Basic Vibration Seminar

ALPS Maintaineering Services, Inc

Rationale
• Inefficiencies and wastages abound in both manufacturing and service systems as a result of poor machine maintenance procedures. Moreover, technical and technological inability to monitor equipment conditions, and prescribe the corresponding maintenance procedures aggravates the problem situation. • This seminar is presented to provide ideas on the needs of maintenance systems for a comprehensive and integrated methodology in machine troubleshooting.

Objectives
At the end of the seminar, the participant is expected: • To be introduced to the concepts of predictive maintenance and condition monitoring, particularly vibration analysis. • To become familiar with the VA techniques which enhance the efficiency, reliability and safety of equipment.

1979-1980 . North Davao Mining Corporation. University of Mindanao. 1990 . Quezon City. 1981 – 1983 Electrical Engineering Instructor. 1980 – 1981 Master of Engineering Education. SKF Philippines. ALPS Maintaineering Services. National Engineering Center. Davao City. IFS Germany Certified Alignment Specialist.About the speaker • • • • • • • • • • • • President. Vibration Institute of USA Certified Condition Monitoring Engineer. Semirara Coal Corporation. Fixturlaser AB. Inc Professional Electrical Engineer 2030 Certified Vibration Specialist I. 1983 – 1990 Electrical Supervisor. UP Diliman. Sweden Practiced vibration analysis and alignment since 1992 Lecturer. Inc.present Application Engineering. 2000 .1997 Electrical Superintendent. UP Diliman.

Basic Machine Vibrations An analyst without a knowledge of the basics is like a machine with an inferior foundation. .

It can also be referred to as a "cyclical" movement .What is vibration? • Vibration is a "back and forth" movement of a structure.

What Is Vibration Caused By ? Imperfections in the Machine caused by: • Design • Assembly • Manufacture • Operation • Installation • Maintenance .

What Is Vibration Caused By ? • What Are Some Common Machine Problems That Generate Mechanical Vibration: • Misalignment • Unbalance • Worn belts & pulleys • Bearing Defects • Hydraulic Forces • Aerodynamic Forces • Reaction Forces • Reciprocating Forces • Bent Shafts • Rubbing • Gear Problems • Housing Distortion • Certain Electrical Problems • Frictional Forces .

What Are Some Common Machine Problems • That Amplify Mechanical Vibration (But Don't Cause It): • Resonance • Looseness .

By performing this task effectively.Why Do We Measure Vibration ? 1. we can extend the life of bearings and other components that are absorbing the stresses and fatiguing forces that are causing the symptom of excessive vibration. 2. Diagnose the root cause(s) of any excessive (destructive) vibration. we can eliminate catastrophic failures due to component degradation. Assess the condition (primarily the bearings) of a machine. By performing this task effectively. .

For example. The time between onset and failure in these cases .which are rare may take only minutes (in extreme cases).) are not protected against via any program that only collects data periodically. many programs are based on monthly data collection. days or weeks. loss of lubrication.e. . sudden fracture of a component. This is not a failure of the program or the technology any more than driving a fork truck into a machine and destroying it. hours. The good news is that the vast majority of potential and actual failures will NOT fall into this category and DO lend themselves to being detected. Any event occurring during that month interval may cause failure prior to the next data collection. etc. monitored and corrected through a well-run vibration program.Why Do We Measure Vibration ? It should be understood that short-term event-based failures (i. .

What Does The Transducer Actually Detect ? It’s the movement of… Vertical Oblique Horizontal Axial .

What Vibration "Characteristics" Do We Measure ? Amplitude Frequency How much movement occurs? Severity of vibration How often the movement occurs? What’s the defect or root cause? Phase In what direction is the movement? .

Common Bearing Numbering Convention Consistency Is The Key .

Common Bearing Numbering Convention

Belt drives can be oriented in any direction and thereby require a directional convention.

Vertical machines present another opportunity to assign a directional convention since parallel to the shaft (axial) is now straight up out of the ground

Amplitude
• Severity of vibration based on ISO 10816 • What are its units? – Displacement - measures the total distance the transducer (bearing) travels back and forth during one 'cycle' of movement (a 'cycle' is the process of moving from one extreme to the other and back again to the starting point). – Velocity - measures the maximum speed the transducer achieves during a cycle.
– Acceleration - measures the force(s) that are causing the back and forth movement.

How much Displacement Unit?
15 10

Amplitude

F = 1/T

1 2 3 4
Tim e

T

5 0 -5 -10 -15

 The periodic motion is
a sine wave.

Acc(t ) = A. sin(ω .t + ρ )
ω = pulsation in rad/s ρ = phase

•English or 'Imperial' Units: Mils (1 mil = 0.001") •Metric Units: Microns (1 um = 0.001 mm) •Conversion::1 Mil = 25.4 um

Convert the units Acc(t ) = A. sin(ω .1000.2.t + ρ ) Acc(t ) = Amplitude dVel (t ) dt 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 Accélération Niveau C/C Niveau 0/C Niveau eff temps Vel (t ) = ∫ Acc(t )dt Vel (t ) = dDisp (t ) dt Vite sse 15 10 5 0 Acc(mG ) Vel (mm / s ) ≈ 2.F Disp (t ) = ∫ ∫Acc(t ) -5 -10 -15 15 10 5 Déplacement Vel ( mm / s ).F 0 -5 -10 -15 .π . 2 Disp ( µmc / c) ≈ 2.π .

Effect of parameter conversion s Amplitude v a Frequency .

– Fatigue failures are by far and away the most common cause of general machinery failures. . we were concerned with the total distance traveled (stress-related failures). • Velocity measures the how often (frequency) the stress (displacement) is being applied. – Velocity is measure of the likelihood of FATIGUE being the mode of failure.Measuring How Much Velocity? • Displacement. – Velocity is the best monitoring tool for general machines.

very high frequency vibration: >120. components or specific problems may not be best monitored by velocity. • It should be noted that even though velocity is suited to monitor problems in the 60kcpm .in those cases.150kcpm range.Measuring How Much Velocity? • Specialty machines. it may be advantageous to use our third amplitude unit acceleration .e. • Examples of machines. components and problems not suited to velocity are gears and certain electrical symptoms (i.000 cycles per minute) and very slow-speed equipment (< 100 rpm). .

in/sec) •Metric: Millimeters per Second (mm/sec) •Conversion::1 ips = 25.The Velocity Sine Wave 15 10 Amplitude 5 0 -5 -10 -15 temps Accélération Niveau C/C Niveau 0/C Niveau eff •English or "Imperial": Inches per Second (ips -or.4 mm/sec .

almost invariably 60. There are a limited number of high frequency generating machinery problems.000 cycles per minute and higher. Those problems include primarily rolling element bearing defects and gears. Applied force failures occur at higher frequencies . English or Metric . Acceleration is measure of the likelihood of APPLIED FORCE being the mode of failure.G's (1 g = force of gravity) • • .Measuring "How Much" In Acceleration Units • • • Acceleration measures how rapidly the velocity is changing.

What Does Frequency Tell Us? Frequency is the reciprocal of Time: F = 1/T Example: If F = 50Hz then T = 1/50 = 20 ms F=1 T=1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 F=50 T=20 16 18 20 ms Frequency Identifies The Vibration Source .

Time Domain plots should be used • Complex Vibration Generators: Typically generates higher amplitude levels .Amplitude Guidelines For "Other" Equipment Types: • Slow Speed: Typically generates lower amplitudes. For shafts < 600 rpm.

4 . .45 11.45 0.90 > 22.Manufacturer’s vibration guidelines English Units: in/sec < 0.0.4 .90 w / 1+ peaks > 0.8 Peak(s) > 22.8 w / 1+ peaks > 11. That knowledge is possibly the analyst's strongest line of defense against unexpected failures.8 w / no peak > 11.90 w / no peak > 0.45 .8 w / no peak > 22.45 Metric Units: mm/sec < 11.90 w / no peak > 0.4 11.0.4 Classification: Excellent Good Fair Rough Very Rough 0.22.90 Peak(s) > 0.4 > 0.22.45 .8 The successful analyst will also get to "know" the machines and their typical vibration patterns.

What Does Phase Tell Us? • Phase enables us to compare the relative direction of movement of various locations on a machine • Accessories used with vibration analyzer – Strobe light – Optical Phase Sensor .

It is shown here at 12 o'clock but could appear at any angular location. we need a convention to use.Phase Convention • In order to discuss phase at the most basic level. general phase analysis (what we will be discussing here). Phase is represented by the 360° of a circle. Since a high degree of accuracy is not required in a simple.e. The phase "angle" is based on where the mark appears (the red key in the example shown here) on the clock face. phase is most easily referred to in terms of clock face numbers: 1 o'clock through 12 o'clock. balancing or phase monitoring on a turbine) will require the use of specific angular references (0 .359°). • . Applications requiring more precise detail (i.

Usefulness of Phase Analysis • Aids in determining the following problems – Unbalance – Misalignment – Bent shaft .

Generic Fault Characteristics Mechanical Bearings/Electrical Lube/Cavitation/Gears it allows for preliminary identification of the source of the vibration. .

Time Waveform for low speed •Identify bearing defects due to shock loads .

Trend Plot – Severity of Vibration A trend plot offers limited analysis tools (there is no identification of specific frequencies. for instance) but can be an important indicator of developing problems. .

Trend Plots for Bearing Defect •Defect Factor – Identify bearing noise Down trend indicates wear .

DEF is suitable for motors and pumps. 12 9 6 3 0 Defect Factor DEF Peak Value RMS Value Peak Factor GOOD BAD One scale for all the rotational speed .Bearing Defect Factor • The specific “DEFECT FACTOR” ®(unit DEF) can monitor from the early beginning to the uniform wear of the rolling element bearing.

Trend Plots for Bearing Defect •Acceleration OVL – Identify Lubrication Problem .

Trend Plots for Bearing Defect •Kurtosis – Identify Bearing Defect Problem due to shock loads. handling . mounting.

no defect .Bearing Defect Frequencies C1 – Bearing defect located at cage : l1 – defect located at rolling elements B1 – defect located at outer race E1 – defect located at inner race Conclusion: since there is no harmonics located at 200 – 2000 Hz.

RMS or Peak .Peak or RMS Values • It doesn't matter which value you use . after all. • There is no exact. This applies to spectrum plots as well. simply a number from which we make certain generalizations about the machine condition.so long as you are CONSISTENT (another very important convention) !! Amplitude is. precise number above which disaster awaits and below which you are safe. . • Be aware of the conversion if comparing values between programs that use RMS and Peak values.

Database Acquisition Decisions are only as good as the facts they are based on .

Deviation from the norm then triggers further investigation to determine the source and correct the actual cause of the excessive vibration. unfortunately. Once created. right at the beginning .database setup. it is very difficult to develop new ideas or drastically change things without creating a colossal mess. • A monitoring program tracks the condition of your equipment through the measurement of vibration amplitudes on a regular interval.Database Set up • A crucial step for any monitoring program is. This is unfortunate because it is a crucial task that is performed when the people doing it are most likely inexperienced and of limited education in the field. .

However.Purpose of Monitoring Program • To be sure. are always a wise course of action to take before proceeding with any corrective actions. a well designed vibration monitoring program will nearly always give you a specific direction in which to search for a problem and it will help you prioritize work by gauging the severity and source of most of the problems you will encounter. further analysis. or at the very least confirmation checks. .

Transducers/Sensors • Accelerometer • Velocity Transducer • Displacement Transducer • Proximity Probes .

Not recommended “Snapping” Method Magnet Mounting of Accelerometers 500 mV/g Accelerometer High Strength Magnet .

Rocking Method (Recommended) 500 mV/g Accelerometer Magnet Mounting of Accelerometers High Strength Magnet .

if not. Always question what you are doing. especially whether or not the desired goals are being achieved and.Summary • The creation of a database. with all the associated decisions that must be made. what other methods might be used to achieve those goals. is a job that requires a very good technical understanding of vibration analysis. . machinery operational characteristics and good doses of common sense.

Sample Database Lubrication ISO 10816 Vibration Defect Factor Unbalance/misalign Looseness Soft foot Kurtosis Belt Frequencies .

Data Processing  II – Analyser : further expertise  1 or 2 channels  Structure analysis ² transfer function and coherence  Journal bearing ² Orbit display  III – Balancing:  In situ correction of unbalance  1 to 4 plans  1 or 2 channels .

instability  IV – DAT  Long time acquisition for expertise using post-processing (vib-Graph)  For Collector and Analyser modes . critical speed.Data Processing  IV – Order analysis  Machine analysis during startup or shutdown  Determination of resonance.

10V and +/.24V .Integrated sensors : Data Processing  Pyrometer with laser-sighting for contact-less measurement (up to 30 cm) for temperature from 0 to 200°C  Tachometer with laser-sighting (0 to 60 000 tr/mn up to 2m)  e-Tag : contact-less automatic identification of measurement point using electronic tags. Learning mode to avoid manual input of codes.  Other inputs :  Compatible with standard and tri-axial accelerometers  Compatible with proximity probes  Voltage input +/.

engineering unit and dB  Tools for rolling element bearings : Defect Factor (speed 600 to 6000 rpm and Kurtosis for low speed machines) 12 9 6 3 Data Processing . ISO 10816  2Hz-300 Hz for reciprocating machines (VDI2063)  Detection RMS. Vibration velocity 10-1000 Hz according to ISO 2954. peak. peak/peak true and equivalent  Display : bar graph.

Hanning. 50. exponential or peak hold  Weighting window : Rectangular.Data Processing  Frequency range : 0 to 40 kHz  Number of lines : 100 to 12800  Zoom : 2 to 128  Envelop : adjustment of band with and central frequency  Overlapping : 0. . Flat-top  Single or double integration for measurement of vibration velocity or displacement. 75 %  Averaging : 1 to 4096 with linear.

…. automatic scaling. engineering unit / dB. pressure. Hz / RPM  Analysis on all type of signal : vibration.slope  Display of instantaneous spectrum or averaging  Cursors : single. current. harmonic and side band  Display : Lin / Log.Data Processing  Synchronous analysis :triggering on analysed signal or trigger input. Post or pre-trigger delay on + or . force. .

current. Post or pre-trigger delay on + or . .….4 kHz  Single or double integration for measurement of vibration velocity or displacement. pressure. force. Data Processing Number of samples : 256 to 32768 (512K with DAT option)  Sampling frequency : 1.slope  Demodulation of band pass filtered signal (envelop)  Analysis on all type of signal : vibration. exponential or peak hold  Synchronous analysis :triggering on analysed signal or trigger input.28 Hz to 102.  Averaging : 1 to 4096 with linear.

envelop  Cross-spectrum instantaneous / averaged  Amplitude. Time wave : instantaneous. averaging acceptance  Transfer function  Transmissibility  Coherence Data Processing . instantaneous / averaged. zoom. envelop  Orbit  Auto-spectrum : power / RMS. phase. averaged. real part and imaginary part  Shock acquisition : shock weighting window.

Fault Diagnosis Frequencies are the key to the analysis .

k. an "FFT". a. allows you to assess severity (with the amplitude) and helps identify the source (with the frequency). • A spectrum. • This is the most commonly used analysis tool and is usually sufficient protection for general speed machinery.What is FFT? • FFT – Fast Fourier Transformation • Whereas a Trend is amplitude values versus time. a "Spectrum" Plot is amplitude versus frequency. .a.

For instance.A "base" cursor that can be moved to any frequency and identifies the amplitude at that frequency.Activating this tool creates additional cursors at frequencies to either side of the base cursor. the 2nd sideband cursors will be 100 cpm away from the base cursor. • .FFT Tools • • Moveable Cursor . If the base cursor is located at 1x rpm. etc. Harmonic Cursors . the 3rd will be 150 cpm away. etc.Activating this tool creates additional cursors (as many as are required) that appear at integer multiples of the base cursor. This is the most important analysis tool available. If the 1st (closest) sideband cursors are located 50 cpm to either side of the base cursor. 3x. 4x. additional sideband cursors (as many as required) will each be located an additional 50 cpm away. Sideband Cursors . harmonics will appear at 2x. All harmonic cursors are at higher frequencies than the base cursor.

Vibration harmonically related to a fundamental frequency. has three fundamental frequencies. Sub-synchronous Vibration . Synchronous Vibration . for instance.FFT Terminology Commonly used terms include: • • • • • Fundamental Frequency .Vibration not harmonically related to a fundamental frequency. Non-synchronous Vibration .1x rpm.Vibration occurring at a frequency below the fundamental frequency. Dominant Frequency .Frequency at which the highest amplitude occurs. . Remember that a belt drive.

Fundamental/Dominant Frequency Running speed (Fundamental) .

Synchronous Vibration Harmonics .

Non-synchronous Vibration Non-synchronous .

Sub-synchronous Vibration Sub-synchronous .

4 Kurtosis . 5. 2.2 Defect Factor 5.How is an FFT Analyzed 1.1 Acceleration OVL 5. 3. What is the dominant peak & amplitude? At what frequency? What failure pattern it corresponds to? Is there any harmonics or sub-synchronous? Is there any indication of bearing problems? 5.3 Bearing Defect Frequencies 5. 4.

FFT Resolutions •It determines the accuracy of the frequency data you are analyzing •Frequency is how we identify the source of the vibration. .

Time Domain • Time domain analysis is a powerful but intimidating tool – Slow Speed Equipment (< 300 rpm) – Sleeve Bearings (particularly if readings reflect true shaft movement) – Gear Applications • This is where Kurtosis is applied .

Bearing defect due to mounting problem (Kurtosis) .

Enveloping .

Processing of Enveloping • • • Filters are used to help process the signal and focus on any impacts that may be occurring. The filters come in two classes: Envelope filter . Each manufacturer sets up its own signal processing and filters. although they each provide similar information. • • . Therefore.this type of filter sets a frequency 'envelope' that includes a high frequency (Fmax) and a low frequency (Fmin).this type of filter eliminates the Fmax but still sets an Fmin filter below which all vibration influences are filtered out. they are not directly comparable in the amplitude realm. Any vibration occurring outside that range is filtered out. Hi-Pass filter .

Like other aspects of vibration analysis. time domain. It is a powerful tool but must be used with care.Words of Warning • • The enveloping spectrum is extremely sensitive. Enveloping spectra should be used in conjunction with other analysis tools (velocity and acceleration spectra.) before performing any corrective actions. it can detect bearing defects before they have migrated to the surface of the bearing. For instance. your experience. etc. thermography. • • . It will pick up impact energy that is not necessarily a problem or is a very early stage problem. Pulling the bearing at that point will not reveal a defect and may cost you something more valuable than money credibility. experience will help greatly as it is acquired.

Spectral Analysis FREQUENCY FFT SPECTRUM AMPLITUDE FREQUENCY .

Unbalance Dominant peak .

Causes of Unbalance • Deposit & built-up of dirt • Corrosion & wear • Eccentricity .

Misalignment .

Symptoms of misalignment • Wearing of coupling inserts • Broken coupling bolts • Damage foundation • Excessive vibration .

Pulley Misalignment • Symptoms – Premature wearing of belts – Belts went out from sheave – Broken motor shaft .

Looseness • Looseness from bolts and nuts • Bearing casing or shafting • Foundations .

loose belt or over tension belts .Belt Problems • Worn-out. mismatch belts.

.Eccentric or bent shaft RADIAL 1X RPM ECCENTRIC PULLEY • 1 x rpm is dominant peak measured axial .

Sleeve bearing looseness • Presence of 1x rpm with harmonics .

42 . .48 x RPM.Oil Whirl • High Radial Vibration at 0.0.

primarily angular misalignment (axial vibration).Cocked Bearing / Shaft Bent Through Bearing • Cocked Bearing / Shaft Bent Through Bearing Creates similar or even identical vibration symptoms (with the exception of phase) to misalignment . . Must be diagnosed with axial phase analysis or inspected for.

High axial vibration @ 1x & 2x rpm. 2x rpm radial component often as high or higher than 1x component. • • • .Bent Shaft @ Bearing • Vibration symptoms very similar to direct drive angular misalignment. Axial phase shift around the face of the bearing equal to change in transducer location (twisting action).

Lubrication Problems • Acceleration Overall value is trended: • Causes: – Over lubrication – Insufficient lubrication – Contamination – High oil level – Wrong application of lubricant .

beating 2x with 120 Hz. • Correct distortion on motor bedplate • Eliminate excessive bearing clearance.Soft – foot or air gap problem • 120 Hz (7200 CPM) plus sidebands. • Imbalance voltage .

Resonance
• It is important to note that resonance does not cause vibration it amplifies it.

Cavitation
Cavitation symptoms: • • • • • High frequency, random vibration. Sounds like the pump is pumping gravel. Although amplitudes may or may not be high enough to affect bearing life significantly, cavitation causes excessive wear on the impeller and other internal components. May come and go from one collection to the next as load varies. First step should be to assess operational parameters - flow rates and pressure - that can also influence this vibration. Actual flow & pressure should be compared to the pump curve and design point of the pump. Insufficient flows and/or pressures lead to cavitation. Second step should be an inspection of the internal components for excessive wear with particular attention paid to the impeller vanes.

Recommended Actions:

Gears
• Normal Gear Drive Symptoms: • Amplitude peaks at 1, 2 and/or 3x GMF. • Low amplitude and few sidebands around 1, 2 and/or 3x GMF at 1x rpm of gear with problem

Gear Eccentric or bent shaft Eccentric Gear Or Gear On Bent Shaft Symptoms: • • Higher amplitudes at 1. if the problem is severe. High amplitude sidebands around 1. Inspect gears for proper backlash (similar symptoms) • Recommended Actions: • • . Inspect gears for wear patterns and check for proper mesh depth. 2 and/or 3x GMF at 1x rpm of gear with problem. 2 and/or 3x GMF. Higher amplitudes at 1x rpm of gear with problem and. running speed harmonics of that frequency.

2 and/or 3x GMF at 1x rpm of one or both of the gears. Sidebands at 1x rpm surrounding the resonant frequency. Amplitude peak at resonant frequency of the gear(s). High amplitude sidebands around 1.Gear Excessive Backlash Excessive Backlash Symptoms: • • Higher amplitudes at 1. • • Recommended Actions: • • . Inspect gears for proper backlash. Inspect gears for wear patterns and check for proper mesh depth. 2 and/or 3x GMF.

Recommended Actions: • • . High amplitude sidebands around 1. Sidebands at 1x rpm of the worn gear surrounding the resonant frequency. Inspect gears for proper backlash. Inspect gears for wear patterns and check for proper mesh depth (similar symptoms see previous page). 2 and/or 3x GMF.Gear Wear (Tooth Wear) Gear Wear Symptoms: • • • • Higher amplitudes at 1. 2 and/or 3x GMF at 1x rpm of the worn gear. Amplitude peak at resonant frequency of the gear(s).

Gear Load Gear Load Symptoms: • Higher amplitudes at 1. 2 and/or 3x GMF. Recommended Actions: • None unless there is an increase in sideband activity or the appearance of possible gear resonant frequencies .

High amplitude sidebands particularly around 2x GMF at 1x or even 2x rpm. Shaft running speed harmonics . Amplitude peaks at other GMF harmonics .Gear Misalignment Gear Misalignment Symptoms: • • • • Highest amplitudes at 2x GMF. Recommended Actions: • • .2x and even 3x rpm. etc.1x. Inspect gears for wear patterns misalignment causes uneven wear.shaft alignment. etc. 3x. soft foot. Check for external problems .

Sidebands of FHT around 1x GMF and harmonics. Sidebands of FHT around 1x rpm (of each shaft). Recommended Actions: • . Inspect gears for damage.Hunting Tooth Frequency Hunting Tooth Symptoms: • • • • Amplitude peaks at 1 x FHT and possibly 2 x FHT. Pulsing. growling noise coming from gearbox or drive.

Machine Condition Evaluation Amplitudes determines a machine condition .

25 0.80 2.12 1.Broad Band Vibration Criteria for Specific Machine ISO 10816-3 Velocity mm/s in/s Peak RMS 0.00 1.02 0.80 4.04 0.56 2.10 0.62 1.00 0.45 0.51 Velocity Range Limits and Machine Class Small Machines Class I Good Satisfactory Unsatisfactory (Alert) Unacceptable (Danger) Satisfactory Unsatisfactory (Alert) Unacceptable (Danger) Satisfactory Satisfactory Unsatisfactory (Alert) Unsatisfactory (Alert) Unacceptable Unacceptable (Danger) (Danger) Medium Machines Class II Less Rigid Rigid Support Support Class Class III IV Good Good Good .00 45.03 0.00 28.28 0.40 0.50 7.20 18.71 1.06 0.16 0.10 11.

.Broad Band Vibration Criteria for Specific Machine ISO 10816-3 • The pre set thresholds (alarm and danger) given by the standards are overall of velocity with the bandwidth from 10 to 1000 Hz (ISO 10816-1). • The rotational speed have to fit with the range from 600 to 12000rpm.

. recognition. and a better quality of life.Periodic Monitoring Cost effective monitoring means higher profits.

• There are vibration whose level is excellent but bearing failed. .Periodic Monitoring is important • There are vibrations whose level goes beyond the danger limit of ISO 10816 but still operational because bearings are still working.

Excellent Vibration with bearing defect .

– To predict when to conduct a corrective maintenance. . its best to monitor periodically – To determine the condition of machine if affected by the adjacent machine. place an order for spare parts.Periodic Monitoring is important • Hence. and – Monitor the condition of bearing when it will be replaced.

5000 1.04 .05 5 .5 0.6000 1.1000 4 0.2000 3.1000 5 0.6000 < 1.07 2 .5 0.06 4 .07 3 .2000 4 0.4000 2 0.5000 1.08 2 .3000 2.3000 3 0.13 Angular 0 .1 Error 1 .03 4 .1 Offset 1 .5 < 0.5 0.Alignment Tolerance Alignment Rotational Acceptable Tolerance Alignment Rotational Acceptable Tolerance Condition Speed mils mm Condition Speed mils mm Parallel 0 .4000 2 0.03 5 .5 0.04 3 .5 0.

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