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Wide Area Network

y One of the difference between lan and wan y LAN y Network of computer uses own infrastructure for sending information y WAN y Network of computers uses lease infrastructure for sending information with help of service provider

WAN Connection Type


y Synchronous serial
y

Dedicated
y y

Point-to-point Connection Exp lease line Method allows you to share bandwidth Burst in nature Exp. Frame Relay

Packet Switching
y y y

Asynchronous Serial y Circuit Switching


y y

A circuit is established Exp. Dial-up Connection

PPP
y Point-to-point protocol
y y y

Data link layer protocol Link Control Protocol ( LCP) Network Control Protocol ( NCP )

LCP A method of establishing, configuring maintaining and terminating point-to-point connection. Link Control Protocol offers PPP encapsulation. Authentication Comparison Error Detection Multilink NCP A method of establishing and configuring different network layer protocols. NCP is designed to allow the simultaneous use of multiple network layer protocol IPCP Internet protocol control protocol IPXCP - Internet work packet exchange control protocol

PPP Establishment
y PPP session y Link Establishment y Authentication Phase y Network Layer protocol phase

Authentication Phase Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol ( CHAP ) PAP Password sent in clear text 2 way Handshaking CHAP Password sent in encrypted form 3 way handshaking MD5 protocol used

Router-1
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Router(config)# hostname Rt1 Rt1(config)# username Rt2 password git Rt1(config)#int e0 Rt1(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.10 255.0.0.0 Rt1(config-if)#no shut Rt1(config-if)#int s0 Rt1(config-if)#ip address 20.0.0.20 255.0.0.0 Rt1(config-if)#no shut Rt1(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Rt1(config-if)# Rt1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp Rt1(config-if)#ppp authentication chap Rt1(config-if)#exit Rt1(config)# ip route 30.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.20

Router - 2
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Router(config)# hostname Rt2 Rt1(config)# username Rt1 password git Rt1(config)#int e0 Rt1(config-if)#ip address 30.0.0.10 255.0.0.0 Rt1(config-if)#no shut Rt1(config-if)#int s0 Rt1(config-if)#ip address 20.0.0.30 255.0.0.0 Rt1(config-if)#no shut Rt1(config-if)# Rt1(config-if)# Rt1(config-if)#encapsulation ppp Rt1(config-if)#ppp authentication chap Rt1(config-if)#exit Rt1(config)# ip route 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 20.0.0.30

Integrated Services Digital Network

ISDN
y It can carry voice, video and data simultaneously y Call setup is faster than with an analog modem y Data rates are faster y Full time connectivity y ISDN can be used as a backup service for a leased line connection between the remote and central office.

ISDN
y Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
Two B Channel (64k) y One D Channel (16k)
y

BRI
U Interface S/T Interface || |||| Directly Connected Require NT1 Adaptor
|| ||

Dial-on-Demand Routing (DDR)


Dial-on-demand routing is used to allow cisco routers to dial an ISDN dial-up connection on an as needed basis. This was designed to reduce WAN cost if
y

pay on a per minute or per packet basis.

DDR works when a packet received on an interface meets the requirements of an access list which define interesting traffic. Stepsy Route to the destination network y Interesting packets dictate a DDR call y Dialer information is looked up and the call is placed y Traffic is transmitted y Call is terminated when no more interesting traffic is being transmitted over a link and the idle-timeout period ends.

Optional Commands
y Dialer load-threshold 125 either y Tells when to bring up the second B channel. y 125 : tells to bring up the second B channel only when the first channel is 45 percent loaded. y Either : calculates the actual load on the interface either on outbound traffic, inbound traffic or combined. y Dialer idle-timeout 180 y Default disconnect time from second.

Frame-Relay Introduction
y Frame-Relay is a packet-switching technology. y Non-broadcast multi access ( NBMA ) y X.25 Root technology y Frame-Relay create a cost effective mesh network
y

A way to get a connection that


y y y

looked like a lease line acted like a lease line but allowed you to pay for what ever portion of lease line you actually used.

y Frame-Relay works by providing a portion of dedicated bandwidth to

each user and also allowing the user to exceed their guaranteed bandwidth if resources are available. y Access Rate
packets.

y The maximum speed at which the frame relay interface can transmit

y CIR y Committed information rate , in bits per second, at which the frame relay switch agrees to transfer data.
y y

Lease line 1.544 mbps CIR - 256 Kbps


y

First 256 kbps of traffic you send is guaranteed to be delivered. Anything beyond that is called a BURST which is a transmission that exceeds your guaranteed 256kbps and can be any amount up to the Maximum burst rate.

Virtual Circuits
y Frame Relay operates using virtual circuits, as opposed

to real circuits that lease line use.


y There are two type of virtual circuits

y Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVC) y The BSNL create the mapping inside their gear, and as long as you pay the bill, they will remain in place y Switched Virtual Circuits (SVC) y Like a phone call the virtual circuit is established when data needs to be transmitted, then is taken down when data transfer is complete.

Data Link Connection Identifiers (DLCI)


y A frame relay service provides typically assigns DLCI values, which are

used on Frame Relay interfaces to distinguish between virtual circuits because many virtual circuits can be terminated on one multipoint frame relay interface.

y DLCI identify the logical circuit y between y the local router and y a frame relay switch

Partially Match Frame Relay


Branches are not communicate

Full Matched Frame Realy


Branches are communicate with each other

Local Management Interface (LMI)


y Local management interface is a signaling standard
y y

between your router and the frame relay switch It s allows for passing information about the operation and status of the virtual circuit between the provider s network and router.

y Keepalive These verify that data is flowing. y Multicasting Multicasting DLCI from 1019 through 1022. y Globle addressing
y

This provides global significance to DLCI, allowing the frame relay cloud to work exactly like a lan.