RETAINING WALLS

THE BASIC FUNCTION OF A RETAINING WALL IS TO RETAIN SOIL AT A SLOPE WHICH IS GREATER THAN IT WOULD NORMALLY ASSUME THE NATURAL SLOPE TAKEN UP BY ANY SOIL IS CALLED ITS ANGLE OF REPOSE AND IS MEASURED IN RELATION SHIP TO THE HORIZONTAL

IT IS THE WEDGE OF SOIL RESTING ON THIS UPPER PLANE OF THE ANGLE OF REPOSE WHICH A RETAINING WALL HAS TO SUPPORT

THE DESIGN OF RETAINING WALL IS BASICALLY CONCERNED WITH THE LATERAL PRESSURES OF THE RETAINED SOIL AND ANY SUBSOIL WATER GREATER THE ANGLE OF REPOSE OF A MATERIAL, THE LESS IS THE PRESSURE EXERTED

INCREASED PRESSURES MUST BE ALLOWED FOR WHEN THERE IS A SURCHARGE OR WHEN THERE ARE BUILDINGS OR TRAFFIC CARRYING ROADS NEAR THE TOP OF THE WALL .

MATERIAL USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE WALL .HEIGHT OF WATER TABLE 3.SUBSOIL WATER MOVEMENTS 4.NATURE & TYPE OF SOIL 2.TYPE OF WALL 5.FACTORS AND CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF RETAINING WALLS COULD BE 1.

TYPES OF WALLS COULD BE 1.CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL 3.COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALL 4.MASS RETAINING WALL 2.PRECAST CONCRETE CRIB RETAINING WALL .PRECAST CONCRETE RETAINING WALL 5.

RETAINING WALL TERMINOLOGY .

Backfill Backfill Gravity RW T-Shaped RW L-Shaped RW Backfill Counterfort Buttress Counterfort RW Buttress RW .

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Cantilever Retaining wall with shear key Batter Drainage Hole Toe .

They are a blend of the gravity wall and the cantilever wall designs Cantilever Retaining Walls Cantilever retaining walls are constructed of reinforced concrete. They are generally economical up to 10 feet in height for cast concrete structures. The toe is the other part of the base . Usually are sufficiently massive to be unreinforced. These have some tension reinforcing steel included so as to minimize the thickness of the wall without requiring extensive reinforcement. The heel is the part of the base under the backfill. Semi-Gravity Retaining Walls A specialized form of gravity walls is a semi-gravity retaining wall. the heel and toe. They consist of a relatively thin stem and a base slab. Monolithic cast walls are generally formed on site.Gravity Poured Concrete Retaining Walls Gravity retaining walls depend on their own weight and any soil resting on the concrete in resisting lateral earth forces. The base is also divided into two parts.

Counterfort retaining walls are more economical than cantilever walls for heights above 25 ft. These webs are known as counterforts. Can be precast in a factory or formed on site. Generally economical up to about 25 ft. . in height. Counterfort Retaining Walls Counterfort retaining walls are similar to cantilever walls except they have thin vertical concrete webs at regular intervals along the backside of the wall. Can be precast or formed on site. Counterfort retaining walls: The counterforts tie the slab and base together. but require more design and careful construction. A secondary effect is to increase the weight of the wall from the added concrete.Use much less concrete than monolithic gravity walls. and the purpose of them is to reduce the shear forces and bending moments imposed on the wall by the soil.

Keys are almost always formed in the base to give the stem added sliding resistance. .25 inches wide and about ½ to ¾ inch deep. These joints may be filled with flexible joint fillers.Provisions for Joints in the Construction of Walls Cast concrete retaining walls may be constructed with any or all of the following joints: Construction Joints: These are vertical or horizontal joints that are used between two successive pours of concrete. The base is formed first. and are provided at intervals of not exceeding 30 feet. Expansion joints should be located at intervals up to 90 feet. Contraction joints are usually about 0. Keys are used to increase the shear resistance at the joint. Expansion Joints: Vertical expansion joints are incorporated into the wall to account for expansion due to temperature changes. and the stem constructed afterwards Contraction Joints: These are vertical joints or grooves formed or cut into the wall that allows the concrete to shrink without noticeable harm. the surface of the first pour is cleaned and roughened before the next placement of concrete. Greased steel dowels are often cast horizontally into the wall to tie adjacent sections together. If keys are not used.

Weep holes actually penetrate the retaining wall and drain the area immediately behind the wall. Adequate spacing between weep holes allows uniform drainage from behind the wall. 4 inch weep holes are common. is the necessity to drain the backfill of rainwater and/or groundwater. or at least damage. Drainage systems usually utilize weep holes and drainage lines. Granular backfill material offers the benefits of good drainage. Drainage of water as a result of rainfall or other wet conditions is very important to the stability of a retaining wall. which has the dual impact of increasing the pressure on the wall and lessening the resistance of the backfill material to sliding. Weep holes should have a minimum diameter so as to permit free drainage. Without proper drainage the backfill can become saturated. . and loss of backfill and caving.Backfill Drainage of Retaining Walls One area that can be commonly overlooked. Drainage lines are often perforated and wrapped in geo textile or buried in a granular filter bed. Weep holes should always have some kind of filter material between the wall and the backfill to prevent fines migration. or at least underestimated. and serve to carry water to the weep holes from areas deeper within the backfill. Hydrostatic pressure can cause or induce retaining wall failure. and increased sliding resistance. weep hole clogging. easy compaction. for large walls.

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FORCES ACTING ON A RETAINING WALL THE DESIGNER IS MAINLY CONCERNED WITH THE EFFECT OF TWO FORMS OF EARTH PRESSURE.ACTIVE & PASSIVE .

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STABILITY OF RETAINING WALLS THE OVERALL STABILITY OF A RETAINING WALL IS GOVERNED BY THE ACTION AND REACTION OF A NUMBER OF LOADS .

ACTIVE PRESSURE IS EXERTED BY THE RETAINED MATERIAL & WATER PRESSURE ON THE BACK OF THE WALL PASSIVE PRESSURES ARE THE INDUCED LOADS AT THE TOE AND THE FRICTION BETWEEN THE UNDERSIDE OF THE BASE AND THE SOIL GROUND WATER BEHIND A RETAINING WALL CAN HAVE ADVERSE EFFECTS UPON THE DESIGN AND STABILITY OF THE RETAINING WALL .

FAILURE DUE TO SLIDING 3.FAILURE DUE TO BENDING THE RESULTANT THRUST ON THE SOIL SHOULD BE IN THE MIDDLE THIRD OF THE BASE .FAILURE DUE TO OVERTURNING 2.THE DESIGN OF RETAINING WALL MUST ENSURE THERE IS NO 1.

MASS RETAINING WALL .

RCC CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL .

COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALL .

COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALL .

-M +M COUNTERFORT STEM -M HEEL SLAB TOE +M .

PRECAST CONCRETE RETAINING WALL .

PRE CAST CONCRETE CRIB RETAINING WALL .

BASEMENT WALLS .

REVETMENTS GABIONS RIP RAP .

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Active System with the mesh anchored on the rock facing. Passive System with simple drapery system. .

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