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CHAPTER 1

Pathway from stimulus to response


Receptors in sensory organ

Stimulus

Nerves Brain

Response

Effectors (e.g: Muscle, glands)

Nerves

SKIN
Touch, pressure, pain & temperature Response Receptors (touch, pain, heat, cold, pressure) Muscle Nerves Brain Nerves

Touch receptors

Pain receptors

Cold receptors

Heat receptors Blood vessels

Pressure receptors

NOSE
Smell (chemical in air) Response Receptors (sensory cells) Nerves Brain Muscle Nerves

Sensory Cells

Nasal cavity

Nostrils

Tongue
Taste (chemical in food) Response Receptors (taste buds) Nerves Brain Muscle Nerves

EAR
Sound Receptors in cochlea Nerves Brain Response Muscle Nerves

Pinna

Oval windows

Ear canal

Ossicles

1. Pinna 2.Ear canal - 3. Eardrum (vibrate) - 4. Ossicles (amplify) - 5. Oval Windows (transfer) -6.Cochlea (fluid, receptors) - 7. Auditory nerves 8.Brains

EYE
Light Receptors (Photoreceptors) Nerves Brain Response eye lid Nerves

Conjunctiva

Conjunctiva

1. Light rays travel to eyes 2. Refracted (bent) by cornea, aqueous humour, lens, vitreous humour 3. Upside down image formed on retina 4. Photoreceptors on retina send impulses along optic nerve to brain 5. Brain interprets impulses and see object right way up.

LIGHT REFELCTION AND REFRACTION


ReflectionReflection- light bounces off the surface of object. RefractionRefraction- bending of light ray when enters medium of different density

DEFECT OF VISION
1. Short-sightedness 2. Long- sightedness 3. Astigmatism 4. Limitations of sight - optical illusions - blind spot

STEREOSCOPIC VISION
 

 

Visual field of both eyes overlap. Brain combines 2 images into 1 so can see things 3 dimensionally Helps animals to judge distances accurately. Predators - Tiger, owls, wolves

MONOCULAR VISION
  

Visual field little and no overlapping Helps them to detect enemies from wide range of directions PreyPrey- Rabbits, chickens, deer

STEREOPHONIC HEARING


Hear sounds from surrounding with 2 ears Enables us to distinguish direction of sound Enables us to determine the source of sound.

SOUND PRODUCTION, REFELCTION, ABSORPTION


Produced by vibrations Needs medium to travel Hard, smooth surface good reflector Soft, rough surface good absorbers

  

Stimuli and Responses in Plants


Plants respond by growing in certain direction. Plant growth responses tropisms

Hydrotropism Response to water


Growth movement of plant in response to water. Roots tends to grow towards water. (Positive hydrotropism) Plant absorb water from soil through roots. Ensures plant get enough water and minerals to maintain growth.

Geotropism Response to gravity


Plant growth movement in response to gravity. Roots always grow downwards, in the direction of gravity (Positive geotropism) to find water and to anchor firmly into soil. The shoots grow upwards away gravity (Negative geotropism) Ensures shoots receive sunlight for photosynthesis.

Phototropism Response to light


Plant growth movement response to light. Shoots (Positively phototropism) - ensures leaves receive enough sunlight for photosynthesis. Roots (Negatively phototropic).

Thigmotropism Response to touch


Response by plants to contact with a solid structure. Climbing plants are too weak to support their own weight, so they rely on other objects to keep them upright.

Nastic movement
Two kinds of growth movement tropisms and nastic movement. Tropisms or tropic movement response to stimuli which come from one direction. Nastic movement response to stimuli which come from any direction, not depend on the direction of stimuli. Mimosa pudica, Venus fly trap respond quickly to touch.