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Definition Importance , uses, How it is conducted? Methods of job analysis Job description & specification ( Ref: HRM-Mathis & Jackson, HRM-Snell & Bohlander)
The Nature of Job Analysis
A systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content, context, and the human requirements of jobs.
Work activities and behaviors Interactions with others Performance standards Machines and equipment used Working conditions Supervision given and received Knowledge, skills, and abilities needed
Purpose & definition
Job analysis is the fundamental process that forms the basis of all human resource activities . It is the systematic process of gathering , documenting & analyzing data about the work required for the job.
and so on² another product of a job analysis. working conditions.´ that is. personality. . and supervisory responsibilities²one product of a job analysis. skills. Job specifications A list of a job¶s ³human requirements. reporting relationships.The Nature of Job Analysis Job analysis The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. Job description A list of a job¶s duties. responsibilities. the requisite education.
2 critical functions Decision made with respect to HR function is fair & accurate Helps defensibility of decisions made to the employee .
unfair discrimination 2. Comparable worth .Significance of job analysis Scientific management Hr relation In the modern times the worker & employer take interest in in this area because of 2 concern 1.
Uses of Job Analysis Information .
Stages in the Job Analysis Process Figure 6±7 .
Job Analysis in Perspective Figure 6±5 .
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview Interview: Information sources Individual employees Groups of employees Supervisors with knowledge of the job Observation: the job analysts may walk about the workplace & observe the tasks which is being done by the employees Dairies Technical conference questionnaires .
Though qualitative information is got . job analysts supervisors or cameras at the work place. One reason for the lack of research is the nature of the data. translating it into quantitative terms is difficult .Possible agents to do the collection are professional job incumbents . area of job analysis has not been studied in detail . In spite of its importance & availability of data .
Job Analysis Methods Job Analysis Methods Observation Interviewing Questionnaires Technical conference Functional job analysis PAQ Critical incidence Job elements .
Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques Functional job analysis (FJA)± Sidney A. Fine Critical incidence technique (CIT)± Flagan Job elements ± Ernest Primoff Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)± Mc Cormick .
Functional job analysis Job is defined in terms of the interaction between 3 factors Task Individual performing the task Environment .
training manuals. workers interview& direct observation These analysis study job in 5 components . These professionals use employee materials .Dev by Sidney A Fine during 1950¶s Helps set performance standards & training requirements FJA relies on trained professionals for its data .
in this stage of JA jobs are reviewed along 7 dimension . & objectives of a specific job need to be identified It must identify the task necessary to perform the job Analysts determine the abilities necessary to perform the job successfully.Purpose. goals .
Language (reading .1. data (workers involvement with information & ideas) 2. Reasoning (use of concepts & decision-making) 6. Things (machines & tools needed) 4. speaking) . writing . Amount of autonomy in the tasks) 5. Mathematics 7. People (communication & interaction ) 3.
the analysis developed 7 task statements for successful operation of a piece of heavy equipment . After clarifying the contents & goals of the job .approach to study the work of Heavy Equipment operators. work sample test Individuals who score high is interpreted to be high skilled Ex: Olson et al (1981)utilized FJA . I) inspect the equipment Ii) service the equipment iii)starts the equipment iv)operate the equipment ± basic . low difficult output v)operate the equipment± moderate difficult output vi)operate the equipment ± difficult output From this standard performance is dev .
Excavate pier hole Grader (2.Finish the slope. finish grade to a flat structure . build ramp Backhoe(2hrs) Excavate external wall trench.contract V ±ditch to grade . Push the load scraper .5 hrs) Build road. run fill . Expose buried pipe. Cut &fill. cut rough ditches .Output Tested for each equipment Bulldozer(3hrs) Excavate for foundation . backfill.
Critical Incidence Technique In contrast to FJA where the experts make judgments about content of the job . Now describe one incident that reflect why his person is the best (worst) . Ex: Amodt & his associate 1981 (study desirable & undesirable performance on the job of the dormitory resident assistant Question :think of the best (worst ) resident assistant that you have ever known . CIT utilize certain incidence on the job which lead to the setting of the task for a job.
3 judges sorted out 312 incidents collected into following categories: Availability. social skills. self control Good RA ± fair in discipline. concerned abt residents. self control . interest in residents . discipline. fairness. self confidence. self confident .
The objective: to identify critical job tasks . Critical jobs task are those important duties & responsibilities performed by the job holder that lead to job success .
3. interest & personal characteristics. THE SME¶s (supervisors & job incumbents participate in a brainstorming session in which they identify as many elements of a particular job The identified elements are then rated on each of the 4 factors : Barely acceptable Superior Inferior Practical 1. 2. . 4.Job element approach To know the KSA¶s as well as willingness.
Information input (from where to get information) Mental process Work output (physical activities) Relationship with others Job context Other characteristics . Cormick .Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) Dev by Mac. A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs. 6 broad dimensions .
classified. O*NET? .Dictionary of occupational title (DOT) A standardized method by which different jobs can be quantitatively rated. and compared.The Department of Labor (DOL) procedure--.
Job description & specification A written description abt the job &the duties involved No std format 3 parts: the job title Job identification section Job duties section .
the person to whom job holder reports. no of ees in the dept were job is located. O*NET code numbers etc. the date job description was last revised.Job title is important for 3 reason Psychological aspect Provide some indication about what the duties of the job is? Indicate the relative level occupied by the job holder in the org hierarchy Job identification section : include item such as departmental location of the job. a statement of the job appears at the end of this section which distinguish it from the other jobs . Code numbers.
talking. standing. experience Physical demands²how much walking. medical fitness .Job duties section Job duties are arranged in the order of important Job specification section: personal qualification an individual must possess in order to perform the duties & responsibilities Skills required to perform± education . lifting etc must be done on the job. audibility. Eye sight .
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