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Overview

Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering

Course Objective
Introduce fundamental concepts in MSE

You will learn about:


materials structure how structure dictates properties how processing can change structure

This course will help you to:


use materials properly realize new design opportunities with materials

Course Information
Lecturer: Dr. Maria Natalia R. Dimaano Time: W: 2:00 - 3:00; F - 1:00 - 3:00 [4ChEA] Location: Activities:
Present new material/lecture Review lecture concepts Discuss homeworks Quizzes and major examinations Discuss online activities Oral and written reports on materials Field trip to MIRDC, DOST TTh: 11:30- 1:30 [2AP] Rm. 109, Faculty of Engineering, UST Rm. 330, College of Science, UST

Course Material
Required Text: Materials Science and Engineering
An Introduction, W. D. Callister, Jr., 6th ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., - both book and accompanying CD are needed. Optional Material: References cited in course outline and Materials Mentor Quicknotes by ASM International

Grading
Your grades will periodically be posted under the Grades link on the course web site. Discuss anytime conflicts beforehand.

Materials are
Engineered structures not blackboxes Structures .. has many dimensions Structural Feature Dimension [m]
Atomic Bonding Missing 1 extra atom Crystals (ordered atoms) Second phase particles Crystal texturing < 1010 1010 108 101 108 104 > 106

Technology: development and transfer of knowledge


and techniques to provide society with its needs and comforts.
To continue to offer what consumers expect and need, designers must keep abreast with NEW MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT

Materials Science: a discipline involving investigation of


relationships that exist between the structure and properties of materials.

Engineering materials: materials whose structures are


designed to develop specific properties for a given application.

Materials Engineering: deals with synthesis and use


of knowledge (structure, properties, processing and behavior) to develop, prepare, modify and apply materials to specific needs.

Materials Science and Engineering:


- A major field of study involving generation and application of knowledge relating the composition, structure, and processing of materials to their properties and uses.

Structure, Processing and Properties

Properties depend on
structure.
Ex. Hardness vs. structure of steel.
0 280 3 %Fe3C 6 9 12 15

Processing can change


structure.
Ex. Structure vs. cooling rate of steel.
800

Hard ness [ BHN ]

700 600 500 400 300

Brinell Hardness

240 Fine 200 pearlite 160 120 80 0

martensite

Coarse pearlite

Tempered martensite

Spheroidite

200 cementite pearlite 100 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Cooling Rate [ C/s ]

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Composition [ wt% C ]

The Materials Selection Process

1. Pick Application Determine required


properties
Properties : Mechanical, electrical, thermal, magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

2. Properties Identify candidate material/s


Material: structure, composition

3. Materials Identify required processing


Processing: changes structure and overall shape. Ex. Castings, sintering, vapor deposition, doping, forming, joining, annealing

4. Additional selection criteria

ELECTRICAL

Electrical resistivity of copper


Electrical resistivity [ 108 -m ]
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Temperature [ F ] -400 -300 -200 -100 0 +100
. u+3 C i t%N a .16 2 ed Cu+ orm Def Ni at% 12 +1. Cu u e C r P u i t%N 32 a

-250 -200-150-100 -50 0 +50 Temperature [ C ]

Adding impurity atoms to Cu increases


resistivity . Deforming Cu increases resistivity.

THERMAL

Space Shuttle Tiles


Silica fiber insulation offers low heat conduction

Thermal conductivity of copper.


It decreases when Zn is added.
Thermal conductivity [ W/m-K ]
400 300 200 100

Cu-Zn alloy

200 150 100 50

0 0 10 20 30 40 Composition [ wt%Zn ]

Thermal conductivity [ BTU/ft-F ]

250

OPTICAL

Transmittance:
Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or opaque depending on material structure.
Single crystal

Polycrystal High porosity

Polycrystal Low porosity

MAGNETIC Magnetic storage: Magnetic


Recording medium is magnetized by recording head.
Recording medium

permeability vs. composition Adding 3 atomic % Si


makes better Fe a better recording medium!
Fe+3%Si Fe

width

gap

Recording head

Magnetizaton
Signal out

Signal in

write

read

Magnetic Field

DETERIORATIVE

Stress and saltwater . - causes cracks! Heat treatment: slows crack speed in
saltwater
Crack speed [ m/s ]
108 as is held at 100C for 1 hr before testing

1010 Increasing load Material: 7150 T651 Al alloy (Zn, Cu, Mg, Zr)

MATERIALS CYCLE
Extracting raw materials Recycling/disposing of used products and systems Services of products and systems Creating bulk materials, components and devices Manufacturing engineered materials

Fabricating products and systems

Roles of Engineers in Manufacturing

Manufacturing Engineers select and

coordinate specific processes and equipment to be used. Design Engineers design the machines and equipment used in manufacturing, select and specify the materials to be used in order to meet the requirements. Materials Engineers devote their major efforts toward developing new and better materials for use in commercial products.

Materials Scientists study how the structure of materials relates to their properties

Materials Selection
What selection criteria are
important to suit the requirements of products needed. at the best material?

How do designers select to arrive What is an ideal material?


In materials selection, COMPROMISE is the rule not the exception.

Characteristics of an Ideal Material


endless and readily available source of

supply cheap to refine and produce energy efficient strong, stiff, and dimensionally stable at all temperatures lightweight corrosion resistant no harmful effects on the environment or people biodegradable numerous secondary uses

Selection Tools and Factors


Availability material must be available
at a reasonable cost and in the desired form (if not available in the desired state, the material should be convertible to the desired form). Economics cost of materials and processing must be considered. Properties materials performance characteristics

Algorithms or Steps:

Selection Tools Properties of materials Materials systems Additional Selection Criteria


existing specifications availability Processibility Near-net-shape production Quality and performance Consumer acceptance Design for assembly

Basic Approaches to Final Materials Selection


maintenance high investment and low maintenance optimum investment and maintenance

minimum investment and high

Reasons why material selection decisions are among the most important the design engineer must make:
The number of materials available is large and constantly
increasing. Domestic and foreign competitions increasingly require product reevaluation. Service requirements and consumer demands for reliability as well as function have become more severe. In many cases, the material has a direct relationship to the appearance of the product and its sales appeal. In many cases, the material dictates what processing must be used in order to manufacture the product. Because of strict and comprehensive product-liability laws, failure of products can result in very costly litigation and damages.

Aids to Materials Selection


A broad basic understanding of the Tables of properties of engineering
nature, properties and processing of materials. materials. Data must be computerized to allow easier access) compilation of current lists or charts of cost indices and quotations.

Magazines, periodicals, books, journals, Rating charts.

Three materials X, Y, and Z are available for a certain usage. Any material selected must have a good weldability. Tensile strength, stiffness, stability and fatigue strength are required with fatigue strength considered being the most important and stiffness the least important of these factors. The three materials are rated as follows in these factors. Properties X Y Z Weldability Tensile strength Stiffness Stability Fatigue strength E G VG G Fair P E G E G G Fair G G E

Which material should be selected?

Classification of Materials
1. Metals
2. Ceramics

3. Polymers 4. Composites 5. Electronic-related materials 6. Biomaterials

Summary
Course Goals
Use the right material for the job. Understand the relation between properties, structure and processing. Recognize new design opportunities offered by materials selection.