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TOPIC 1.

0 COMPUTER SYSTEM

WHAT IS COMPUTER??

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A programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: 1) It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. 2) It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program).

COMPUTER¶S BASIC PROCESS

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

Keyboard Microphone Mouse Scanner

System Unit

Monitor Printer Speaker

1.1 THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER

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First Generation (1939-1954) - Vacuum tube Second Generation Computers (1954-1959) - Transistor Third Generation Computers (1959-1971) ± Integrated Circuit Fourth Generation (1971-1991) - Microprocessor Fifth Generation (1991 and Beyond)

1.1 THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER

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First Generation (1939-1954) - Vacuum tube

Atanasoff-Berry Computer 1939

UNIVAC 1951

1.1 THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER

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Second Generation Computers (1954-1959) - Transistor

Regency transistor radio 1954

Philco and Emerson transistor radios

1.1 THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER

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Third Generation Computers (1959-1971) ± Integrated Circuit

Polaroid IC 1961

IC, from Smithsonian NMAH

1.1 THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER

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Fourth Generation (1971-1991) - Microprocessor

Apple II personal computer 1978 Intel 4004 microprocessor in 1971

IBM 5151 personal computer 1981

1.1 THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER

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Fifth Generation (1991 and Beyond)

Nokia 9210 Communicator is part of the latest wave of web cell phones

Apple G4 Wearable computers

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER

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Parts of computer: 

Hardware - physical parts, which we can see
and touch Example:  Software - the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do Example:

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Hardware)

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Hardware) Monitor

-Displays information in visual form, using text and graphics. -Two basic types of monitors: i) LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors Advantage ? ii) CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors Advantage ?

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Hardware) Modem

-To connect computer to the Internet - A modem is a device that sends and receives computer information over a telephone line or high-speed cable

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Hardware) System Unit
- The core of a computer system -The most important of these components is: 
the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor - acts as the "brain" of your computer. random access memory (RAM) temporarily stores information that the CPU uses while the computer is on.

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Hardware) Components of System Unit

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Hardware) System Unit (con¶t)
Main components of CPU: 1) Control Unit - extract information which is stored in the memory and to decode and execute those instructions 2) ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) ± do the calculation and data comparison based on instructions from control unit Arithmetic : mathematical operation (+,-,*,/) Logic: comparison operation (= , < , > , <>, <= and >= ) 3) Main Storage

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Hardware) Mouse

- Used to point to and select items on your computer screen - Usually has two buttons: a primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary button. - Many mouse also have a wheel between the two buttons, which allows you to scroll smoothly through screens of information.

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Hardware) Speaker
- Used to play sound - They may be built into the system unit or connected with cables -Speakers allow you to listen to music and hear sound effects from your computer.

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Hardware) Printer

Inkjet printer (left); laser printer (right)

- Transfers data from a computer onto paper -Two main types of printers: i) inkjet printers ‡ most popular printers for the home ‡ can print in black and white or in full color and can produce high-quality photographs when used with special paper ii) laser printers ‡ faster and generally better able to handle heavy use.

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Hardware) Keyboard

- Used mainly for typing text into your computer. - It has keys for letters and numbers, but it also has special keys: ‡ ‡ ‡ The function keys, found on the top row, perform different functions depending on where they are used. The numeric keypad, located on the right side of most keyboards, allows you to enter numbers quickly. The navigation keys, such as the arrow keys, allow you to move your position within a document or webpage.

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Software)
Software

Operating System Software Examples: y DOS (Disc Operating System) y LINUX y Windows y Macintosh (³the Mac´)

Computer Application Software Examples:

1.2 PARTS OF COMPUTER (Software)

STANDALONE v/s NETWORKED COMPUTER
STANDALONE COMPUTER NETWORKED COMPUTER

-Able to operate on their own
without a server. -Information (files and programs) is stored on the computer¶s hard drive. -Stand Alone Computers are usually connected to their own printer.

-Joined together by cables and are
connected to a server. - The server stores information (both files and programs) and sends it out to the computers on the network. -A network usually includes a printer that also is connected by cables.

TYPES OF NETWORK

LAN (Local Area Network)

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

WAN (Wide Area Network)

- short distance - office building,
school, or home - typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization

- physical area larger
than a LAN but smaller than a WAN, such as a city. -A MAN is typically owned an operated by a single entity such as a government body or large corporation

- large physical
distance - Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management

TYPES OF NETWORK (LAN)
Advantages of LAN: ‡Files can be stored on a central computer (the file server) allowing data to be shared throughout an organisation. ‡Files can be backed up more easily when they are all on a central fileserver rather than when they are scattered across a number of independent workstations. ‡Networks also allow security to be established, ensuring that the network users may only have access to certain files and applications. ‡Software and resources can be centrally managed.

TYPES OF NETWORK (LAN)
Advantages of LAN (con¶t): ‡Network versions of software often allow for their speedy installation on workstations from the file server. ‡Expensive devices such as laser printers or scanners can be shared. ‡Users can access their files from any workstation ‡Very fast rates of transmitting data ‡Users can communicate with each other (email,chat)

TYPES OF NETWORK (LAN)
Disadvantages of LAN: ‡Limited : - limited range or distance - limited number computers that can be attached to a single LAN ‡Can be expensive.

ASSIGNMENT 1
QUESTION 1: Distinguish between the functions of Operating System Software and Computer Application Software QUESTION 2: Make comparisons between Windows and Linux. REFERENCES << minimum 2 references >>