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Foundation Concepts: Information Systems and Technologies Why study information systems and information technology? .

transforms and distributes information in an organization People Software Hardware Information System Resources Data Networks . software. hardware. communication networks and data resources y Collects.What is an Information System? y Organized combination of people.

‡ For the field of Information Systems a group of interrelated components working towards a common goal accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process . a business organization etc.g.What is a System? ‡ Group of interrelated elements forming a unified whole ‡ e. biological system of human body. technological system of an oil refinery. physical system of the sun and its planets.

manufacturing process.g.g.g. calculations y Output e.Activities of a (Dynamic) System y Input e. thermostat controlled cooling system . raw materials. data. human effort y Processing e. sales report Additional activities (Cybernetic system) y Feedback y Control e.g.

Other System Characteristics ‡ Exists & Functions in an environment containing ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ other systems Can be a component of a larger system Subsystem Several systems may share the same environment. connected by interface A system that interacts with other systems open system Adaptive System ability to change itself (e. organizations/ agencies in a society) .g.

Components of an Information System y Accepts data resources an input and processes them information products as output y People. y Information processing consists of system activities of input. output. data and networks basic components of IS. . storage and control. software. processing. hardware.

Basic Components & Activities of an IS Network Resources System Activities Control of System Performance People Software Input of Data Resources Processing data into Information Output of information products Storage of Data Resources Data Hardware .

Information System Components ‡ People Resources ± End Users ± IS Specialists ‡ Hardware Resources ± Computer Systems ± Computer Peripherals ‡ Software Resources ± System Software ± Application Software ± Procedures (operating ins. for people) .

Information System Components y Data Resources can take many forms.text. y Databases (Data vs. organized) y Network Resources y Communication Media y Network Support . manipulated. images etc. Information aggregated. graphics.

. correcting and updating.g. classifying and summarizing. comparing.Information System Activities y Input of data resources y Data entry activity y User enter directly into a computer system or on a paper form y Can be captured using optical scanning devices y Processing of data into information e. sorting. calculating.

g. audio responses ‡ Storage of Data Resources ‡ Control of System Performance ± System should produce feedback about its input. sub totals of sales amount) . output and storage ± Feedback must be monitored to determine system s performance (e. processing. reports. messages.g.Information System Activities ‡ Output of Information Products ± E. forms and graphic images like video displays.

The Major Roles of IS : Example y Support Business Processes e.g. sales information systems. payroll information systems.g. y Support Decision Making y Support Competitive Advantage e. introduction of the concept of online shopping .

Transaction Processing Systems 2. Decision Support Systems 3.Types of Information Systems 1.Process Control Systems 3. Management Information Systems 2. Executive Information Systems . Enterprise Collaboration Systems 1.

support enterprise communications and collaboration Transaction processing System ‡ ‡ ± Record & process data resulting from business transaction Process transactions in two basic ways batch processing.g. control industrial processes. chat . email.g.g. real time processing e. sales and inventory systems. systems ± Process Control Systems ‡ Monitor & control physical processes e. acc.Types of Information Systems ‡ Operation Support Systems ± To efficiently process business transactions. petroleum refinery ± Enterprise Collaboration Systems Enhance team and work group communications e.

Types of Information Systems ‡ Management Support Systems ± Focus on providing information and support for effective decision making by managers ± Management Information Systems ‡ Provide information in the form of reports for managers and business professionals e. Sales analysis.g. production performance .

± Executive Information Systems ‡ .Types of Information Systems ± Decision Support Systems ‡ Give direct computer support to managers during decision making e. profitability forecasting Provide critical information from internal and external sources in easy to use displays to managers e. risk analysis systems.g.g. Executives using touch screen terminals to view key areas of the org.