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Submitted by: Arjyajyoti Goswami Shantilal Meena Rachna Chawla
Submitted to: Dr. Reeta Wattal
Department of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
WELDING OF TITANIUM & its ALLOYS
CHARACTERISTICS OF TITANIUM & its ALLOY
Silver colored material , which is 45% lighter than steel having almost same mechanical properties as steel Some alloys of Ti may have strength up to 925 to 1080 N/mm2 Ti alloys are difficult to machine having a pronounced tendency to get welded on the tool tip The higher melting point of Ti makes it relatively difficult to cast, so welding is a important process in utilization of Ti and its alloys. Due to its strong affinity towards O2 Ti forms a stable oxide layer on its surface even at room temperature
Ti alloys Classification
Classified on the basis of the microstructure, because mechanical properties depends on the phase ratios in the microstructure. 1. Commercially pure Ti : having 98 ± 99.5% Ti, strengthened by small amounts of O2. C,N,Fe may be present 2. Alpha and near alpha alloys : single-phase alloys containing up to 7% aluminium and a small amount (< 0.3%) of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon 3. Alpha-beta alloys : two-phase microstructure formed by the addition of up to 6% Aluminium and varying amounts of beta forming constituents - V, Cr and Mo 4. Beta alloys : contains a high percentage of elements, but are not truly single phase. phase stabilising
WELDING OF Ti & ITS ALLOYS
COMMERCIALLY PURE TITANIUM : Has moderate strength but good ductility. Main reason for using is high corrosion resistance, formability and weldability. Should use filler material with low iron content. They can be readily fusion welded All sources of iron contamination must be avoided. ALPHA ALLOYS : Has good strength, toughness and weldability. The alloys are fusion welded in the annealed condition. Has higher strength at elevated temperatures than commercially pure Ti, so residual stresses are high and suitable stress relieving must be done
NEAR ALPHA ALLOYS: Excellent creep strength at elevated temperatures. Good weldability but high residual stresses can be a problem Stress relieving is highly recommended. Iron contamination degrades creep strength so it should be avoided BETA ALLOYS: Weldable either in annealed condition or heat treated condition Weld joints have good ductility but relatively low strength Few commonly used grades are Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al , Ti-8Mo-8V-3Al2Fe
ALPHA-BETA ALLOYS: These have a characteristic two-phase microstructure formed by the addition of up to 6% Al varying amounts of beta forming constituents - vanadium, chromium and molybdenum. The alloys are readily welded in the annealed condition Welding of such alloys may significantly change their strength, ductility and toughness characteristics Ti-6Al-4V has the best weldability in this group Alpha-beta alloys having highly stabilized beta phase tends to crack when welded under highly stressed conditions
Rating is done on the basis of their ability to produce tough and ductile welds in them
COMMERCIALLY PURE GRADE ALPHA ALLOYS
Ti Ti-5Al-2.5Sn Ti-5AlTi-0.2Pd Ti-
A B A A B A B C D B
NEAR ALPHA ALLOYS
Ti-8Al-1-Mo-V Ti-8Al- MoTi-6Al-4Zr-2Mo-2Sn Ti-6Al-4Zr-2Mo-
ALPHA BETA ALLOYS
Ti-6Al-4V-ELI Ti-6Al-4VTi-6Al-4V Ti-6AlTi-7Al-4Mo Ti-7AlTi-8Mn Ti-
Ti-13 V- 11Cr-3Al Ti- V- 11Cr-
WELDING PROCESSES EMPLOYED:
GTAW, GMAW, PAW, RESISTANCE WELDING, FRICTION WELDING, EBW, LBW
STEPS INVOLVED IN ARC WELDING OF Ti AND ITS ALLOYS:
1. JOINT DESIGN 2. PRE CLEANING 3. SELECTION OF PRE HEAT AND INTER PASS TEMPERATURE 4. PROTECTION DURING WELDING 5. WELDING PROCESS SELECTION 6. PWHT
JOINT DESIGN: Same as that of steels. Performs the usual functions. A typical weld joint for Ti has 700 groove angle, 0.5 mm root face, up to 0.25 mm root opening for plate thickness of 3mm
PRE CLEANING: Cleaning must be done with a suitable inorganic solvent to avoid contamination. Light oxide coating may be removed by aqueous solution of HF acid or nitric acid. Scales formed at temperatures above 600°C should be removed by mechanical methods such as vapor blasting and grit blasting To control porosity often the edges of the joints are given special treatment like wire brushing
PRE HEAT AND INTERPASS TEMPERATURE: Should be less than 120°C otherwise surface oxidation may take place and the oxides will dissolve in the weld metal and cause brittleness. PROTECTION DURING JOINING: Ti is very sensitive to embrittlement, so any part which is being heated above 260°C must be shielded from atmospheric contamination, by the use of a high purity shielding gas
WELDING PROCESS SELECTION: 3 most commonly used processes. GTAWMaybe done in open atmosphere or in a chamber. DCEN is often used. Chamber welding yields better results. GMAWHas higher deposition rates than GTAW, but more susceptible to contamination since the temperature during metal transfer is higher. Ti filler material is used PAWWelding is done with a transferred arc using DCEN. Can be done by ³melt-in technique´ or ³keyhole technique´. The latter provides better joint penetration Has higher welding speeds and joint penetration
PWHT: Serves the usual purposes. The minimum temperature range is 540°C to 700°C for short time operations Selection of time and temperature depends on mechanical properties required, since grain size changes may take place during the PWHT. Before the PWHT all the contaminants must be removed to avid stress corrosion cracking.
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH WELDING OF Ti & ITS ALLOYS
POROSITY is the major problem associated with welding of Ti. It may be due to improper welding technique, improper surface preparation, improper shielding Amongst other sources, the sheared edges of the workpiece is a source of contamination. The precaution to be taken is ± remove all the burrs, and shear the metal only a few hours before welding CONTAMINATION CRACKING is caused due to presence of contaminants in the weld region To avoid it, welding of Ti should be done in a specially dedicated chamber
WEDLING OF Mg & ITS ALLOYS
Magnesium & Its Alloys
Magnesium is a silvery white metal and has the lowest density of the common structural materials. Very Light: 1738 kgm-3 Magnesium has a melting point of 650°C. 650° Modulus low: E = 44.7 GPa Crystal structure is fcc Alloying is for precipitation hardening and (wrought alloys) grain refinement. Excellent machining properties Alloys are weldable (inert gas)
Two main classes of alloys:
Impact strengths low High damping capacity (useful in machine casings) Corrosion resistance very poor. Can coat ± chromate, anodise, epoxy resin. alloyed with elements such as Al, Zn, Mn, Zr, etc. Alloying increases strength and corrosion resistance
± up to 1.25% Mn or 3.5% Mg for solid solution strengthening, ± up to 4.5% Cu, 7% Zn or (3% Mg + 1% Si) for precipitation hardening, ± up to 0.5% Cr for grain refinement, ± up to 17% Si, 7% Cu, 10% Mg for casting alloys
Al, Zn, Th ± Produce precipitation hardening very complex series of metastable precipitates, depending on alloy composition Th ± very stable precipitates, good for creep resistance Mn ± corrosion resistance (³ties up´ Fe and other impurities) Zr ±strong grain refinement, reacts with Al and Mn, Mg-Zr Mgalloys must be Al, Mn free.
Magnesium alloys possess
High strength to weight ratio Good fatigue strength. Good dimensional stability in service. Good damping capacity. High thermal conductivity. Relatively high electrical conductivity.
Welding Characteristics of Magnesium
Most magnesium alloys are readily weldable. Weld strengths above 90% are possible when the filler metal used The weldability of magnesium alloys may be affected by : 1. Oxidation. 2. Thermal expansion. 3. Susceptibility to hot cracking (hot shortness). 4. Grain growth and aging effects
Base Metal Surface Preparation
usually supplied with an oil coating, an acid pickled surface or a chromate coated surface Mechanical cleaning Chemical cleaning This cleaning solution is kept in a tank made up of ceramic or stainless steel The job is dipped in the bath, which is kept at 22 to 32°C, 32° for about 3 minutes Then is rinsed thoroughly in hot water and dried in air.
The various processes employed for welding magnesium alloys are 1. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG or GTAW) 2. Gas Metal Arc Welding (MIG or GMAW). 3. Resistance (Spot) Welding. 4. Gas Welding. 5. Forge welding. 6. Other processes (Pr Welding, Brazing, EB welding, TIG spot welding, Stud Welding).
GTAW for Mg Alloys
Most popular process for welding Mg alloys DC straight or reverse polarity and AC with superimposed are commonly used. Both manual and automatic methods are suitable. On materials over 4.5 mm thick, A.C. is preferred, because it provides deeper penetration DCRP is preferred since DCSP is difficult to handle manually and its arc lacks cleaning action
Welding technique for GTAW :
(i) (ii) (iii)
Arc length maintained should be about 0.8 mm Forehand welding is preferred Weaving should be used only for fillet welds or large corner joints Minimize the number of stops during welding. After a stop, the weld should be restarted on weld metal about 12 mm from the end of the previous weld To prevent weld cracking : - Make use of starting and run off plates (or tabs) to start and end the weld - Weld from middle of the job towards the ends
GMAW for Mg Alloys
welded using DCRP. Argon shielding is most satisfactory. yields welding speeds 2 to 4 times faster than TIG welding. Speeds range from 60 to 150 cm per minute and even higher. Increased welding speeds result in reduced distortion. Involves high metal deposition rates limited to flat, horizontal and vertical down welding positions. MIG welding are equal to TIG welds in strength and soundness. constant voltage power supply must be used with shortshortcircuiting type metal transfer
Resistance Welding for Mg Alloys
Either AC or DC used to join Mg alloys. Can be welded as spot, seam and flash welding. In Spot welding thicknesses up to about 4.5 mm Spot weld penetration in Mg should not be less than 20%, nor more than 80%, into each of the parts being joined To prevent corrosion, the spot welded joints should be wire brushed and chemically treated
Gas Welding for Mg Alloys
Gas welding is generally restricted to pure Mg and to MnMn-Mg alloys, and limited to groove welds OxyOxy-acetylene, oxy-hydrogen and oxy-carbon hydrogen oxyoxygases may be employed. OxyOxy-acetylene is preferred for welding heavier gauges. The filler rod should be either of the same composition as the BM or have a lower melting point than BM Flux ( KCl, NaCl ) applications to both sides of the groove and on to the rod are important
Forge Welding for Mg Alloys
Developed to join high strength Mg alloys. Joint efficiencies as high as 95-100% (Mg-Al-Zn) 95(Mg-AlUpset pressures of 35 tonnes with a total upset of 50 mm are used to weld 19 mm diameter rod. Heating and welding times of less than 30 seconds at temperatures between 280 to 316°C are used for Mg-3% 316° MgAl-l % Zn alloy. Al-
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH WELDING OF Mg AND ITS ALLOYS
SOLIDIFICATION CRACKING: Solidification cracking or hot cracking, consists of fractures at the weld metal boundaries in the solidification process, during which the liquid phase of the mushy melt becomes rich in impurities, mainly S and P This tendency is augmented by addition of Zn and Ca to Mg and its alloys Al, Mn and Zr have little or no effect on this tendency while Thorium inhibits solidification cracking The most high strength high alloying types of Mg alloys are the most prone to such cracking
STRESS CORROSION CRACKING: Al bearing Mg alloys are susceptible to such type of cracking. To avoid this, the weld must be heat treated to 250°C to relieve the stresses. Zr and Th inhibits this type of cracking tendency
During joining of Mg foils, through arc welding or resistance welding, there is a risk of catching fire. So precautions must be taken to avoid any fatalities
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