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 Presence of adequate keratinized gingiva. .  Absence of bleeding upon probing from the gingiva.It should be done only on healthy gingival tissue.  The depth of the sulcus is less than 3 mm. The following criteria shouldbe fulfilled for gingettage. ROTARY CURETTAGE(GINGETTAGE) It is a troughing technique.wherein a portion of the epithelium within the sulcus is removed to expose the finish line.‡ Surgical methods of gingival retraction include gingettage & electrosurgery.

‡ Abundant water should be sprayed during the procedure. ‡ The hand piece should be run at slow speed to improve the tactile sensation. . ‡ The torpedo diamond point (used to create a chamfer finish line)is carefully extended into the gingival sulcus (to half its depth)to remove a portion of the sulcular epithelium. ‡ A retraction cord impregnated with Aluminium chloride can be used to control bleeding.Technique ‡ It is usually done simultaneously along with finish line preparation.

It can potentially damage the periodontium.Disadvantages Technique sensation as the instrument offers poor tactile sensation. .

where it is impossible to use retraction cord.It is a high frequency radiotransmitter that uses either a vaccum tube or a transistor to deliver a high frequency electrical current of at least 1. .0 MHz.Electrosurgical Retraction ‡ Electrosurgery denotes surgical reduction of sulcular epithelium using an electrode to produce gingival retraction. ‡ In cases with gingival proliferation around the prepared finish lines.The procedure is also called as Surgical Diathermy ‡ Indications : ‡ In areas of inflamed gingival tissue.

‡ The use of tropical anaesthetics such as ethyl chloride & other inflammable aerosols should be avoided when electosurgery is to be used. .Contraindications ‡ Patient with cardiac pacemakers because the frequency of the electrical current in the electrode can interfere with functioning of the pacemaker.

Advantages ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Sophisticated technique. . Can be done in cases with gingival inflammation. Quick procedure. Produces little to no bleeding.

‡ Application of excessive pressure may produce severe tissue damage. ‡ It cannot be done in a dry field. ‡ Difficult to control lateral dissipation of heat.Disadvantages ‡ Very techniquesensitive. .The operatory area should be very moist during the procedure.This leads to compromised access and visibility.

It produces slow & painful healing.It produces intense lack of moisture . Their characteristics are described as follows: ‡ Unrectified.hence.damped current(Oudin orTelsa Current): ‡ It is characterised by recurring peaks of power that rapidly diminishes.Types of current used for Elecrosurgery ‡ Four types have been in is avoided.necrosis & coagulation of cells.This type of current is produced in an old Hyfurcator or Spark gap generator. .

Removal of edentulous cuff.Ground electrode or ground plate. The unit has knobs to alter the requency qnd the flow f current . Crown lengthening.surgical electrode ‡ 2.ELECTROSURGICAL UNIT Uses: Gingival sulcus enlargement. ‡ 1.Two electrodes can be attached to each unit. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

It produces good coagulation & haemostasis.‡ Partially rectified.Lower frequency waves are filtered in this current.It produces excellent cutting. .It produces adequate sulcus enlargement with good cutting characteristics along with good haemostasis.Hence it is the most preferred.damped current(Half wave modulated): ‡ Hence the current during the 2nd half of each cycle is damped so that only the peak waves act on the electrode. But it also produces slow & painful healing with considerable tissue destruction because the electrical flow is intermittent.But it also produces good coagulation & haemostasis. ‡ Fully rectified . ‡ Fully rectified current(Full wave modulated): ‡ Here the frequency is similar to a partially rectified current but it is continous.filtered current: ‡ Here the peak waves are repeated so that there is continous flow without any dip.

. ‡ It should be placed under the thigh or the back of the patient.disperse electrode. ‡ The ground plate is used to complete the electrical circuit .indifferent electrode.neutral electrode.Ground electrode ‡ Also known as Ground plate.passive electrode or patient return.indifferent plate.

& is designed to produce intense heat during surgical procedures.Surgical electrode ‡ Also known as Cutting Electrode. ‡ Cutting edge designs commonly used are: ‡ Coagulation probe ‡ Diamond loop ‡ Small straight probe ‡ Small loop . ‡ It may be either straight or J-shaped. ‡ An electrosurgical probe comprises of a shank & cutting edge . ‡ It is designed to fit into the hand piece of the electrosurgical unit. ‡ This electrode is similar to a probe.

because it may produce excessive tissue damage. ‡ Aromatic oils such as peppermint oil can be applied at the vermilion border of lip so that it masks the unpleasant odour to protect the patient from electrical accidents.TECHNIQUE ‡ Basic principles to be followed during electrode procedures: ‡ Local anaesthesia should be given. .the electrode should be applied with very light pressure &b swift strokes. ‡ The electrode should not be placed stagnant at any one point as it may lead to lateral dissipation of heat producing gingival injury.Pressure should not be applied.Tactile control of the operator is vital for this procedure because it is sufficient to just run the probe along the sulcus without any pressure . ‡ During the use.

the probe should be moved at a minimal speed of 7mm/sec ‡ Moist tissues can be cut best .Rest period is a precaution to control lateral heat dissipation . a rest period of 8-10 sec should be allwed to elape before beginning the second stroke .the electrode can be cleaned by wiping it with an alcohol-soaked sponge.‡ In order to prevent lateral heat dissipation. ‡ The perator should stop frequently to clean any fragments of tissue from the electrode. ‡ Effectively all the basic principles to be followed during electrosurgery can be condensed into the following triad: ‡ Proper power setting ‡ Switch passage of the electrode ‡ Rest intervals between strokes . If it is necessary to redo the cutting in a particular region . The electrode should pass through the tissue in a very smoooth motion without dragging or charring the tissue.

Technique for surgical crown lenthening ‡ Crown lengthening is done when the clinical crown is short in comparison to the anatomical crown. . Crown lengthening is nothing but removal of the hyperplastic gingiva ( gingivectomy ) in order to expose the anatomical crown. ‡ Electrosurgically crown lengthening can be done using a diamond electrode. ‡ The bevel should be done on attached gingiva to prevent re-growth. clinical crown lengthening can be done to increase the accessibility. If there is a wide band of attached gingiva surrounding the tooth. ‡ When there is an extensive wound. It provides better and more easily maintainable tissue contour. a periodontal dressing is given(it should be changed weekly). ‡ The diamond electrode is run over the tissues such that one of its surfaces follows the incline of the tooth where the procedure is carried out.

. They can be removed either surgically or electrosurgically. which forms a roll of tissue adjacent to the proximal of the teeth adjacent to the edentulous spaces. Electrosurgically are best used for these procedures.Technique for removal of Edentulous Cuff ‡ An edentulous cuff if nothing but the remnant of the interdental papilla.

‡ Debris in the sulcus should be removed using a cotton pellet dipped in Hydrogen per oxid. mesial . lingual and distal. ‡ The probe should be run at a minimal speed of 7 mm per second in order to avoid lateral heat dissipation.Technique for gingival sulcus enlargement using an electrosurgical probe ‡ A small(straight or J-shaped) electrode is chosen for this procedure. ‡ Tissue debris entangled within the probe should be cleaned after each stroke. The electrode should be positioned such that it is parallel to the long axis of the tooth. ‡ . ‡ A whole tooth can be covered in four separate motions namely: Facial .