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Environmental Chemistry

by

Dr. Muhammad Ashfaq
Assistant Professor in Chemistry University of Gujrat

Water pollution
‡ Water Pollution
± defined as the presence of a substance in the environment that, because if its chemical composition or quantity, prevent the functioning of natural processes and produces undesirable environmental and health effects. ± almost always the byproducts of worthy and essential activities
± ± ± ± ± producing crops, creating comfortable home providing energy and transportation manufacturing products removing biological wastes.

industry.Water pollution ‡ Water pollution is since civilization began ‡ More population more demand for water ‡ Therefore: Problems of scarcity and contamination of water increased many fold ‡ Mining. Farming and Land clearing adversely affect water quality ‡ Developing countries are typical in this regard: Water is rarely treated before consumption .

Water pollution Many materials used widely are nonbiodegradable They resist attack and breakdown by detritus feeders and decomposers. Examples include plastics. . Aluminum cans and synthetic organic chemicals Any part of the environment may be affected Our goal should be to manage materials that are man made so that the environment will not be jeopardized for future generations.

Water pollution Strategy to avoid or manage pollutants Identify the sources of the pollutants Identify the material or materials that are causing the pollution Develop and implement pollution control strategies to prevent the pollutants from entering the environment Develop and implement alternative means of meeting the need that do not produce the pollution by-product. .

in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations. but also to the natural biological communities. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases.000 people daily. storms. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants. and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14.Water pollution Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water and. . algae blooms (Rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system). and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. Water pollution is a major problem in the global context.

e.1360 million cubic kilometer covers 70% of the earth surface ‡ Only 3% water is fresh and its < 1% is available for Human consumption i. Lakes and reservoirs increase -Their capacity to support aquatic life is being threatened ‡ Rivers carry heavy loads of Heavy/Toxic metals and industrial and domestic wastes through Rivers to Sea ‡ Making more aware more people of what is happening to their water supplies may be of the most effective ways of slowing down water pollution ‡ Water amount cannot be increased or decreased ‡ Global water. Rivers. Canals etc .‡ Exposing many to the risk of water ‡ Ground water contaminated with nitrates.

000 deaths daily B/C either infected water is consumed or because its use leads indirectly to infectious diseases ‡ Water pollution started in the third World Countries in the 20th Century with start of Industrialization and Urbanization.But no adequate treatment practices and Poor Sanitation Services .‡ Ample fresh water available but not at places where it is required ‡ Water is polluted by industry. Mining and at domestic levels. This reduces further the good quality of water ‡ Sewage. Toxic metals and Industrial and Agriculture chemicals are main water pollutants along with Organic matter in domestic sewage ‡ Third world countries untreated drinking water causes around 25. Nutrients. Agriculture.

Rivers and Sea ‡ Resultantly Algal Blooms and related health and Social damages .‡ Industrialized countries also discharge intensively industrial wastes and agriculture chemicals (Fertilizers & Pesticides) going to Canals.

Water Distribution in Nature ‡ Total water: 1360 million cubic meters ± ± ± ± 3% is fresh water 29 million km3 is loaded in snow and ice 8 million km3 is ground water About 200 000 km3 in Rivers and Lakes ‡ Fresh water renewed in Hydrological cycle of evaporation and Precipitation ‡ Annual average rainfall over land is about 110 000 km3 but 70 000 km3 lost through evaporation before reaching Sea ‡ This Leaves 40 000 km3 of Runoff (About one-third of total rainfall over land) for use .

Per Capita Water Availability in Selected Countries Category Very low Low Medium High Per capita availability 1000 m3/year or less 1000-5000 m3/year 5000-10 000 m3/year 10 000 m3/year and more Countries 14 37 14 35 Agriculture particularly irrigation accounts for more than two third of all human water use of which 50-80% is simply lost .

3. Public water supply (mainly for human consumption) Water for Agriculture Water for Recreation Water for Industry Water for Fisheries and Wildlife . 2.Water Use and Water Quality ‡ Different levels of water quality for different uses are needed Five basic categories of water use are: 1. 5. 4.

Arsenic and Iodine in high concentrations adversely affects human health ‡ Mercury and Lead affect central nervous system of human beings ‡ Among organic micronutrients include Benzene (carcinogenic) ‡ Salinity is not health hazard .Public water supply (PWS) ‡ Microbiological indicators are the most important parameters for PWS ‡ Several pollutants like Nitrates. Fluorides (KALALANWAKA Case).

Agriculture ‡ Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) important in Agriculture ‡ SAR can pollute soil structure and crops .

Industry ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Process water (raw material) Transport medium Cleaning agent and steam source As coolant (mostly in power plants) .

Fisheries and Wildlife ‡ Dissolved Oxygen critical to fish survival. and other deformities in fish---Indirect food pollution .Industrial and Agriculture Pollutants ‡ Organic and Inorganic micro pollutants like poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorinated organic compounds like poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachloro benzene (HCB) can cause tumors. spinal curvatures.

Recreation ‡ Bacteria and its ill health effects on human health .

or a city storm drain. . a factory.Water pollution Sources Surface water and groundwater have often been studied as separate resources. Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin: Point source pollution: It refers to contaminants that enter a waterway through a discrete conveyance. such as a pipe or ditch. Non point source pollution: It refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant. The leaching out of nitrogen compounds from agricultural land which has been fertilized is a typical example. NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. although they are interrelated.

nonpoint source may be irrelevant. and the distinction of point vs. groundwater aquifers (wet underground layers) are susceptible to contamination from sources that may not directly affect surface water bodies.Groundwater pollution Interactions between ground water and surface water are complex. sometimes referred to as groundwater contamination. By its very nature. groundwater pollution. . Consequently. is not as easily classified as surface water pollution.

refineries. pesticides. inorganic. the quality of drinking water has been a factor in determining human welfare. . these practices are regulated. Atmospheric contaminants are also derived from human practices (such as gaseous emissions from automobiles.) and improperly disposed of industrial wastes. Contaminants can be broadly classified into organic. Soils and groundwater contain the residue of human agricultural practices (fertilizers. Direct sources include effluent outfalls from factories. There are many causes for water pollution but two general categories exist: Direct and indirect contaminant sources.Water pollution Throughout history. factories and even bakeries).. Indirect sources include contaminants that enter the water supply from soils/groundwater systems and from the atmosphere via rain water. radioactive and acid/base. In the United States and other countries. that emit fluids of varying quality directly into urban water supplies. although this doesn't mean that pollutants can't be found in these waters.. waste treatment plants etc. etc.