At the end of this session you will be able to: Explain the history of Telecom Explain Analog and Digital Signals Explain Switching Explain PSTN Explain Network Units and Bandwidth List the commonly used terms in Telecom Explain the various transmission media Explain some Reliance Communication Telecom concepts

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Evolution of Communication
It started from cave drawings«

Cave Drawings Smoke Signals

Signals by beating Drums

Telling Stories

Cuneiform Writing Telegraphs Telephones - Wire line To Wireless

«& it keeps evolving
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Advent of the Telephone

Alexander G Bell ± testing an old prototype of the phone
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Antonio Meucci

com 5 of 31 .A Telecom Network in Action Source : www.howstuffworks.

Analog Signals Think ³waves´ ANALOG = 6 of 31 .

Digital Signals 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Time DIGITAL = 7 of 31 .

Digital Voice Analog Data 00100011101110100111010 Digital Telephone Networks need to support both types of signals! How is it done? 8 of 31 .Analog Vs.

Exercise ± Analog Vs Digital Signal 9 of 31 .

Activity ± Analog Vs. but it also amplifies the noise Digital Signal Its is binary The signal is regenerated It does not reproduce noise or error Clearer transmission Advantages:    - Speed Accuracy Reliability 10 of 31 . Digital Analog signal Sound wave that moves electrically over a transmission path Highly variable Subject to noise and error An amplifier is used to strengthen the signal.

Computer and Communication Telephone Telephone Modem Modem DIGITAL = Computer ANALOG = Computer 11 of 31 .

Modem A modem is a piece of hardware that allows your computer to talk to other devices over regular phone line A modem converts digital signals from your computer into audible tones that can be transmitted over regular analog phone lines This conversion process is called MOdulation The modem on the other end then transfers those same audible tones back (or DEModulates) into their original digital signals Modulation and Demodulation is where the word ³Modem´ comes from 12 of 31 .

Working of Modem 13 of 31 .

Bits & Bytes The unit of Digital Information is a Bit A bit may be a µ0¶ or a ¶1¶ A byte is 8 bits put together A Byte 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 Bit 14 of 31 .

A Bigger Bit Bit Byte Kilobit (Kb) egabit 8 Bits 103 Bits 103 kbit 103 Mbit 1 Byte 1 kbit 1 Mbit 1 Gbit ( b) Gigabit (Gb) 15 of 31 .

Bandwidth Bandwidth is the rate at which data is transferred Bits of data transferred per second Its units are Kilobits/sec (Kbps) and Megabits/second (Mbps) 16 of 31 .

medium having more bandwidth moves data faster 1.000x 1. Mega bps.000x 17 of 31 .000.000x Gbps Just as more water fits into a wider pipe and hence moves faster. etc.Bandwidth (contd) In telecommunications. Giga bps.000. bandwidth refers to carrying capacity For digital signals. Kbps Mbps 1. bandwidth is measured in Kilo bits per second (kbps).000.

Typical local phone line operates at 64 kbps (64.New fiber optic electronics now allow multiple channels of 10 GB/s to be transmitted over a single fiber Video .5 Mb/s .000 bits/second) Data .Video conferencing can be done at 384 kbps .Voice. Data and Video Bandwidth Needs« Voice .Most modems run at 28.Typical data services range from 56 kbps to 45 Mb/s .8 kbps .Full-motion broadcast-quality video requires approximately VCR-quality video ~ 1.

fully-digitized movie over various bandwidths: Modem at 14.5 mbps 53 min. Optical fiber at 2.4 kbps 3.5 days ISDN line at 64 kbps 21 hrs Data line at 1.Bandwidth in Perspective Estimated time to transmit a two-hour. Cable line at 10 mbps 8 min.5 gbps 2 seconds .

it would require wires from every ³phone´ to every ³place´ they wanted to call! Solution: Switching! Switch 20 of 31 .Switching Problem: If we were to have direct lines to every place users¶ wanted to call.

Switching Manual Switching Electronic Switching A Switch allows a connection to be established. as necessary and terminated when the communication session is over. 21 of 31 .

22 of 31 .Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) The public telephone network in India (like most countries) is comprised of all of the existing telecom infrastructure. mostly developed by the government or monopolies. It is primarily an analog system made up of copper wire.

In general. .Transmission Facilities Transmission Facility . Transmission Facilities Network Transmission Facilities 23 of 31 . transmission facilities consist of a medium (wire or the atmosphere) and various type of electronic equipment located at points along the medium.Provide the communication paths that carry user and network control information between nodes in a network.

Transmission Medium Copper (twisted wire) Microwave or wireless Fiber Satellite Co-axial 24 of 31 .

which supports transmission in the form of light pulses 25 of 31 .Optical Networks These are networks created using the optical fibre.

air sunshine-therefore breakdown in monsoons is unheard of It is tap proof. therefore helps in controlling cost 26 of 31 .Advantages of Optical Network  Cables are smaller in size and lighter  Use light pulses in place of electric pulses. therefore delivers better quality Is not affected by water. they are not subject to noise and       error Prevent fire hazards as they transmit data in the form of light pulses Reduce the loss of information while transmission and so do not require as many boosting devices Offer larger bandwidths Lesser joints/seamless.

data and video communications over different transmission media. 27 of 31 . including copper. receive and switch voice. fibre etc.Telecommunications Telecommunications is the science of communicating over long distance using telephone or radio technology This involves using computer and PC technologies to transmit.

Telephony Telephony is the traditional voice communication over a wired/wireless network It is communication facilitated by the telephones 28 of 31 .

Some Commonly Used Terms TDM GSM CDMA Activation Deactivation Dial Tone Voice Mail Network 3G Transmission WAP GPRS MMS SMS I/C O/G Tariff Roaming Inter-Circle Intra-Circle SIM Monthly Charges Prepaid Postpaid PSTN BTS BSC HLR VLR MSC ARPU TRAI 29 of 31 .

Circles that are integrated together for management purposes and better administration Telecom Defined Circle OR BSNL Circles .Circle Definition Management Circles .Circles defined by DOT (Department of Tele Communications) as per telecom licenses applicable to Telecom Service Providers 30 of 31 .

Types of Circles Inter Circle Intra Circle Paired Circle 31 of 31 .

which is in another circle.It¶s an inter-circle call as Mumbai & Delhi are 2 different telecom circles .then it is an out going call to Radha and an inter circle call .This is because the origin of the call is Delhi and the destination is Mumbai . For Suresh it is an Incoming call. Mumbai Delhi 32 of 31 .Inter ± Circle A call made from Mumbai To Delhi .Example: Radha calls her friend Suresh in Mumbai from Delhi.

.Intra ± Circle A call made from Nagpur to Kolhapur . It is an outgoing call but within the same circle as both the cities are part of the same circle Maharashtra. It is an incoming call for Mahesh Nagpur Maharashtra Circle Kolhapur 33 of 31 .Example:Rakesh is in Nagpur and calls up his friend Mahesh who is in Kohlapur. Maharashtra .e.It¶s an intra circle call as both the cities are part of same circle i.

E. Mumbai & Maharashtra.It¶s a paired-circle call as Chennai lies within Tamil Nadu.g.Paired ± Circle A call made from Chennai to Madurai . Kolkatta & West Bengal Chennai Madurai Tamil Nadu 34 of 31 . and both are separate circles .

Type of Connection Prepaid Postpaid ‡ Pay before Use ‡ Ability to control / monitor expenses ‡ Less documentation ‡ Instant activation ‡ Easy availability 35 of 31 .

Type of Connection Prepaid Postpaid ‡ Pay after Use ‡ Lower tariffs available ‡ Monthly billing pattern ± ease of operation ‡ No worry on talk time expiry / validity expiry 36 of 31 .

the connection still remains for a period known as Grace period .It allows a customer to make all non billable transition (Incoming calls. SMS) till the grace period is over or till the connection is recharged 37 of 31 .After the expiry of the validity period.Elements of Prepaid Tariff Startup pack / Recharge Coupon MRP ± Maximum retail price Activation charge (Start-Up) / Administration Fee (Recharge) Pulse ± Unit to measure call duration ± 30sec/120sec/60sec = one call Talk time Validity Period Grace Period .

Elements of Post Paid Tariff Security Deposit Activation Fee Monthly Commitment Pulse Monthly Rental 38 of 31 .

Calls made to Reliance Network are termed as On-net Off-net .g Calls within Mumbai.g.E. Nasik. Calls from Reliance to Airtel Local .Types of Call On-net . Mumbai to London (England) 39 of 31 .g.Calls made to any other Network is termed as Off-net . Patna International .Calls made within the city E.Calls made to other countries E.

Summary of Learning By the end of the session you are able to: State the advent of the telephone State the difference between Analog and Digital Signals Outline what is Switching State what is PSTN State and explain what are the various Network Units and Bandwidth List the commonly used terms in Telecom State and Explain the various transmission media State Reliance Communication Telecom concepts 40 of 31 .

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