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A scalar quantity is a quantity that has magnitude only and has no direction in space

Examples of Scalar Quantities: Length Area Volume Time Mass

W S

E

100m

W S

E

100m north 25o west

100m east 100m south

distance with a direction is known as

and is a vector quantity

A vector quantity is a quantity that has both magnitude and a direction in space

Examples of Vector Quantities: Displacement Velocity Acceleration Force

4km 4km 4km

total distance travelled is 16km

4km

displacement from displace to datplace is 11.3km south east

Vector diagrams are shown using an arrow The length of the arrow represents its magnitude The direction of the arrow shows its direction

**Understanding Vector Directions
**

To accurately draw a given vector, start at the second direction and move the given degrees to the first direction.

N 30° N of E

W

E

Start on the East origin and turn 30° to the North S

**Graphical Representation Practice
**

5.0 m/s East (suggested scale: 1 cm = 1 m/s) 300 Newtons 60° South of East (suggested scale: 1 cm = 100 N) 0.40 m 25° East of North (suggested scale: 5 cm = 0.1 m)

The resultant is the sum or the combined effect of two vector quantities

**Vectors in the same direction:
**

6N 6m = 4m 10 m 4N = 10 N

**Vectors in opposite directions:
**

6 m s-1 6N 10 m s-1 10 N = = 4 m s-1 4N

When two vectors are joined tail to tail Complete the parallelogram The resultant is found by drawing the diagonal

When two vectors are joined head to tail Draw the resultant vector by completing the triangle

**Graphical Addition of Vectors
**

1. 2. 3. 4.

Tip-To-Tail Method Pick appropriate scale, write it down. Use a ruler & protractor, draw 1st vector to scale in appropriate direction, label. Start at tip of 1st vector, draw 2nd vector to scale, label. Connect the vectors starting at the tail end of the 1st and ending with the tip of the last vector. This = sum of the original vectors, its called the resultant vector.

**Graphical Addition of Vectors (cont.)
**

Tip-To-Tail Method 5. Measure the magnitude of R.V. with a ruler. Use your scale and convert this length to its actual amt. and record with units. 6. Measure the direction of R.V. with a protractor and add this value along with the direction after the magnitude.

**Graphical Addition of Vectors (cont.)
**

5 Km Scale: 1 Km = 1 cm 3 Km

Resultant Vector (red) = 6 cm, therefore its 6 km.

Example

An airplane flying toward east at 90 km/h is turned toward north at 50 km/h. What is the resultant velocity of the plane?

When resolving a vector into components we are doing the opposite to finding the resultant We usually resolve a vector into components that are perpendicular to each other

Here a vector v is resolved into an x component and a y component

y

v

x

**Component Method of Vector Addition
**

Treat each vector separately: 1. To find the “X” component, you must: Ax = Acos Θ 2. To find the “Y” component, you must: Ay = Asin Θ 3. Repeat steps 2 & 3 for all vectors

**Component Method (cont.)
**

4. Add all the “X” components (Rx) 5. Add all the “Y” components (Ry) 6. The magnitude of the Resultant Vector is found by using Rx, Ry & the Pythagorean Theorem: RV2 = Rx2 + Ry2 7. To find direction: Tan Θ = Ry / Rx

Example

A 120-N and 55-N forces both act on an object at point P. The 120-N force acts at 0º. The 55-N force acts at 90º. What is the magnitude and direction of the resultant force?

Example

Resolve the following vectors into their components: A = 10 km E B = 15 km 40º N of E C = 18 km 60º N of W D = 20 km 55º W of S E = 5 km S