/Starch Separator

K salts Flotation Cells

Treating Chamber

Importance and Uses.

i. the activation of more than 80 enzymes. ii. also integral to a number of other plant processes, translocation of carbohydrates, and protein synthesis iii. it has important effects on quality factors of plants.

production is amounted to 25.8 x 106 t K2O in 2001

Potassium Chloride, KCl

i. occurs in many salt deposits mixed with halite and other salt minerals ii. occurrs in natural sylvite iii. double salt carnallite (KCl MgCl2 6H2O)

Manufacturing and Production

A. Hot Leaching Process An oldest industrial process used to produce potassium chloride from potash ore (1860) a) Sylvinite Hot Leaching b) Hard Salt Leaching

Potash ore, ground to a fineness of <4 <5 mm, is stirred in a continuous dissolver with leaching brine heated to just below its boiling point. Hot, clarified crude solution is cooled by evaporation in Coarse fraction is removed vacuum equipment. from the dissolver and debrined. Mother liquor is recycled to the Fine fraction leaching brine. The crystals formed are separated dissolver as (fine residue/ slime) is removed from liquor and from the mother the dissolver along with the crude processed further. solution, which is clarified with the aid of clarifying agents Mother liquor is heated. Slime that separates is filtered off and then recycled to sodium Potassium chloride and the recirculating brine. as the water chloride crystallize Clarification includes washing is removed. the residues with water to remove the adhering crude solution.

Figure 2. Overall Systematic: Hot Leaching Process

More than 90% of the potassium chloride produced is used in single-nutrient or multi-nutrient fertilizers, either directly or after conversion to potassium sulfate.

Importance and Uses

i. ii. used for the manufacture of potassium hydroxide and potassium metal medicine, in scientific applications, in food processing, and as a sodium-free substitute for table salt (sodium chloride) third of a three-drug combination in lethal injection used (rarely) in fetal intracardiac injections in second- and third-trimester induced abortions used as a fire extinguishing agent

iii. iv.


Potassium Carbonate, K2CO3

produced in antiquity and used for many purposes

Manufacture and Production

the carbonation of electrolytically produced potassium hydroxide ii. saturated with carbon dioxide; evaporated and the potassium carbonate hydrate (K2CO3 1.5H2O) precipitates out and is separated iii. From Caustic Potash and Carbon Dioxide: 2KOH + CO2 K2CO3 + H2O i.

The mother liquor is separated from the crystal Mother liquor The crystals are dried at ca. 110C 120C. centrifuges. suspension in hydrocyclones. The resulting potassium carbonate is very pure Impurities such as soda, sulfate, silicic acid, and meets the requirements if the process is and iron that concentrate in the mother liquors Mother liquor that manner. operated in appropriate is separated is fed back to Solid potassium carbonate ispartially removed by Until the hydrate K2CO3 1.5H2O finally can be then obtained by removing a partial the and with crystallization (under stream of the mother liquorprecipitates in the crystallizer after cooling vacuumprocess. or by drying Crystalsfluidized-bed at 200C 350C to give are calcined Mother liquor is then cooling) from liquors or in the filtered. under vacuum. process. 98% 100% K2CO3. process.

Other processes
i. Amine Process ii. Nepheline Decomposition Process The mineral nepheline is decomposed with limestone by sintering at 1300C: (Na, K)2 Al-2O3 2SiO2 + 4CaCO3 2(Na, K)AlO2 + CO2 + 3H2O (Na, K)2O Al-2O3 + 2(2CaO SiO2) + 4CO2

2Al(OH)3 + (Na, K)2CO3


The magnesia process (Engel limited interest): 3(MgCO3 3H2O) + 2KCl 2(MgCO3 KHCO3 4H2O) + MgCl2

Precht process;


iv. Le Blanc process: K2SO4 + CaCO3 + 2C v. Formate process: CaS +K2CO3 + 2CO2

K2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 + 2CO 2HCOOK + CaSO4 HCOOK + KOH+ 1.5O2 K2CO3 + H2O

vi. Piesteritz process : K2SO4 + 2CaCN2 + 2H2O 2KHCN2 + 5H2O 2KHCN2 + CaSO4 + Ca(OH)2 K2CO3 + 4NH3 + CO2

vii. Ion-Exchange Process

i. About 4% to 5% of potash production is used in industrial applications ii. industrial grade potash was close to 1.35Mt K2O iii. should contain at least 62% K2O and have very low levels of Na. Mg, Ca, SO4 and Br

i. used for fertilizer, for production of commercial soap, as a compound found in gunpowder and for making glass ii. required for potassium silicate manufacture; used for many organic syntheses; electrical industry, the dye industry, the printing trade, the textile industry, the leather goods industry, and the ceramic industry iii. uses potassium carbonate as a leavening agent in baked goods, as a debitterizing agent for cocoa beans, and as an additive for drying raisins

Potassium Sulfate (sulfate of potash), K2SO4

i. occasionally occurs in nature in the pure state in salt deposits but is more widely found in the form of mineral double salts in combination with sulfates of calcium, magnesium, and sodium ii. mineral name is arcanite iii. refined from naturally occurring mineral salt deposits or by chemical synthesis

Manufacture and Production.

A. Industrial synthesis of potassium sulfate is a twostep process: a) ionic separation of mined potassium chloride and another sulfate-bearing salt via electrolysis b) joining of potassium ion and sulfate ion in controlled lab-setting at temperatures up to 120C.

From Potassium Chloride and Sulfuric Acid (Mannheim Process)

The reaction of sulfuric acid with potassium chloride takes place in two stages: 1. KCl +H2SO4 2. KCl +KHSO4 KHSO4 + HCl K2SO4 + HCl

Furnace, closed dish-shaped chamber with diameter up to 6 m, is heated externally. Potassium chloride and sulfuric acid are fed into the chamber in the required ratio at an overhead central point. The mixture reacts with evolution of heat and is mixed by a slowly moving stirrer fitted with stirring arms with scrapers. Potassium sulfate leaves the reaction chamber at this point and is neutralized and cooled. It normally contains 50 52% K2O and 1.5 2% Chloride. Hydrogen chloride gas formed when absorbed in water will form hydrochloric acid.

From Potassium Chloride and Kainite

Kainite, KCl MgSO4 2.75H2O is obtained from a grinned potash ore by flotation. Kainite is converted into schoenite at 25C with mother liquor containing the sulfates of potassium and magnesium.

Syngenite is decomposed with water Schoenite which dissolves potassium at 5C, is filtered off and decomposedreprecipitates48C. sulfate and with water at gypsum.

Most of the potassium sulfate to Potassium sulfate solution is recycled to crystallize. the schoenite decomposition stage. Sulfate mother liquor is recycled to the kainiteschoenite conversion stage. Contains 30% of the potassium used, is Gypsum with gypsum, CaSO treated is reused to precipitate 42H2O syngenite. causing sparingly soluble syngenite, K2SO4CaSO4H2O, to precipitate.

Other Processes:
From Potassium Chloride and Magnesium Sulfate 2KCl + 2MgSO4 + xH2O K2SO4 MgSO4 6H2O + MgCl2 (aq) 2KCl + K2SO4 MgSO4 6H2O + xH2O 2K2SO4 + MgCl2 (aq) From Potassium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate 4Na2SO4 + 6KCl Na2SO4 3K2SO4 + 6NaCl Na2SO4 3K2SO4 + 2KCl 4K2SO4 + 2NaCl From Potassium Chloride and Calcium Sulfate (processes based on gypsum, CaSO4 2H2O) From Alunite, K2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 4Al(OH)3

Single-Stage Process from Sodium Sulphate For the sake of thermodynamics constraints, the process of potassium sulfate production from the sodium sulfate proceeds in two steps: 6KCl + 4Na2SO4 2K3Na(SO4)2 + 6NaCl 2KCl + 2K3Na(SO4)2 4K2SO4 + 2NaCl From Potassium Chloride and Langbeinite K2SO4 2MgSO4 + 4KCl 3K2SO4 + 2MgCl2

i. Worldwide, almost all technical grade potassium sulfate production, >99%, is used in agriculture. ii. sulfate of potash production since the mid-80 s has been characterized by an up and down cycle. iii. latest upward trend ended in 1998

Importance and Uses.

i. the most important potassiumcontaining fertilizer, being used mainly for special crops. ii. constitutes 5% of the world demand for potash fertilizer and used in a wide range of industrial uses iii. for manufacturing potassium alum, for manufacturing potassium carbonate and for manufacturing glass.

Potassium Hydroxide, KOH

i. called caustic potash ii. caustic compound of strong alkaline chemical dissolving readily in water, giving off much heat and forming a caustic solution

Manufacture and Production

A. Today, potassium hydroxide is manufactured almost exclusively by potassium chloride electrolysis. There are three different processes: i. Diaphragm process ii. Mercury process iii. Membrane process

World production is estimated at 700 800 103 t/a

i. used as a raw material for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry, in dye synthesis, for photography as a developer alkali, and as an electrolyte in batteries and in the electrolysis of water raw material in the detergent and soap industry as a starting material for inorganic and organic potassium compounds and salts for the manufacture of cosmetics, glass, and textiles for desulfurizing crude oil as a drying agent as an absorbent for carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides from gases

ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.

Potassium Dichromate, K2Cr-2O7

i. major patent chromium chemical of commerce ii. Germany introduced Na2CO3 as a substitute for K2CO3 in manufacturing, since then sodium dichromate gradually replaced K2Cr2O7

Manufacture and Production

A. Potassium dichromate process starts:
mother liquor

Filtration CrO3
mother liquor Resultant solids

Crystallizer *centrifuging


facility crystals


2. The mother liquor from the The resulting mother liqour is filtered and the The mother liquor is then sent to a resultant filter solids are sent product centrifuge is returned to theoff-site for 1. Reaction of potassium hydroxide crystallizer to precipitate crystalline disposal to a facility. reactor. and chromium trioxide in a reactor K Cr- O , which is recovered by 2 2 7 creating a mother liquor: centrifuging. CrO + 2KOH K2Cr2O7 + H2O

It is also prepared from chromite ore (FeCr2O4). Chromite ore is finely powdered and is heated with sodium carbonate in the presence of air in a reverberatory furnace. The reaction produces sodium chromate: 4FeCr2O4 + 8Na2CO3 + 7O2 Na2CrO4 + H2SO4 Na2Cr2O7 + KCl 8Na2CrO4 + 2Fe2O3 + 8CO2

Na2Cr2O7 + Na2SO4 + H2O K2Cr2O7 + 2NaCl

i. Wide variety of uses in leather tanning, dyeing, painting, porcelain decorating, printing, photography, pigment-prints, staining wood, pyrotechnics, safety matches, and for blending palm oil, wax and sponges ii. for water-proofing fabrics, as an oxidizer in the manufacture of organic compounds, in electrical batteries, and as a corrosion inhibitor, and in oil refining.

Potassium Nitrate, KNO3

i. was first known by Hasan al-Rammah (Arab, 1270) ii. niter-beds were prepared by mixing manure with mortar or wood ashes iii. From 1903, fertilizer was produced on an industrial scale from nitric acid produced via the Birkeland Eyde process. iv. Haber process (1913) was combined with the Ostwald process after 1915, allowing Germany to produce nitric acid for the war.

Manufacture and Production

i. Almost all potassium nitrate, now used only as a fine chemical, is produced from basic potassium salts and nitric acid. Potassium nitrate can be made by combining ammonium nitrate and potassium hydroxide: NH4NO3 (aq) + KOH (aq) NH3 (g) + KNO3 (aq) + H2O (l)

without a by-product ammonia: NH4NO3 (aq) + KCl (aq) NH4Cl (aq) + KNO3 (aq)

from neutralization and the reaction is highly exothermic: KOH (aq) + HNO3 KNO3 (aq) + H2O (l)

i. ii. iii. iv.

v. vi.


most widely used application of the compound vital for growth of plants helps the crops to fully mature, rather than delaying their growth used as food preservatives during the Middle Ages used in many processes like curing meat, production of brine and making corned beef seventy five percent potassium nitrate is found in the "Chinese Snow" or " Devil's Distillate" also frequently used ingredient in cigarettes


nitrogen cycle represents one of the most important nutrient cycles found in terrestrial ecosystems ii. used by living organisms to produce a number of complex organic molecules iii. despite its abundance in the atmosphere, nitrogen is often the most limiting nutrient for plant growth iv. two solid forms: ammonium ion (NH4+) and the ion nitrate (NO3-)


Manufacture and Production

i. form of ammonium can be absorbed onto the surfaces of clay particles in the soil ii. ion of ammonium has a positive molecular charge is normally held by soil colloids iii. micelle fixation (released from the colloids by way of cation exchange) iv. most of the ammonium is often chemically altered by a specific type of autotrophic bacteria (genus Nitrosomonas) into nitrite (NO2-); modification by another type of bacteria (genus Nitrobacter) converts the nitrite to nitrate (NO3-) (Nitrification)

Scientists estimate that biological fixation globally adds approximately 140 million metric tons of nitrogen to ecosystems every year.

Importance and Uses

i. significant amounts enter the soil in rainfall or through the effects of lightning ii. biochemically fixed within the soil by specialized microorganisms like bacteria, actinomycetes, and cyanobacteria

Nitric Acid, HNO3

i. strong, highly corrosive and toxic mineral acid and one of the most important inorganic acids ii. one of the few substances capable of dissolving gold and platinum, which were known as the royal or noble metals

Manufacture and Production

Nitric Acid is produced in two methods: i. Weak Nitric Acid ii. High-strength Nitric Acid

Under these conditions the oxidation of tower. The nitric concentration can varyto from tail to acid oxidetower the ammonia The the absorption (NO) ammonia gas is reheated in are heated from Air to range dinitrogen tetroxide is (natural 30%withaliquid of 93 tomixedacid concentration ignition70% nitric acid.98 percent yield. Higher at proceeds temperature, The with fuel added oxidation heat exchanger to approximately a higher point. depends upon propane, butane, naphtha, gas, hydrogen, the temperature, pressure, catalyst temperatures increase reaction selectivity 392F. toward NO absorption stages, and passed number ofproduction. Lower catalyst temperatures carbon monoxide, or ammonia) and tend to be more of nitrogen oxides entering the concentration selective toward less useful products: over a catalyst bed. nitrogen (N absorber. 2) and nitrous oxide (N2O).

A 1:9 ammonia/air mixture nitrogen The final step introduces the is oxidized at a temperature of 1380F to into an as it passes through dioxide/dimer mixture 1470F absorption a catalytic convertor: process after being cooled. The mixture is 4NH3 + 5O2 exothermic pumped intosolutionproduced+65%O;turbine the bottom4NO in6H2 (typically) of the absorption An aqueous energy of 55% to this reaction The thermal tower. used to drive the compressor. Tail gases nitric acid is withdrawn from the bottom of the can be

The nitric acid formed in the absorber (bottoms) is usually sent to an external to The nitrogen dioxide/dimer mixture then passes an The absorber tail gas (distillate) is sent Deionized process water the through a waste heat boiler and a remove (bleach) platinum filter. bleacher where air is usedentersmist top of the entrainment separator forto acid removal. column. stream is of nitrogen. a any dissolved oxidespassed through The bleacher The process gases are then compressed andpassed at cooler/condenser and cooled to 100 F or less through theto 116 psia. The nitric oxide reacts pressures up absorber. Two seldom-used alternative control devices

noncatalytically with residual oxygen to form and for absorber tailgas are molecular sieves nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and its liquid dimer,sieve or The scrubbers. In the presence of the catalyst, wet absorption trays are usually nitrogen tetroxide: bubble cap oxidized and the NO are reduced the fuels are trays. The exothermic reaction x 2NO + O occurs as follows: 2 2NO2 N2O4 to N2. A secondary air stream is introduced into the column 3NO + H2O 2HNO3 + NO to re-oxidize the2NO that is formed in step 8. This air also removes NO2 from step 4.


i. In 1991, there were approximately 65 nitric acid (HNO3) manufacturing plants in the U.S. with a total capacity of 11 million tons of HNO3 per year. ii. The plants range in size from 6,000 tons to 700,000 tons per year. iii. About 70 percent of the nitric acid produced is consumed as an intermediate in the manufacture of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3).




iii. iv.


another 5% to 10% produced is used for organic oxidation in adipic acid manufacturing also used in organic oxidation to manufacture terephthalic acid and other organic compounds explosive manufacturing utilizes nitric acid for organic nitrations its nitrations are used in producing nitrobenzene, dinitrotoluenes, and other chemical intermediates other end uses of nitric acid are gold and silver separation, military munitions, steel and brass pickling, photoengraving, and acidulation of phosphate rock.

Ammonia, NH3
i. as the active product of smelling salts, the compound can quickly revive the faint of heart and light of head ii. contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers iii. either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals

Natural gas


Steam reformer

Water condenses out and is removed element or compound. Natural gas may contained sulfrous from 40C. Gas with carbon dioxide ismust bethrough a from thechamber All sulfurous compounds passed removed stripper natural and removal chamber topoisoning. These are removed by gas to prevent catalyst remove and to stripped carbon dioxide with UCARSOL. Carbon dioxide in theitmixture dissolves. heating the gas to 400C and reacting with zinc oxide:
Waste boiler heat

Air steam

Air reformer


ZnO + H2S

ZnS + H2O





Shift converter

saturated UCARSOL

CO 2 removal


CO 2 stripper


CO 2

Outlet gas is cooled from 220C to 30C. This process condenses more ammonia. Saturated UCARSOL from passed through decomposition with Ammonia after cooling is carbon dioxide removal chamber is feed ammoniaisdioxide with the to strip the ammonia and the to carbon from thestripper mixture of remaining carbon Gas stream mixed step 11: dioxide for gasesmanufacturing.5C. barg N2 + 3H2 2NH3; unreacted urea and cooled toP = 24 Impurities removed and is and hydrogen become gases and Ammonia issuch as methane passed through decompression are another ammonia. with sent togas (cooled to recoveryflows to the secondary for Synthesis the ammonia 735C) unit. Purge gas (used primary or steam reformer) and recovered ammonia are reformer where it is mixed with calculated air: removed. + dioxide passed through the methanation chamber where Remaining carbonH O is CO + H CO
water is produced 2CH removed by condensation at 40C. Carbon dioxide is O2 + and is 4 2CO + 4H2 converted to methane using a Ni/Al2O3 catalyst at 325C: O2 + CH Primary reformer CH4CO2superheated steam is fed with CO + 3H2 4 where 2O 2H2 +H + CO + 2H O 2O22++gas 4CH4 2H 2O + CO2 CH methane. The4H2 mixture 2heated with natural gas and purge
2 2 2

Compression and cooling


NH 3 converter

cool to 30C NH3 Decompression


NH 3 recovery


purge gas

gas to 770oC in the presence of a nickel catalyst: Carbon CH4 + H2Ois converted to carbon dioxide (which is monoxide 3H2 + CO used later in the synthesis of urea):2 CH4 + 2H2O 4H2 + CO Unreacted gasesO heated to 400C with P = 330 barg and CO + H2 is H2 + CO2 CO + H2O CO + H2 passed over an iron catalyst and is 2converted to ammonia. Achieved in two cooled and compressed. Gas mixture is steps: Gas stream is passed over a Cr/Fe3O4 catalyst at 360C. Gas stream is passed over a Cu/ZnO/Cr catalyst at 210C.



Annually 105 000 tonnes of pure ammonia (300 T day-1) are produced in Kapuni, and most of this is converted to urea ii. produced in large petrochemical plants typically 400 000 tonnes to 800 000 tonnes per year and costing $150m to $250m iii. produced in about 80 countries and 85 per cent is for nitrogen fertiliser production including about 6 per cent for direct use in agriculture iv. production capacity has grown strongly doubling from 62 million tonnes in 1974 to 130 million tonnes in 2000

Importance and Uses i. used on site in the

production of urea ii. remainder is sold domestically for use in industrial refrigeration systems and other applications that require anhydrous ammonia iii. an industrial chemical, but its most important use is as the building block of nitrogen fertilizers urea and ammonia chemicals

Urea, NH2CONH2
i. also called carbamide, is an organic chemical compound which essentially is the waste produced when the body metabolizes protein ii. a compound not only produced by humans but also by many other mammals, as well as amphibians and some fish iii. first natural compound to be synthesized artificially using inorganic compounds a scientific breakthrough

Manufacture and Production

Urea is produced from ammonia and carbon dioxide in two equilibrium reactions: 2NH3 + CO2 NH2COONH4 NH2COONH4 (ammonium carbamate) NH2CONH2 (urea) + H2O

The urea manufacturing process is designed to maximize these reactions while inhibiting biuret formation: 2NH2CONH2 NH2CONHCONH2 (biuret) + NH3



urea, excess NH3, carbamate, H2O

Urea and water from the decomposition of Ammonia and carbon dioxide is passed ammonia carbamate is concentrated from 68% w/w through a recovery chamber. Unconsumed to 80% w/w. Seventy percent of the urea solution is reactants are passed through the second heated at 80C-110C under vacuum, which reactor and purified excess ammonia is passed evaporates off some water. Molten urea is produced through the first reactor. at 140C; remaining 25% of the 68% w/w solution is processed under vacuum at 135C.
Recovery cooling


NH3, CO2 urea, H2O




Carbon dioxide and ammonia is mixed in a reactor H2O H2O to formand unconsumed reactants (ammonia, carbon Water ammonium carbamate (exothermic reaction): 2NH3 + CO2 NH2COONH4 (ammonium dioxide, ammonium carbamate) are removed ; carbamate); P = 240 barg240 barg to 17 barg and the pressure is reduced from solution isFirst reactor achieves 78% conversion of heated: Urea that is carbon dioxideCOONHunder granulation. 80% w/wNH to urea is processed 2NH3 + CO 2 4 Dry, cool granules classifiedofreactor receives the 2 from the using screens.carbamate) Second gas (decomposition ammonium Oversized granules are first reactor and recyclewithO from theCO (urea crushed and combined +solution 2NH + NH2CONH2 H2 undersized ones 2 for use as seed. The decomposition and concentration sections; final product is cooled in air, 3 hydrolysis) weighed and60% conversionCONH readyCONHCONH + conveyed2NH ofstorage dioxide to urea to bulk carbon NH for sale. 2 2 2 2 at P formation) NH3 (biuret= 50 barg.

i. ii. Global production increased by 3.6% in 2009 to reach 146m tonnes, estimated the International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) currently 182 000 tonnes of granular urea are produced annually (530 T day-1); soon expected to increase to 274 000 tonnes world urea capacity will increase by 51m tonne/year between 2009 and 2014 to reach 222m tonne/year, a growth rate of 6%/year global demand for urea is forecast to grow at 3.8%/year to around 175m tonnes in 2014 much of the increase was from fertilizer demand while industrial applications for urea, accounting for 12% of total consumption, is expected to grow at 7%/year.


iv. v.

i. ii. iii. used as a nitrogen-rich fertilizer, and as such is of great importance in agriculture used as a component in the manufacture of resins for timber processing and in yeast manufacture used in the manufacture of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins produced by the condensation reaction between urea and formaldehyde a constituent of cattle feeds, and is a useful viscosity modifier for casein or starch-based paper coatings small quantities are used as an intermediate in the manufacture of polyurethanes, pharmaceuticals, toothpaste, cosmetics, flame-proofing agents, sulphamic acid and fabric softeners

iv. v.

Ammonium Nitrate, NH4NO3

i. reacts with combustible and reducing materials as it is a strong oxidant ii. prepared commercially by reaction of nitric acid and ammonia.

Manufacture and Production.

Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is produced by neutralizing nitric acid (HNO3) with ammonia (NH3).
Ammonia and nitric acid areto a As the melt stream is feed reacted in a solution formation an solution concentration chamber, chamber which is resulted a melt additive magnesium nitrate or stream: magnesium oxide is injected. Dried solids are processed Purposes: again for screening. These Melt stream fromcrystalline4NO3 HNO3 + step NH to raise the NH3 2 is Screened sizes solids varysolids formation be passed to in prills isand mustthe transition temperature of processed for coating for screenedby prilling and by for chamber solidconsistently sized final product; prillsbulk shipping and or granules. Offsize prills granulating. desiccant, drawing act as an bagging. are dissolved and recycled to water into the final product to the solution concentration reduce caking; process. to allow solidification to occur at a low temperature by reducing is passed to Solid NH4NOthe freezing point of 3 molten ammonium nitrate. solids finishing chamber by drying and cooling.

In 1991, there were 58 U.S. ammonium nitrate plants located in 22 states producing about 8.2 million megagrams (Mg; 9 million tons) of ammonia nitrate.




iii. iv.


Approximately 15% to 20% of this amount was used for explosives and the balance for fertilizers commercial grade contains about 34 percent nitrogen, all of which is in forms utilizable by plants it is the most common nitrogenous component of artificial fertilizers employed to modify the detonation rate of other explosives, such as nitroglycerin in the socalled ammonia dynamites, or as an oxidizing agent in the ammonals also used in the treatment of titanium ores and in solid-fuel rocket propellants, in pyrotechnics

Ammonium Sulfate, [NH4]2SO4 Manufacture and Production. About

90% of ammonium sulfate is produced in three different processes: 1. caprolactam [(CH2)5COHN] by-product 2. synthetic manufacture 3. coke-oven by-product

The crystals are fed to either a fluidized-bed or continuously steam heated, while Dryers are rotary drum dryer. Crystal layer is sulfate isas product; not rotary dryers circulating ammonium Synthetic ammoniumremovedsulfate crystals are formed by are fired directly. Coke-oven by-product the Ammonium produced by generally screened;carried sulfate liquor to sulfatewater combining anhydrous ammonia and conveyors through a dried, the ammonium sulfate the ammonium by sulfuric After being is produced by reacting the bulk storage. acid in a reactor. evaporator, whichRotary vacuum ammonia recoveredin placed of fine thickens the filters may be used crystals are Dryer exhaust gasesAmmonium sulfate crystals solution.screened into from coke-oven pass through a particulate are separated from course and offgas crystals. collection device, wet scrubber. aa centrifuge and dryer.with sulfuric acid. the liquor in centrifuge.

Economics. In 1991, U.S.

facilities produced about 2.7 million megagrams (Mg; 3 million tons) of ammonium sulfate in about 35 plants. Production rates at these plants range from 1.8Mg to 360Mg (2 tons to 400 tons) per year.

Uses. It is commonly
used as fertilizer.

Ammonium Phosphate, NH4H2PO4

Manufature and Production.

Two basic mixer designs are used by ammoniation-granulation plants: pugmill ammoniator and rotary drum ammoniator.

Cooled granules is mixedain an acid surge tank Secondary scrubbers use raw materials mixed pass to double-deck screen, Phosphoric acidOversized granules are crushed,Mixed acids are then partially neutralized with Moist ammonium phosphate granules are mixed with in which oversize and undersize recycled acid with pond water. anhydrous ammonia in a brickparticles are liquid or gaseous Granulation, by agglomeration and by coating transferred to a rotary concurrent dryer. with 93% sulfuric acidThey recycled back to the ammoniatorand undersized.with separatedwith slurry, phosphate and particulate scrubbers. takes place in the22% Before being exhausted to the atmosphere, lined acid reactor. A slurry of ammonium from wet from product particles. granulator. rotatingare producedcompletedthrough steam- Ammonia-rich offgases pass through a wet water drum and is and sent in the dryer. these offgases pass through cyclones and Primary scrubbers use raw materials mixed Then transferred to a cooler. traced lines to the ammoniator-granulator. scrubbers. before exhausting to the atmosphere. scrubber with acid.

Economics. Total ammonium

phosphate production in the U.S. in 1992 was estimated to b e 7.7 million megagrams (Mg; 8.5 million tons).

i.used as an ingredient in some fertilizers as a high source of elemental nitrogen ii.used as a flame retardant in thermoplastic compositions iii.analytically used as buffer solutions

ZHANDER SOREO, reporting