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Energy Transfer During Exercise

The Energy Systems

Energy Sources


From Food:
  

CHO = 4 kcal Fat = 9 kcal Pro = 4 kcal ATP > ADP + P

For Exercise:


Methods of Supplying ATP For Energy


  

Stored ATP CP or ATP-CP Anaerobic metabolism/glycolysis/lactic acid system Aerobic metabolism

ATP-PC System
    

Intramuscular phosphagens Short anaerobic Uses stored ATP Strength/power movements Replenishes

Lactic Acid System


    

Glycolytic Long anaerobic Burns glucose Accumulates lactate at high intensities Muscular endurance activities

Blood Lactate Threshold


 

Exercise intensity at the point of lactate buildup. Predicts aerobic exercise performance. Untrained ~ 55% of VO2 max. Trained ~ 75% of VO2 max.

Aerobic System
    

Oxidative Burns fatty acids Long-term energy Better butter burner Cardiorespiratory endurance activities

Energy Systems
ATP-PC Glycolysis Beta Oxidation

Stored ATP Breakdown of allows for 3-5 glucose end sec. of activity result is pyruvate ATP-PC used Converted to up in 10-15 lactic acid if sec. of activity anaerobic envir.

Breakdown of triglyceride yields ATP > Fat oxidation = better butter burner

The Energy-Time Continuum


% of energy from aerobic 120 100 80 60 40 20 0


As the work time increases, the percentage of energy contributed by the aerobic system increases.

3: 45

10

45

14

Work Time

13

Oxygen Uptake During Aerobic Exercise




Increases sharply at onset Levels off within a few minutes if pace is constant (steady state) Oxygen demand met by supply

Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2 max)




The region where oxygen uptake plateaus and does not increase despite an additional increase in exercise intensity.

Maximal Oxygen Uptake




 

Affected by body size: larger size means larger VO2 max. Absolute oxygen uptake (ml.min.) Relative oxygen uptake (ml.kg.min.)


Relative to body mass

Oxygen Deficit


Difference between oxygen consumed during exercise and amount that would have been consumed had a steady rate, aerobic metabolism occurred at onset of exercise.

Oxygen Deficit: Trained vs. Untrained


   

Trained reach steady rate quicker Higher total oxygen consumption Less reliance on anaerobic glycolysis Lower deficit in trained individuals due to:
 

Earlier aerobic ATP production Less lactate formation

Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)


 

Formerly called oxygen debt Excess oxygen above the resting level in recovery Most lactate does not synthesize into glycogen as originally thought Heart, liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscle use lactate as energy substrate during recovery

Active Recovery for Heavy Exercise




Facilitates lactate removal because of:




increased perfusion of blood through the liver and heart increased blood flow in muscles because muscle tissue oxidizes lactate during Krebs Cycle