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Metamarkets: Markets in the Minds of the Customer

Customers think of activities,firms think of products activities,firms e.g. The Home Ownership Experience Customers think of logically related activity cluster *Buying and financing a home *Repair and Maintenance ‡Home Improvement

Home Ownership Metamarket Real Estate Agents Builders Municipal Corporations Electricity Cos Plumbers Electricians Lawncare Service Providers Architects Interior Designers


Around major life events:
Wedding Childbirth Education Career Changes Retirement

Around Major Assets
Home Ownership Automobile Owenership Financial Assets

Metamediaries Trusted third parties that provide a single point of contact between A community of customers And A community of sellers in a marketplace .

Marketer and Prospect A marketer seeks a response from a prospect Response could be in several forms: ± Purchase ± Vote ± Expression of Interest ± Contribution .

Wants and Demands Needs: Basic Human Requirements Food Air Clothing Shelter Recreation Education Entertainment .Needs.

Indian wants roti Wants are shaped by one¶s society . American wants hamburger.Wants Needs directed to specific objects that satisfy the needs An American and an Indian: Both need food.

Demands Wants for specific products backed by ability to pay .

They influence wants .Point to Remember Marketers do not create needs.

Value Proposition Set of Benefits offered by marketers to customers to satisfy their needs .

IndiaIndia-An attractive value proposition for outsourceres Set of Benefits: Reduction of process costs by 40-60% 40Abundant supply of qualified workforce Good English speaking skills Lower Establishment Costs Improving Telecom Infrastructure Government support for IT/ITES .

Market Offering Value Proposition is not concrete Market Offering: A Tangible offer from a company Combination of: Product And/or Service Information Experience

Offering from a known source is a Name Term Design Symbol Any other Feature That identifies one sellers¶ goods and services as distinct from others

Fundamentals of Customer Value

What customers care about? What Vale Proposition appeals to them?

ValueValue-The Dictionary Meaning ³Worth´ in usefulness or importance to the possessor´ .

Value«An assessment An assessment of: ALL THAT YOU GET In return for ALL THAT YOU GIVE In an exchange .

taking into consideration available competing offerings and prices .Value«.A better Definition Perceived Worth of a set of benefits received in exchange for the Total Cost of an offering.

A new BMW buyer What does she get Benefits from the Product Performance Comfort Safety Benefits from Service Financing Warranty Repairs Scheduled Maintenance Roadside Assistance Emotional Benefits: Social status .

money.efforts in follwing activities Searching for right car Searching for right dealer Negotiating deal Arranging for Finance Maintaining car over lifetime .A new BMW buyer What does she give? Involvement in time.

Customer Value for a new BMW buyer Customer will assess these benefits Weighed by Importance she gives to these benefits Compared with Total Cost of buying and owning the car Assessment of Value affected by: Other new cars in consideration Currently owned car Alternatives of public transportation .

Exchange Process of obtaining desired product from someone by offering something in return Is a Value-creating process Value- .

Five Conditions At least two parties Each has something of Value to the other Each is capable of communicating and delivery Each free to accept or reject the offer Each believe it is appropriate/desirable to deal with third party .Exchange«.

Transaction Said to take place when an exchange actually happens An exchange where the two parties agree upon terms and there is a trade of values .

Barter Transaction involving trading of goods and services for other goods and services .

TransactionTransaction-Several Dimensions AgreedAgreed-upon Conditions Time of Agreement Place of Agreement .

Transfer Giver does not receive any tangible returns: Gifts Subsidies Charitable Contributions .

A marketer seeks response Behavioural Response from a prospect: An educational institute seeks enrolment A business firm seeks purchase A political candidate seeks vote .

Contemporary course Content 3. High Quality Faculty 2. Good Price for services delivered 2.On-time payment 3.TwoTwo-Way Exchange Map Student Want List 1. Placement Assistance Amplify (Marketer) Student (Prospect) Amplify Want List 1. Good WOM . Quality Physical Infrastructure 4.

Stages of the Exchange Process Analysis of others¶ needs Offer from Marketer to prospect If there is agreement on T&C Exchange Successful Counteroffer from Prospect to marketer If there is no agreement on T&C Exchange Unsuccessful .

Relationship Marketing Business Philosophy which aims to develop strong relationships with a range of stakeholders: Customers Suppliers Intermediaries Public Organizations .

Relationship Capital Relationships are the new capital Relationship Capital drives market value Winning companies build relationship capital .

firms will outsource more of their non core activities The core of the firm will shrink.Relationships Matter more than ever Partner Relationships As transaction costs decrease.while the periphery will expand .

Relationships matter more than ever Customer Relationships As markets saturate and new customers become scarce.firms will need to Retain existing customers more aggressively Generate more revenues from each customer .

firms will need to: Attract and Retain the best employees Improve the productivity of their employees .Relationships matter more than ever Employee Relationships To win the ³war for talent´.

Marketing Channels Marketing Channels Communication Channels Distribution Channels Service Channels .

Communication Channels Used for dialogue with the target buyers: Televisions Broadcast Media Radio Magazines Print Media Newspapers Outdoor Direct Mail Support Media Internet Interactive Media .

Distribution Channels


All individuals and Organizations enroute Distributor Wholesaler Retailer Agent


Grower Producer Service Provider


Social Networking Sites in India
Companies increasingly using sites like FB, Orkut, Bharatstudent,ibibo,Fropper for positioning their brands Alternative cost-effective patform for ad campaign costInteractive content One ad in five in the USA viewed on Social Netwroking sites

Webchutney«..A digital agency
Works with clients like HUL,P & G, Airtel,MS to position their brands Survey: Ad budgets of 445 advertisers Overall spend fell by 10% to reach Rs.4,663 Cr Spend on digital media grew by 44% to Rs. 299 Cr Major clients: Vodafone,Airtel,Samsung,Kwality and Adidas

Dual Power LED Flash Endeavour to reach trendy.0 MP embedded Camera.Samsung Ultra Touch Mobile and ibibo 8. fashion oriented customer Sponsor of the ibibo iFashion photographer contest Even fashion photographer can shoot Largest fashion photography network online iFashion Photographer Session 3 Target leading fashion photographers across India .

Samsung UT and ibibo Opportunity to shoot international models with the best make up arist Samsung found the platform extremely relevant and interesting Photographers simply upload their photos on the site iBibo community judges the best photographs Top 5: Samsung UT mobile each .

design and technology Interactive platform and content Communicating superior Multimedia Features .Samsung UT Brand positioning and the iBibo platform The UT redefines perfectionism in style.

Vodafone¶s Zoo Zoo campaign Only on Internet Gave TV and print a miss Used Vdopia.entertainment and sports portals 1 Million Video Views . ran on Premium news. a premier Online Video and Mobile Advertising Network 3 days.

Premier watch brand from LVMH launched in early 1980s Planning exclusive brand boutiques in 2011 Talks on for JV with local retailer Zimson & Kapoor Watch co Brand Valued at $ 200 Million Available from 9 MBOs in Bangalore.setting up distribution channel in India Louis Vuitton Moet Hennesey«the world¶s premier luxury brands like Christian Dior. Moet & Chandon and Don Perignon Hublot«. Tag Heur.Delhi and Mumbai Local Partners: Kapoor Watch Co in Delhi and Zimson in Mumbai .Hublot from the LVMH Group«.

Hublot from LVMH Another 3/4 MBOs planned very soon Exclusive Outlet: First in Delhi : 15 planned by 2020 India: 3-4% of Global Sales 3Potential to contribute 10% in 6-10 years 6Investments: $ 1.5 Million in India .

000 to $ 1 Million More than time keeping devices Communicating Devices ³Pieces of Art´ PODs with other brands: Newer methods and materials(Mg) Combination of tradition and future 30 countries across the globe in 18 exclusive boutiques .Hublot Watches priced from $10.

Service Channels Individuals/organizations providing support services helping marketers transact with buyers Warehouses: Storage Transportation cos: Transportation Banks: Financial Insurance cos: Coverage Service Channel members facilitate transactions .

Supply Chain Network of Facilities and Distribution Options that perform the functions of: Procurement of materials Transformation of materials into intermediates and finished products Distribution of these finished products to customers .

Supply Chain Process P(1) P(2) P(3) P(4) P(n) Chain of Processes .

where from and when raw materials are procured and supplied to manufacturing .Supply Chain Three Parts: Supply Side: Concentrates on how.

The Chevrolet Malibu .

Sample Suppliers of the Chevolet Malibu Cylinder Liners Mahle (Germany) Alternator Valeo (France) Transmission Chains BorgWagner(USA) Winshield .Windows Pilkington(UK) Water Level Sensor Hella (Germany) Instrument Cluster Siemens(Germany) Seats Faurezia(France) Door Panels Johnson Controls(USA) Tires Bridgestone(Japan) Fuel Lines Dana(USA) .

Supply Chain Manufacturing Side Converts raw materials into finished products .

wholesalers and reatilers .Supply Chain Distribution Side Ensures that these finished products reach the final customers Through a network of distributors.

Value Chain A supply chain represents a Value Delivery System Each organization captures only a certain percentage of the total value generated Attempts to capture a higher percentage of value seen in : Upstream Movement(Steel Plant buying iron ore mine) Downstream Movement( Steel Producer setting up outlets for branded steel products) .

Stages in a Firm¶s Value Chain R&D Procurement Mfg Marketing Distribution Sales and Service Pfizer R&D in Singapore And Japan Outsources BMW much of Sources and Honda Manufacturing and low cost parts Testing of surgical Subsidiaries in From China the USA Equipements and and Mexico Dignostic products Carrefour and To Dell ousources center.Switzerland and Barclays UK BPO services(data worldwide Renault Entry. Network of Produces cars in low Payroll processing) Stores and Cost countries From India offices In Easterm Europe Genzyme Steelcase Wolverine (Hush Puppies) Contracts with independent retail stores abroard Amway Avon .

Competition Includes all the actual and Potential: Rival Offerings Substitutes That a buyer might consider .

com www.Starmovies: Included in Cable Bill Buy DVD from PlanetM: Rs.Sangeet.moviedownloadworld.Paradise: Balcony:Rs. 700 Download Movies from www. 60 Multiplex: Citypride: Balcony: Rs.800 .Competition«.Starwars Options MovieHalls: Annual Fees: Rs.120 Cable: HBO.

Maheshwari«.Competitor Radar Screen .

Four Levels of competition Brand Competition: A company sees as competition other cos offering Similar products/service to The same customers At similar prices

Brand Competition for Hyundai SUV manufacturers in India:
Hyundai (Tuscon) Ford (Endeavour) Honda(Honda CRV) Mahindra(Scorpio) Tata(Safari) Toyota(Landcruiser) Mitsubishi(Pajero) Nissan(X Trial)

Hyundai will not see brand competition in Maruti Scoda Mercedes Benz

Industry Competition
Company will consider as competitors all cos making same: Product Class of Products Hyundai will consider as industry competitors: Maruti Mercedes Benz Skoda

Form Competition A company sees its competition all cos manufacturing products that supply the same function Hyundai will consider as form competitors: Two wheeler manufacturers Truck manufacturers Bicycles .

Generic Competition A co sees as its competitors all cos that compete for the consumers¶ wallet Hyundai will see as competitors cos that sell: High End Consumer Durables New Homes Foreign Holidays .

Environment Consists of actors and forces outside marketing that affects management¶s ability to develop and maintain successful transactions with its target customers Microenvironment (Task Environment) Macroenvironment(Broad Environment) .

Co¶s Microenvironment Internal Forces or Forces close to the company over which some control is possible Top Management Other Functions Suppliers Marketing Intermediaries Customers Competitors .

Co¶s Macroenvironment Relates to larger forces having an impact on society as a whole Co has little influence on these forces and can only adapt its marketing mix to account for the resulting opportunities and threats .

Major Forces of the Macroenvironment Demographic Economic Natural Technological Cultural Political/Legal .

surpassing USA Export: Import(2003) : 60:40 Export: Import(2008): 40:60 .The Indian Cashew Market Domestic consumption on the rise 2008 consumption: 1.92 L Tonnes India emerging as the Global Consumer 1.

The Indian Cashew Market Reasons Rise in domestic Per Capita Income Rise in number of middle class households Increasing use in sweets and confectionary Rapid growth in retail outlets .

13 L Tonnes .The Indian Cashew Market Exports of kernel going down steadily since 2003 2003: Exports: 1.26 L Tonnes 2003: Domestic Sales: 88.92 L Tonnes US Exports: 2003: 1.246 Tonnes 2008: Exports: 1.03 L Tonnes US Exports: 2008: 1.1 L Tonnes 2008: Domestic Sales: 1.

variety.more choice. affordability Modern retail: lower margins.availability.increased visibilty. reach Unplanned purchase .The Indian Cashew Market Processing Capacity: 2003: 8 L Tonnes/Yr 2008: 13 L Tonnes/Yr Domestic market growing @17% per annum Prices steady Modern retail chains: Increased shelfspace.

chocolate.khichdi: Growth Drivers 45% of Domestic Demand is in Culinary and Confectionary segment Traditionally used during festive season Increase in users.Indian cashew market Export Future By 2016. no exportable surplus Raw cashew crop has to increase@15% per annum to keep up with demand Domestic Consumption Part of icecream.frequency and occasions Easily available in small pouches of 50 gms.100 gms .sweet.biscuit.usage.

Paris Automobiles: Passenger Cars LCV Minibus Trucks Buses .The Global Automobile Market Data prepared by the Organization of Motor Car Manufacturers.

56 Million EU: 18.2 Million France: 2.43 Million Japan: 11.70 Million Germany: 6.The Global Automobile Market«.38 Million Mexico: 2.35 Million USA: 8.8 Million Brazil: 3.04 Million South Korea: 3.56 Million Spain: 2.56 Million China: 9.54 Million India: 2.19 Million .2008 World: 70.

Indian Car market Low penetration in India: 9/1000 US car market: 2000: 16 Million 2009: 10 Million Lowest Auto Sales in 2009 since Mid-60s in USA MidLowest Per Capita Car Sales in USA since WW 11 .

Marketing Program Plan to achieve co¶s objectives .

Marketing Mix Set of Marketing Tools a firm uses to pursue its objectives Also called the Marketing Decision Variables .

Marketing Mix«the Four Ps Classified into four broad groups: Product Price Promotion Place .

Product Variables Product Variety Product Quality Design Features Brandname Packaging Size Services Warranties Returns .

Product Variety Santoor White Santoor Glycerine Santoor Honey Santoor Apricot .

Price Variables List Price Discounts Allowances Payment Period Credit Terms .

Promotion Variables Sales Promotion Advertising Sales Force Public Relations Direct Promotion .

Place Variables Channels Coverage Assortment Locations Inventory Transport .

Marketing Decision Variables-An alternate Variablesclassification The Offering The Methods and Tools Distribution Channels Personal Selling Sales Promotion Publicity Product Brand Price Service .

Marketing Decision Variables-Another Alternative Variablesclassification The Offering The Communications Mix The Distribution Mix .

The Marketing-Mix Strategy Marketing- Offering Mix Product Company Services Sales promotion Advertising Sales Force Public Relation Distribution Channels Target Customers Prices Direct Mail Telemarketing Internet .

The 4 Ps and the 4 Cs The 4 Ps: Marketing Tools available with the marketer The 4 Cs: Each designed to deliver a customer benefit .

The Four Ps and the Four Cs Marketing Tools«The Four Ps Product Price Place Promotion Customer Benefits«The Four Cs Customer Solution (need to study customer needs) Customer Costs (need to understand consumer¶s cost to satisfy needs) Convenience (need to consider conveneience to buy) Communication (need to understand importance of communication in marketing) .

effectiveness and social responsibility .Marketing Philosophies and Business Orientation Organizations have different stakeholders: SHAREHOLEDERS EMPLOYEES CUSTOMERS SOCIETY Interests of different stakeholders often conflict Business philosophy often helps company balance between efficiency.

PRODUCTION CONCEPT Guiding Principle Customers interested only in Product Availibilty and Low Prices All Focus on Production Prospect of declining unit costs makes profit prospects look spectacular Large Outputs create great pressure to move the product Selling is emphasized and marketing is ignored .

Selling versus Marketing Selling Focus on need of seller Marketing Focus on need of buyer Preoccupied with sellers¶ need to convert his product to cash Preoccupied with satisfying the need of buyer activities including: Identifying Need Creating and Delivering offering More sophisticated and complex process Relatively simple process .

When is Production Concept suitable? Consumers interested in obtaining the product and not the features Company interested in expanding the market .

Product Concept Belief that customers will buy products with the best: Quality Performance Features Obsession with better product Increasing Realization among cos the value of placing a broad definition on their productsproducts-emphasizing the UTILITY of a firm¶s products to its consumers AT & T defines its products as telecommunication rather than Telephone Mobil describes its business as energy rather than oil and gas Universal Studios describes its business as entertainment rather than movies .

Selling Concept Belief that. encyclopedia and political candidates Also practised by firms facing overcapacity .consumers and businesses. if left alone. will not buy enough of co¶s products Organization undertakes aggressive selling and promotion efforts Practised mostly for unsought goods like insurance.

Marketing Concept Originated in the 60s The consumer is at the dead centre of the business universe Companies revolve around the customer and not the other way round .

and not the customer.A Revolution in Marketing Stems from the idea that the customer. company is at the center shift of attention From Problem of manufacturing Product we can make The company To Problem of Marketing Product that the consumer wants us to make The marketplace .

From the Production Concept to the Marketing Concept«the case of Pilsbury Inc. 1 st Era: Production Oriented From the birth of the company in 1869 continued up to the 1930s The idea for the formation of our company came from: Availibilty of High-quality wheat HighProximity of water power And not from: Availibilty/proximity of major market areas Demand for better quality.less expensive flour products Principal concern: Production. not marketing Production. .

we must have a first rate sales organization´ which can dispose of all products at a favourable price We must back up this sales force with Consumer Advertising Market Intelligence We want our salesmen and intermediaries to have all the tools they need to move output of plant to the consumers Still not marketing philosophy. Era: Sales Oriented Started in 1930s For the first time. started understanding importance of intermediaries Co¶s thinking was ³ We manaufacture a number of flour products for the consumer market. company started getting conscious of the consumer Establishment of a commercial research department Co.but closer .Pilsbury Inc. 2nd.

both actual desires. Era: Marketing Orientation Started in the 60s For the first time. the company felt the need for selecting best new markets Co¶s philosophy ³ We make and sell products for consumers´ Co¶s purpose: Satisfy the needs and desires. of consumers Not to: Mill Flour or manufacture a wide range of products .Pilsbury Inc. 3 rd. and potential.

problems. when asked about solutions.Understanding Customer Needs Problem of listening to customers: Customers tend to offer solutions.not outcomes they really want Customers find it hard to imagine alternate uses and functions Customers tend to edit out solutions they don¶t know are possible like new technologies .

Five Types of Needs Stated Need: Customer wants new window Real Need: Customer wants lower energy Need: costs/increased comforts Unstated Needs: Customer expects Needs: workmanship.professionalism and value Delight Needs: Customer likes comething extra/unexpected Secret Need: Wants neighbours to see him as trendy Need: person .timeliness.

Three types of Marketing Responsive Marketing: NeedsNeeds-based Marketing approach where a marketer identifies and fulfils a need Invention of washing machines.dishwashers.and microwave ovens are all based on the recognition that women want to spend less time on cooking and cleaning .

Three Types of Marketing Anticipative Marketing Based on recognition of emerging/latent needs Parle¶s introduction of ³Bottled Drinking Water´ Riskier than resposnive marketing: Possibilty of wrong ttiming /market may not develop .

Apple for the iPod Boldest form of marketing .Xerox for photocopiers.Three types of Marketing Need Shaping Marketing or Creative Marketing A company introduces a product or service that nobody asked for or could conceive of Nobody asked Sony for Walkman or CD.

Market Driven Company versus Market Driving Company Market Driven Company: Advance over product-driven company productMarket driven company focuses on: Researching current customers to identify their problems Gather new ideas Test proposed product improvements Test marketing mix changes Market Driven companies efforts lead to incremental improvements. not radical innovations .

H-P Microsoft.SAP.Gilette.MarketMarket-Driven company versus Market-Driving MarketCompany Market Driving Company Improve our civilization They create new markets or change the rules of the game Their innovations lead to: Significantly new products/services/business formats Establish new price points Develop new channels Examples: Microsoft.FedEx.H- .CNN.CNN.SAP.FedEx.Gilette.


Profit through Customer Satisfaction(One customer-atcustomer-at-a time) Referrals Price Premiums Reduced Selling efforts Increased Usage Normal Profits Time Acquisition Costs .

Profit a Customer Generates over Time Credit Card Customer Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 .

Customer Retention Critical and is more important than customer acquisition Cost of attracting new customers>>>Cost of retaining old customers New customers require far larger investments to achieve profitability levels of old customers .

From Marketing Concept to Market Orientation Marketing Concept: Broad Business Philosophy of organization being customer-focused customer- Market Orientation: A business is said to be marketmarketoriented when its culture is systematically and entirely commited to the continous creation of superior customer value .

supplier s) .Market Orientation Shared Diagnosis Interfunctional and Co-ordinated Assessment Action Information Acquisition Customer Information Competitor Information Superior Customer Value Other market Information(reg ulators.

Boundaryless Corporation When a business achives its objective of developing a pervasive market orientation. the marketing function becomes less important .

Competitive Advantage and Business Performance Market Orientation Customer Driven Competitor Focused Interfunctional Coordination Core Competence Customer Service Quality Innovation Competitive Adantage Customer Loyalty New product Success Market share Business Performance Profitability Sales Growth .Market Orientation.

Marketing Concept Often companies are forced to adopt due to adverse situations like: Sales Decline Slow Growth Changing Buying patterns Increasing Competition Increasing Marketing Expenditure .

Customer Concept Staring Point Focus Means Ends Individual customer Customer One-to-one Needs. Values Marketing Profitable Growth through capturing: Customer Share Customer Loyalty Customer Lifetime Value .

Customer Concept Focus on Individual customers and not on customer segments Companies try to understand individual customers by collecting and analyzing individual customers¶: Past Transactions Demographics Psychograhics Media Differences Thereafter one-to-one marketers design separate offerings to one-toindividual customers .

Customer Concept-the Philosophy ConceptProfitable growth through building customers: Share of Wallet Customer Loyalty Customer Lifetime Value(CLV) This concept follows from a true Market Orientation .

Customer Concept Not for every company Huge Investments required for collecting and maintaining information Works well for companies which normally collect a lot of customer info Carry products which could be cross-sold crossCarry products that require periodic upgrading/replacing Sell High-Value Products High- .

Customer Concept Widely practised by: Financial Services Company such as banks Automobile manufacturing companies HighHigh-End Consumer Goods like Jewellers Book Retailers .

increasing traffic congestion and more fatal accidents The societal marketing concept enlarges the marketing concept .Societal Marketing Concept Marketing Concept sidesteps potential conflicts between: Customer Wants Customer Interests LongLong-run Social Welfare MacDonald¶s sell french fries high in starch and fat: Fulfilling customer wants but hurting customer health Automobile Industry: Promoting large automobiles but leading to high pollution levels.

The Societal Marketing Concept-Basic Philosophy Concept- Determine customers needs and Wants Same as Marketing Concept Deliver superior value in target market In a way that Improves customers and society¶s wellbeing New .

The Societal Marketing Concept Requires organization to think about the longlongrun interests of the society while meeting organizational objectives One should not act responsibly only to customers but also to: The environment All others affected by it(nonconsumers) .

Infosys«a follower of the Societal Marketing Concept Some key initiatives: Setting up science centers in rural areas Setting up orphanages Constructing hospital wards and providing medical equipments ³A library for every school´ program Computers for rural schools .

Societal Marketing Concept Society (Human Welfare) Societal Marketing Concepts Consumer (Wants) Company Profits .

good or service for mutual benefit .Cause Related Marketing Commercial Activity by which businesses and charities or causes form a partnership with each other to market an image.

people are ready to switch brands Also called social marketing . to help a cause.Cause Related Marketing Originated in 1983 American Express and the Statue of Liberty Campaign When price and quality are equal.

Business and Markets-The Times are Changing MarketsMajor societal forces: Technological Advances Globalization Deregulation Customers: Higher Expectations Less Brand Loyalty More Informed Greater Price Sensitivity .

Business and marketing-The Times are a¶changing marketingBrand Manufacturers: Increasing Competition(domestic and international) Rising promotion costs Shrinking Margins Increasing Competition from Private Brands StoreStore-based retailers Growing Competition from large organized retailers Attempt to market an ³experience´ rather than a product .

Company responses to changing times Reenineering Outsourcing eCommerce Benchmarking Alliances Partner Suppliers MarketMarket-centered Global and Local Decentralization .

Major Marketing Themes Customer Relationship Marketing Customer Lifetime Value Customer Share Target Marketing Customization Customer Database Integrated Marketing Communications Channels as Partners Every employee a marketer ModelModel-based Decision Making .