A computer network is a group of interconnected computers A collection of computers and devices connected to each other. Allows computers to communicate with each other and share resources and information.

Building a Network

To build a network
Identify the set of constraints and requirements based on Application programmer Network designer Network provider

clouds computer Switched Network  Circuit Switched  Packet Switched  Uses store and forward  Establishes dedicated circuit  More efficient in working  . Requirements:  Connectivity  point to point or multiple access  Links physical medium  Nodes.

 Routing  Provides Systematic procedure for forwarding messages  Unicasting  Multicasting  Cost effective Resources sharing How system resource is shared effectively by multiple users multiplexing .

Frequency division multiplexing .Synchronous time division multiplexing FDM . Multiplexing methods   STDM .

fair. and robust connectivity of computers Provides a blueprint  Types OSI Architecture  Internet Architecture  . effective.Network Architecture   Provides a general.

network communication protocols have a structure based on OSI Model .OSI ARCHITECTURE  Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference model developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) in 1984 OSI model defines the communications process into Layers Provides a standards for communication in the network Primary architectural model for inter-computing and Inter networking communications.

OSI Architecture .

HTTP.SMTP Protocols used Internet Protocol Graph .UDP.FTP.Internet Architecture     TCP/IP Architecture Four Layer model TCP.

Wireless . Token Rings.Direct Links: Outline  Physical Layer   Link technologies Encoding  Link Layer     Framing Error Detection Reliable Transmission (ARQ protocols) Medium Access Control:  Existing protocols: Ethernet.

100m Thin-net coax.736Mbps) Optical fiber: STS-1 (51. 10-100Mbps.84Mbps)  Leased Lines:   . 2-40km Copper based: T1 (1.544Mbps). STS-N (N*51. T3 (44. 100Mbps-2.4Gbps.84Mbps). 500m Fiber.Link Technologies  Cables:     Cat 5 twisted pair. 10-100Mbps. 10-100Mbps. 200m Thick-net coax.

VDSL (12.Link Technologies   Last-Mile Links:  POTS (56Kbps). 1. 20Mbps upstream Wireless Links: Cellular.448Mbps).554-8.2Mbps)  CATV: 40Mbps downstream.96Mbps-55. ISDN (2*64Kbps)  xDSL: ADSL (16-640Kbps. Satellite. Wireless Local Loop .

FRAMING  An efficient data transmission technique It is a message forwarding system in which data packets. are passed from one or many start-points to one  . called frames.


Approaches  Byte oriented Protocol(PPP) BISYNC Binary Synchronous Communication DDCMP Digital Data Communication Message Protocol Bit oriented Protocol(HDLC)  Clock based Framing(SONET)  .

Byte oriented Protocol(PPP) BISYNC FRAME FORMAT SYH SYH SOH Header STX Body ETX CRC PPP Frame Format Flag Address Control Protocol Payload Flag .

DDCMP Frame Format SYN SYN Class Count Header Body CRC .

Closed Based Framing(SONET) Synchronous Optical Network .Bit Oriented Protocol(HDLC)  Collection of Bits 1.HDLC High-Level Data Link Control 2.

HDLC Frame Format Beginning sequence Header Body CRC Ending sequence Bit Stufffing After 5 consecutive 1s insert 0 Next bit is 0 – stuffed removed Next bit is 1 –end of frame or erorr .

exclusive OR Supports Multiplexing Payloads 9 rows 90 columuns .Closed Based Framing(SONET)  STS-1 Frame 9 rows of 90 byte each First 3 byte for overhead rest contains data Payload bytes scrambled.

ERROR DETECTION  Detecting Errors In Transmission Electrical Interference. thermal noise Approaches Two Dimensional Parity Internet Checksum Algorithm Cyclic Redundancy Check .

Two Dimensional Parity 7 bits of data Number of 1s 0000000 (0) 1010001 (3) 1101001 (4) 1111111 (7) even 00000000 11010001 01101001 11111111 8 bits including parity odd 100000000 01010001 11101001 01111111 .

even parity:     A wants to transmit: 1001 A computes parity bit value: 1^0^0^1 = 0 A adds parity bit and sends: 10010 B receives: 10010 B computes parity: 1^0^0^1^0 = 0 B reports correct transmission after observing expected even result.  .

Transmission sent using odd parity:       A wants to transmit: 1001 A computes parity bit value: ~(1^0^0^1) = 1 A adds parity bit and sends: 10011 B receives: 10011 B computes overall parity: 1^0^0^1^1 = 1 B reports correct transmission after observing expected odd result. .

Reliable Transmission Deliver Frames Reliably Accomplished by Acknowledgements and Timeouts ARQ-Automatic Repeat Request Mechanism: Stop and Wait Sliding Window Concurrent Logical Channels .

Data frames cannot be sent until the destination station’s reply arrives at the source station.Stop And Wait ARQ  The source station transmits a single frame and then waits for an acknowledgement (ACK). It discards the frame and sends a negative acknowledgement (NAK) back to the sender causes the source to retransmit the damaged frame in case of error    .

Acknowledgements & Timeouts Sender Fram e Receiver Sender Fram e Receiver Timeout Timeout Time ACK ACK Timeout Fram e ACK (a) (c) Sender Fram e Receiver Sender Fram e ACK Receiver Timeout Timeout Timeout Fram e ACK Timeout Fram e ACK (b) (d) .

requires two distinct sequence numbers .Stop & wait sequence numbers Sender Fram e0 ACK 0 Receiver Sender Receiver Fram e 0 Sender Fram e0 0 ACK Receiver Timeout Timeout 0 ACK Timeout Timeout Fram e0 0 ACK Fram e0 0 ACK Fram e 1 1 ACK Fram e 0 (c) (d) 0 ACK (e) • Simple sequence numbers enable the client to discard duplicate copies of the same frame • Stop & wait allows one outstanding frame.

Stop And Wait .

 .Sliding Window  bi-directional data transmission protocol used in the data link layer (OSI model) as well as in TCP  It is used to keep a record of the frame sequences sent respective acknowledgements received by both the users.

Sliding Window: Sender
 

Assign sequence number to each frame (SeqNum) Maintain three state variables:
  

  

Maintain invariant: LFS - LAR <= SWS Advance LAR when ACK arrives Buffer up to SWS frames ≤ SWS

send window size (SWS) last acknowledgment received (LAR) last frame sent (LFS)



Sequence Number Space
  

SeqNum field is finite; sequence numbers wrap around Sequence number space must be larger then number of outstanding frames SWS <= MaxSeqNum-1 is not sufficient
     

suppose 3-bit SeqNum field (0..7) SWS=RWS=7 sender transmit frames 0..6 arrive successfully, but ACKs lost sender retransmits 0..6 receiver expecting 7, 0..5, but receives the original incarnation of 0..5

 

SWS < (MaxSeqNum+1)/2 is correct rule Intuitively, SeqNum “slides” between two halves of sequence number space

Sliding Window: Receiver

receive window size (RWS)  largest frame acceptable (LFA)  last frame received (LFR)  Maintain invariant: LFA - LFR <= RWS ≤

Maintain three state variables



if LFR < SeqNum < = LFA accept  if SeqNum < = LFR or SeqNum > LFA discarded  Send cumulative ACKs – send ACK for largest frame such that all

Frame SeqNum arrives:

frames less than this have been received

database etc). the same computer resources can be used by multiple users in the network.g. regardless of the physical location of the resources. . exchange information and share resources (e. printers. application programs.UNIT II LAN Technology     LAN (Local Area Network) refers to a group of computers interconnected into a network Objective: they are able to communicate.

LAN Architecture Describes the way in which the components in a Local Area Network are connected LAN Topologies: Star Ring Bus Tree .

central node is operating in a broadcast fashion such as a Hub transmission of a frame from one station to the node is retransmitted on all of the outgoing links.   . such as hub or a switch.Star  All stations are connected by cable (or wireless) to a central point.

Ring All nodes on the LAN are connected in a loop and their Network Interface Cards (NIC) are working as repeaters. The frame continues to circulate until it returns to the source station. No starting or ending point.6) another protocol used in the .5) FDDI (IEEE 802. where it is removed. Each node will repeat any signal that is on the network regardless its destination. Example:Token Ring (IEEE 802. The destination station recognizes its address and copies the frame into a local buffer.

which is called the shared medium. This medium cable apparently is the single point of failure.Bus      All nodes on the LAN are connected by one linear cable. Every node on this cable segment sees transmissions from every other station on the same segment. which absorbs any signal. At each end of the bus is a terminator. Example:Ethernet (IEEE 802. removing it from the bus.3) .

The branches in turn may have additional branches to allow quite complex layouts. The tree layout begins at a point called the head-end one or more cables start. and each of these may have branches. .Tree  Is a logical extension of the bus topology.      The transmission medium is a branching cable no closed loops.

Topologies .

The information frame continues to circle the ring and is finally removed when it reaches the sending station. The information frame circulates the ring until it reaches the intended destination station.5 is originated from the IBM Token Ring LAN technologies. Token Ring as defined in IEEE 802.Token Ring         All stations are connected in a ring and each station can directly hear transmissions only from its immediate neighbor. Token-passing networks move a small frame. which copies the information for further processing. The sending station can check the returning frame to see whether the frame was seen and subsequently copied by the destination. . called a token Possession of the token grants the right to transmit. Permission to transmit is granted by a message (token) that circulates around the ring.

.  two modes of operation:    half-duplex full-duplex modes. .Ehernet local-area network (LAN) covered by the IEEE 802.3.

2.Three basic elements : 1. a set of medium access control rules embedded in each Ethernet interface that allow multiple computers to fairly arbitrate access to the shared Ethernet channel. an Ethernet frame that consists of a standardized set of bits used to carry data over the system . the physical medium used to carry Ethernet signals between computers. 3.

5 Format .IEEE 802.

5 .Frame Format IEEE 802.

IEEE 802.3 MAC Data Frame Format


The process by which the radio waves are propagated through air and transmits data Wireless technologies are differentiated by :
  

Protocol Connection type—Point-to-Point (P2P) Spectrum—Licensed or unlicensed


Infrared Wireless Transmission

Tranmission of data signals using infrared-light waves sends data over long distances (regions, states, countries) at up to 2 megabits per second (AM/FM Radio)

Microwave Radio

Communications Satellites  microwave relay stations in orbit around the earth.


Optimize utilization of available link capacity Increase the robustness of communication. resulting in variable delay and throughput. irrespective of content. depending on the traffic . called packets. switches and other network nodes packets are buffered and queued. When traversing network adapters. or structure into suitably-sized blocks. type.UNIT III       Packet Switching Is a network communications method Groups all transmitted data.

25 vs. Frame Relay .  Example:Datagram packet switching   connection-oriented   each packet is labeled with a destination address Example:X.Types  Connectionless each packet is labeled with a connection ID rather than an address.

Star Topology

Source Routing
0 Switch 1 3 2 3 0 1 1 3 0 0 1 2 Switch 2 3 1 3 2 0 1

Host A 0 1 3 1 0 Switch 3 3 2 Host B

Virtual Circuit Switching
  

Explicit connection setup (and tear-down) phase Subsequence packets follow same circuit Sometimes called connection-oriented model 0 Switch 1
3 2 5 1 3 11 2 Switch 2 1 0

Analogy: phone call Each switch maintains a VC table

Host A 7 1 0 Switch 3 3 2 4 Host B

Datagram Switching     No connection setup phase Each packet forwarded independently Sometimes called connectionless model Host D Analogy: postal system Each switch maintains a forwarding (routing) table 3 Host C 0 Switch 1 1 2 3 Host E Host F 2 Switch 2 1 0 Host A  Host G 1 0 Switch 3 Host B 3 2 Host H .

Virtual Circuit Model  Typically wait full RTT for connection setup before sending first data packet. Connection setup provides an opportunity to reserve resources.     . making the per-packet header overhead small. While the connection request contains the full address for destination each data packet contains only a small identifier. If a switch or a link in a connection fails. the connection is broken and a new one needs to be established.

a host can send data as soon as it is ready. Since packets are treated independently. Since every packet must carry the full address of the destination.    .Datagram Model  There is no round trip delay waiting for connection setup. the overhead per packet is higher than for the connection-oriented model. it is possible to route around link and node failures. Source host has no way of knowing if the network is capable of delivering a packet or if the destination host is even up.

.g.Bridges and Extended LANs   LANs have physical limitations (e. 2500m) Connect two or more LANs with a bridge  accept and forward strategy  level 2 connection (does not add packet header) A B C Port 1 Bridge Port 2  Ethernet Switch = Bridge on Steroids X Y Z .

1 specification .Spanning Tree Algorithm  Problem: loops C A B B3 B5 B2 E D B7 F K B1 G B6 I H B4 J  Bridges run a distributed spanning tree algorithm    select which bridges actively forward developed by Radia Perlman now IEEE 802.

each bridge believes it is the root .Algorithm Details    Bridges exchange configuration messages  id for bridge sending the message  id for what the sending bridge believes to be root bridge  distance (hops) from sending bridge to root bridge Each bridge records current best configuration message for each port Initially.

each bridge believes it is the root .Algorithm Details    Bridges exchange configuration messages  id for bridge sending the message  id for what the sending bridge believes to be root bridge  distance (hops) from sending bridge to root bridge Each bridge records current best configuration message for each port Initially.

different kinds of network technologies that can be interconnected by routers and other networking devices to create an internetwork  .Internetworking  An internetwork is a collection of individual networks. that functions as a single large network. connected by intermediate networking devices.


radio links. ADSL. ISDN. and others. Frame Relay.Types  Local-area networks (LANs)enabled multiple users in a relatively small geographical area to exchange files and messages. T3. ATM. as well as access shared resources such as file servers and printers. Wide-area networks (WANs) interconnect LANs with geographically dispersed users to create connectivity.   . technologies used for connecting LANs include T1.



IPV4 Packet Header Version HLen Ident TTL Protocol TOS Length Flags Checksum Offset SourceAddr Destination Addr Options(variable) Pad(variable) Data .

Datagram Delivery .

Packet Format .

IPV4 Packet header .

Fragmentation and Reassembly .

Fragmentation and Reassembly .

Fragmentation and Reassembly .

BOOTP uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) .(RARP)Reverse Address Resolution Protocol      (RARP) is a Link layer networking protocol RARP is described in internet EngineeringTask ForceETF) publication RFC 903 It has been rendered obsolete by the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) and the modern Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP) BOOTP configuration server assigns an IP address to each client from a pool of addresses.

including the telephone network electronic data networks (such as the Internet).Routing  is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. .  Routing is performed for many kinds of networks. and transportation networks.

path determination can be very complex.Components    determining optimal routing paths and transporting information groups (typically called packets) through an internetwork. . Although packet switching is relatively straightforward. In the context of the routing process. the latter of these is referred to as packet switching.

Distance Vector are classful routing protocols which means that there is no support of Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) and Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR). Distance Vector routing protocols support discontiguous subnets. Distance Vector routing protocols uses hop count and composite metric. . Distance Vector routing protocols are less scalable such as RIP supports 16 hops and IGRP has a maximum of 100 hops.Distance Vector:      Distance Vector routing protocols are based on Bellman and Ford algorithms.

Cost is the metric of the Link State routing protocols. Link State routing protocols are classless which means that they support VLSM and CIDR. Link State routing protocols support contiguous subnets. .Link State:      Link State routing protocols are based on Dijkstra algorithms. Link State routing protocols are very much scalable supports infinite hops.


UNIT IV Stream Reliable Byte .

TCP Overview .

End to end issues .

Segment format .

Connection establishment .


TCP sliding window .


Stream control Transmission Protocol .

Simple demultiplexor .

AdvertisedWindo w) EffectiveWindow=MaxWindow-(LastByteSentLastByteAcked) .TCP Congestion Control        Determines the network capacity Adjust the number of packets that can have safely in transit Acks to pace the transmission of packets TCP is self clocking Avoids congestion Maxwindow=MIN(CongestionWindow.

Caused By    the shortage of buffer space. slow links. slow processors Possible solutions      End-to-end versus link-by-link control Rate-Based versus Credit-Based control The rate-based traffic-flow technique constantly Integrated congestion control  Integrated congestion control .

Principles of Congestion Control Congestion:     informally: “too many sources sending too much data too fast for network to handle” different from flow control! manifestations:  lost packets (buffer overflow at routers)  long delays (queueing in router buffers) a top-10 problem! .

infinite buffers no retransmission Host A λ in : original data λ ot u Host B unlimited shared output link buffers   large delays when congested maximum achievable throughput . two receivers one router.Scenario 1: Queuing Delays    two senders.

Scenario 2: Retransmits   one router. plus retransmitted data λ ot u Host B finite shared output link buffers . finite buffers sender retransmission of lost packet Host A λ in : original data λ 'in : original data.

Scenario 3: Congestion Near Receiver    four senders multihop paths timeout/retransmit Q: what happens λ as in λ and increase in ? λ t o u Host A λ in : original data λ 'in : original data. plus retransmitted data finite shared output link buffers Host B .

TCP/IP ECN. ATM)  explicit rate sender should send at . DECbit.Approaches towards congestion control Two broad approaches towards congestion control: End-end congestion control:  Network-assisted congestion control:    no explicit feedback from network congestion inferred from end-system observed loss. delay approach taken by TCP routers provide feedback to end systems  single bit indicating congestion (SNA.

 CongWin CongWin=is dynamic.TCP Congestion Control   end-end control (no network assistance) sender limits transmission: LastByteSent-LastByteAcked ≤ CongWin  Roughly. function of rate Bytes/sec perceived network congestion RTT How does sender perceive congestion?  loss event = timeout or 3 duplicate acks  TCP sender reduces rate (CongWin) after loss event three mechanisms:    AIMD slow start conservative after timeout events .

TCP AIMD multiplicative decrease: cut CongWin in half after loss event c o w 2 4 K b n g i n d additive increase: increase CongWin by 1 MSS every RTT in the absence of loss eevents: i probing s t o n o s w y t e Long-lived TCP connection .

increase rate exponentially fast until first loss event  available bandwidth may be >> MSS/RTT  desirable to quickly ramp up to respectable rate . CongWin = 1 MSS    Example: MSS = 500 bytes & RTT = 200 msec initial rate = 20 kbps When connection begins.TCP Slow Start  When connection begins.

TCP Slow Start (more)   When connection begins. increase rate exponentially until first loss event:  double CongWin every RTT  done by incrementing CongWin for every ACK received Summary: initial rate is slow but ramps up exponentially fast Host A RTT Host B one segm ent two segm ents four segm ents time .

Threshold is set to 1/2 of CongWin just before loss event .Refinement (more) Q: When should the exponential increase switch to linear? A: When CongWin gets to 1/2 of its value before timeout. Implementation:   Variable Threshold At loss event.

Set state to “Slow Start” Increment duplicate ACK count for segment being Fast recovery. Enter slow start Duplicate ACK SS or CA CongWin and Threshold not changed . CongWin = 1 MSS. implementing multiplicative decrease. CongWin = Threshold. Resulting in a doubling of If (CongWin > Threshold) CongWin every RTT set state to “Congestion Avoidance” ACK receipt Congestion CongWin = CongWin+MSS * Additive increase. for previously Avoidance (MSS/CongWin) resulting in increase of unacked data (CA) CongWin by 1 MSS every RTT Loss event SS or CA detected by triple duplicate ACK Timeout SS or CA Threshold = CongWin/2. CongWin will not drop below 1 MSS. Set state to “Congestion Avoidance” Threshold = CongWin/2.TCP sender congestion control Event State TCP Sender Action Commentary ACK receipt Slow Start for previously (SS) unacked data CongWin = CongWin + MSS.

Congestion Avoidance Mechanisms    Helps to avoid congestion Additional functionality into the router to assist in anticipation of congestion to control congestion once it happens to repeatedly increase load in an effort to find the point at which congestion occurs. and then back off  .

Mechanisms  router-centric: DECbit and RED Gateways host-centric: TCP Vegas  .

DECbit  .

DECbit   Add binary congestion bit to each packet header Router  monitors average queue length over last busy+idle cycle  set congestion bit if average queue length greater than 1 when packet arrives attempts to balance throughput against delay   .

then increase CongestionWindow by 1 packet if 50% or more of last window's worth had bit set.DECbit     End Hosts destination echos bit back to source source records how many packets resulted in set bit if less than 50% of last window's worth had bit set.875 times  . then decrease CongestionWindow by 0.

Random Early Detection (RED)  Notification is implicit  just drop the packet (TCP will timeout)  could make explicit by marking the packet  Early random drop  rather than wait for queue to become full. drop each arriving packet with some drop probability whenever the queue length exceeds some drop level .

Weight)*AvgLen+Weight*SampleLen   0 < Weight < 1 (usually 0.Random Early Detection (RED)  RED: fills in the details  compute average queue length  AvgLen=(1.002) SampleLen is queue length each time a packet arrives .

Random Early Detection (RED .

Random Early Detection (RED)        two queue length thresholds if AvgLen ? MinThreshold then enqueue the packet if MinThreshold < AvgLen < MaxThreshold calculate probability P if MaxThreshold ? AvgLen drop arriving packet .

enables client computers on your network to register and resolve DNS domain names. names are used to find and access resources offered by other computers on your network or other networks.    . services in the Internet is an IETF-standard name service. such as the Internet.UNIT V Domain Name Service  is a hierarchical naming system for computers.

three main components of DNS:  Domain name space and associated resource records (RRs) DNS Name Servers DNS Resolvers   .

Domain Names .Domain name space for the Internet.

accept. transmitting. or store messages on behalf of users   . or storing primarily text-based human communications with digital communications systems based on a store-and-forward model in which e-mail computer server systems. forward.Email  Electronic mail abbreviated as e-mail or email is method of creating.

SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)  is an Internet standard for electronic mail transmission is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and receiving email to send and receive mail messages to send and receive mail messages   .

SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) .

SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) .

MIME     Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions SMTP is ASCII based allows multi part messages containing content of various types combined into one message Types    GIF graphics files PostScript files MIME messages can contain  text. . video. and other applicationspecific data. audio. images.

. an extensible set of different formats for non-textual message bodies. multi-part message bodies. and textual header information in character sets other than USASCII.format of messages     textual message bodies in character sets other than USASCII.

protocol which can be used for many tasks such as name servers and distributed object management systems. It is a generic. collaborative. error codes and headers [47]. through extension of its request methods. typing and negotiation of data representation allows systems to be built independently of the data being transferred. hypermedia information systems. stateless.HTTP     is an application-level protocol for distributed. .


SNMP  to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention  SNMP basic components       Managed devices Agents Network-management stations (NMSs) Managed devices Agents Network-management stations (NMSs) .

Easy to use.efficient . powerpoints or other files can be sent too .Messages can be sent anywhere around the world in an instant 2. after initial set-up 4.Pictures.versatile .Fast .Email Features     Email is Fast Email is Inexpensive Email is Easy to Filter Transmission is Secure and Reliable  1.Sending to a group can be done in one step 5. very little 3.simple . or at the most.cheap .Transmission usually costs nothing.

World Wide Web Hypertext and Hypermedia Browser Architecture Static Document/HTML Dynamic Document/CGI Active Document/Java .

Distributed services .

Hypertext .

Browser architecture .

Categories of Web documents .

Static document .

Boldface tags .

Effect of boldface tags .

Beginning and ending tags .

Common tags Beginning Tag Ending Tag Skeletal Tags <HTML> <HEAD> </HTML> </HEAD> Defines an HTML document Defines the head of the document Meaning <BODY> </BODY> Defines the body of the document Title and Header Tags <TITLE> <Hn> </TITLE> </Hn> Defines the title of the document Defines the title of the document .

Common tags (continued) Beginning Tag Ending Tag Text Formatting Tags <B> <I> <U> <SUB> <SUP> </B> </I> </U> </SUB> </SUP> Boldface Italic Underlined Subscript Superscript Data Flow Tag <CENTER> <BR> </CENTER> </BR> Centered Line break Meaning .

Common tags (continued) Beginning Tag Ending Tag List Tags <OL> <UL> <LI> </OL> </UL> </LI> Ordered list Unordered list An item in a list Image Tag <IMG> Defines an image Hyperlink Tag <A> </A> Defines an address (hyperlink) Executable Contents <APPLET> </APPLET> The document is an applet Meaning .

Dynamic document .

Active document .

Skeleton of an applet .

Instantiation of the object defined by an applet .

Creation and compilation .

HTML document carrying an applet .

File Transfer Connections Communication File Transfer User Interface Anonymous .

. It needs two TCP connections.Note: FTP uses the services of TCP. and the well-known port 20 is used for the data connection. The well-known port 21 is used for the control connection.


Using the control connection .

Using the data connection .

File transfer .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful