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WIFI TECHNOLOGY

SENIOR PROJECT FATEMA BINTE TUFAIL

WHAT IS WIFI?   

  

WiFi is the name of popular wireless networking technology, that uses radio waves to provide Internet and network connections. WiFi is a wireless technology brand, owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance intended to improve the interoperability of WLAN products based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. WiFi technology evolved around 1999, when the IEEE Standard 802.11b protocol was introduced. WiFi has the IEEE Standard Protocol 802.11 networking. Wifi is compatible with almost every operating systems. WiFi is used as an unlicensed spectrum, in most countries.

How WiFi works«  

 

Wi-Fi works without any physical wired connection between sender and receiver by using radio frequency (RF) technology, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created which propagates through space. The cornerstone of any wireless network is an access point (AP). The access point broadcasts a wireless signal which can be detected by computers can detect with the help of wireless network adapters. 



The area interconnected by one or several Access Points is called a ³HOTSPOT´. Users can access the Internet and other available features, through WiFi, when they are in such WiFi hotspots!

which receives the radio signals then converts them back to electrical signals and sends the data to the Internet using a wired Ethernet.Continued«. . The router is an decoder.    The computer or any other device working in the WiFi zone must have an adapter that converts data into radio signals and transmits them to a router via an antenna. The router also acts as an encoder when transmitting information from the Internet to the User.

the first Wi-Fi standard protocol IEEE 802. as stated before. with its own characteristics.  IEEE 802.11a followed soon.11 b was launched.The beginning of Wifi«  So. Let us explore these three important evolutions of Wi-Fi next« .  IEEE 802.11g came with enhanced features. in June 1999.

Specifications in the 802.11 family: .

The 802. e. Not all the channels are allowed for usage in all countries. in North America only 11 channels are allowed whereas in Europe 13 channels are allowed.11 for the 2. with an exception of 12 MHz for the gap between channel 13 and 14.g.IEEE 802.11 Channel Basics«    There is a total of fourteen channels defined for use by WiFi 802.11 WLAN standards specify a bandwidth of 20/22 MHz and a channel separation of 5 MHz.4 GHz ISM band. .

As a result.12 etc are often used.7. channels overlap and so only a combination of 3 channels can work successfully. there is interference between adjacent channels.Continued«    Since the channels are separated by 5 MHz. . Combinations of channel 1.11 or 2.6.

Specifications of the 802.11 family tree« .

Evolution of WiFi with respect to Data Rate and Frequency: .

Evolution of WiFi with respesct to Modulation Scheme: .

5 GHz Panel The Dish Backfire type Antennas  .4 GHz to 2. Driver and Director.Antenna WiFi antennas need to transmit High Quality signals over long distances.  Typical Transmission frequencies: 2. the antennas have to be Directional Antennas! Directional type WiFi Antenna used are: Yagi Antenna  Vertical Dipole Array.  Therefore. consisting of three elements: Reflector.

The parasitic elements re-radiate their signals in a different phase than the driven element. . some signals are reinforced. It is widely used in applications where an RF antenna design is required to provide gain and directivity.Yagi Antenna illustrated«     The Yagi antenna is a particulary useful form of RF antenna design. while some are cancelled. Further "parasitic" elements are added. The Yagi RF antenna design has a dipole as the main radiating or driven element. As a result.

WiFi Data Security  Wired Equivalent Privacy -This was the previously used security algorithm.  Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) and Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) -These are the new developed security algorithm for IEEE Standard 802. which failed in the past.11 wireless networks. .

MIC uses an algorithm to check the integrity of the packets. This encryption code did not vary and thus was easier to decipher. that regenerates automatically for each packet of data and thus prevents  Message Integrity Check. and if it does not equal. But WPA¶s TKIP encryption is a sophisticated 128-bit key. .This is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing. This replaces the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) that was used and implemented by the standard. it drops the packet. altering and/or resending data packets.WEP used a small 40-bit encryption which had to be manually entered on wireless APs.The Key Features of WPA:  Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP).

such as : .Wireless Mesh Networks .IPV6.WiFi Mobility Management   WiFi Mobility is poor in accordance with speed. Fast handover between APs is being made possible with advanced technologies. consisting of combination of WiFi and WIMAX infrastructures to handle Fast Handover and Mobility Management .

for large areas.e. Nintendo Ds. The Ad-Hoc mode is known as the point to point mode.WiFi Network Topology     A Network Topology means the way that a network is arranged and how the devices in the network communicate with each other. .. direct communication from one device to another without the involvement of Access points. This mode is popular for multiplayer hand-held game consoles. WiFi networks can act in Ad-Hoc modes or in a combination of different topologies.g.. e. digital cameras etc. i. known as Hybrid Topology.

Network Topology.Infrastructure Mode  An infrastructure Wi-Fi network that uses an access point is an example of a star topology. .

Disadvantage: Needs sophisticated software in order to switch between infrastructure mode and ad-hoc mode and also needs to be able to switch access points into bridges as required. .A Mesh Network Topology    A Mesh Network is like a group of star topology networks placed along a bus topology backbone. Advantage: It has no single point failure and therefore is self-healing.

Latest Additions to the 802. .11 Family..

LTE. intended for wireless µmetropolitan area networks¶.Wireless digital communications system.Broad and extensive area cellular telephone network that has evolved to integrate High Speed Internet access. video telephony and interactive multimedia application sharing. considered to be the successor of the current UMT 3G technology and referred to as the 4G technology because of faster performance using an µall-IP¶ architecture. known as IEEE 802.3GPP Long Term Evolution. WIMAX. .Comparative attractiveness of WiFi with respect to:    3G. with the coverage and QoS of cellular networks.16.

3G VS WiFi .

WIMAX Vs WiFi .

LTE Vs WiFi .

streaming. etc But WiFi has its perks too. live TV. LTE and WIMAX will all compete against each other and bring along:  Maximum Coverage with mobile cellular infrastructures.LTE and WIMAX« 3G.  Multimedia enhancements: Video conferencing. WiFi is here to STAY and it does not have a chance of being demolished by other enhancement technologies any soon! .Advantages of WiFi over 3G.  Improved Mobility Management.

11a and 802. But WiFi has already adopted OFDM and MIMO technology in versions 802.11n standard provides 100-300 Mbps of data throughput . .Why WiFi is preferable?  WiFi is more technologically developed -Upcoming 4G and LTE technologies will incorporate OFDMA and MIMO operations for enhanced data rate transfer.11g with fast data throughput of 54Mbps.802.New silicon WiFi with Beamforming antennas and SDMA technology will boost data throughput up to 600 mbps .

so it is easy to access WiFi with existing mobile phones or laptops.Continued«   WiFi based networks are less costly for small or medium operators.LTE. . making it obtainable to the mass. -Unlicensed spectrum means that operators do not have to bid for and pay high prices in order to buy channel bandwidth. 3G and upcoming enhanced technologies require transferring to new devices with sophisticated built in chips for functioning. -Network infrastructure is simpler and so it is cost effective to set up WiFi network with AD-Hoc or Hybrid Network Topology. Its technology is already embedded in most of today¶s devices. etc.But most of the devices today are already devised for WLAN functions. . .

THE FUTURE OF WiFi«   Wavion Wireless Networks is an organization that is transforming the unlicensed broadband wireless access with powerful solutions to new improved WiFi technologies. is illustrated in order to visualize the clear triumph of WiFi in the future« . An example of such a solution provided by Wavion to improve Outdoor Metro WiFi environment.

The CHALLENGES for Outdoor Metro WiFi Environment:       Higher levels of interference Much higher multipath delay-spread Effects of Doppler Shift Short range Limited capacity Tougher Electromagnetic challenges than indoors. .

.THE SOLUTION:  Wavion¶s Outdoor-optimized Wi-Fi technology. which includes Wavion¶s unique ASIC. Beamforming Antennas and SDMA (Space-Division Multiple Access) technologies.

Multiple signals are received and transmitted by antennas due to Mulitipath propagation effects. These multiple signals are properly adjusted by the beamformer to maximize the signal strength at the client modem and the base station modem.Beamforming Antenna«    Wavion¶s spatially adaptive Beamforming technology is based on multiple radios and antennas.  . This ability improves the radio performance in Non-Line-of-Sight conditions and provides more uniform coverage with fewer dead spots. This is achieved by assuring that the signals transmitted in each of the multiple antennas sum up into one coherent signal at the client antenna similarly the multiple signals from client add up to a coherent strong signal at the base station.

SDMA enables simultaneous downlink communications with multiple users over the same frequency channel. while the other steams are received below the noise level. SDMA technology creates two downlinks to two different users simultaneously. .SDMA Technology«      Network capacity is increased significantly. Each stream is "beamed" by means of Beamforming in such a way that the user receives only the stream directed to him. transmitting one data stream per user. This doubles the network¶s downlink capacity.

Enhanced Backhaul Option ( CPE as backhaul)«      Wavion Indoor CPE-Customer-Premises equipment. It is compact and self installed Works with all Microsoft or other operating systems.(WCPE-24HPUSB) is a high-end Wi-Fi USB CPE. Provides superior indoor coverage due to the high transmission power and sensitivity . Provides a high-performance cost-effective solution for residential wireless broadband access for end to end users.

Continued«     CPE is used as backhaul to serve to Wide Area Networks. This Backhaul option allows the use of Beamforming and SDMA technologies. CPEs are connected from households or offices to the Wavion Base Stations. . QoS is enforced and this backhaul does not add any additional delays in traffic.