Class Management & Discipline

Participantes: Barreto, Penélope Capote, Hodra Salazar, Mayrelis

y Class Management: the art of carefully preparing, presenting, disciplining

and controlling activities.

y Discipline: is about teaching people appropriate behaviour and helping

then become stronger or more in control of his or her emotions and being independent and responsible.

Discipline problems are listed as the major concern for most new teachers. What can teachers expect and how can they effectively handle discipline problems? Classroom management combined with an effective discipline plan is the key. Trainee teachers sometimes ask what do you do if...? questions, and are then disappointed when teachers or tutors reply ³It depends on the circumstances´. Teaching would be a much easier occupation if all events within certain categories were identical. But, they are not.

Rules .

y Don¶t talk where someone is answering a question.y Movement: y Walk quickly y No running y Ask first if you want to go to the toilet. y Work ± Related: y Working quiet even if the teacher is out of the room. . y Don¶t just warder around the room unless you¶re getting somewhere. or if permitted they must be switched off during the lesson. y Talking: y Don¶t talk when I¶m talking to you. y No mobile phones. y No shouting out.

y Taking care with (.y Presentation: y Knowing how to set out work and when to hand it in.. . pushing and shoving..) y Safety: y No swinging on chair. y Materials: y Keeps the library books y No writing in desks or book covers. y No playing on slippery bents in wet weather.

y Be willing to share things and cooperate. y Wear uniform properly y All clothing to be labelled. studs and rings only as approved. y Don¶t take the property of classmates without permission. y Show good manners. jewellery.y Social Behaviour: y Show consideration for others. . y Clothing / Appearance: y Clothing to be neat and clean. y Hairstyles.

They differ in the degree of control exercised by the teacher and the emphasis on task. All establish clear rules and expectations. . and all are positive and practical.Approaches to Classroom Management The next seven approaches are presented to establish and maintaining good discipline. all include recommendations for preventive measures.

The idea is for the teacher to respond to a student¶s misbehaviour quickly and appropriately. . Students ho disobey rules receive ³one warning and then are subjected to a series of increasingly more serious sanctions´.Assertive Approach The Assertive Approach to classroom management expects teacher to specify rules of behaviour and consequences for disobeying them and to communicate these rules and consequences clearly.

y Take positions. eliminate negative expectations about students. y Indicate consequences of behaviour and why specific action is necessary. and touches to supplement verbal messages. y Follow through regularly.The Canters make the following suggestions for teachers applying assertive discipline: y Clearly identify the expectations. gestures. y Establish positive expectations for student behaviour. y Use eye contact. enforce minimum rules. y Say no without guilt feelings. ³I like that´ or ³I don¶t like that´. y Give and receive compliments genuinely y Set limits on students and enforce them. y Persist. y Gain confidence and skills in working with chronic behaviour problems in the classroom . (Say.) y Use firm tone of voice. don¶t give up.

focusing on the business and orderly accomplishment of academic work ± leads to a clear set of procedures for students and teachers to follow. standards to be met. y Instruction for assignments y Standards for form. developed by Evertson and Emmer. and due dates y Procedures for absent students . Evertson and Emmer divide organizing and managing student work into three mayor categories: Clear communication of assignment and work requirements. and procedures.Business Management Approach The business academic approach. The teacher must establish and explain clearly to students work assignments. neatness. Task orientation ± that is. features of the work. emphasizes the organization and management of students as they engage in academic work.

keeps them on task.Monitoring students work. y Attention to problems y Attention to Good Work The general approach and methods used by Evertson and Emmer are appropriate for both elementary and secondary teachers. y Monitoring group work y Monitoring individual work y Monitoring completion of work y Maintaining records of students work Feedback to Students. and other work should be checked promptly. The idea is that when students are working on their tasks. completed assignments. The business academic involves a high degree of ³time on task´ and ³academic engaged time´ for students. homework. and specific feedback is important for enhancing academic monitoring and managerial procedures. immediate. Monitoring student work helps the teacher to detect students who are having difficulty and to encourage students to keep working. Work in progress. . gives feedback. The teacher organizes students¶ work. Frequent. there is little opportunity for discipline problems to arise. tests. and holds them accountable by providing rewards and penalties. monitors their work.

he basic principles of the behavioural modification approach are as follow: y Behaviour is shaped by its consequences.Behaviour odifi atio A roach Behavi ral ifi ati i r ted i the lassi r f James atson and the more recent or of B. Positi e reinforces are praise or rewards. . y Behaviour is strengthened by immediate reinforcements. inner. Behaviourists assume that ehaviour is shaped environment and pay little attention to causes of problems. hey strive to increase the occurrence of appropriate behaviour through a system of reward and reduce the li elihood of inappropriate behaviour through punishments. Negati e reinforcements take away or stop something that the student doesn¶t like. not by its causes of problems in the history of the individual or by group conditions. eachers using this behaviour modification approach spend little time on the personal history of students or on searching for the reasons for a particular problem. . y Behaviour is strengthened by systematic reinforcement (positive or negative). Behaviour is weakened if not followed by reinforcement.

but sparingly. in the new learning or conditioning situations. . y Once the behaviour has been learned. inappropriate or maladaptive behaviour may become increasingly dominant and will utilized to obtain reinforcement. y Constant reinforcement ± the reinforcement of a behaviour every time it occurs ± produces the best results.y Students respond better to positive reinforcement than they do to punishment (aversive stimuli). especially. Punishment can be used to reduce inappropriate behaviour. y When a student is not rewarded for appropriate or adaptive behaviour. it is the best maintained through intermittent reinforcement ± the reinforcement of a behaviour only occasionally.

gold stars. Students who follow rules are praised and rewarded in various ways. y Rules are established and enforced. such as verbal comments (³Right´. ³That¶s good´). such as written words of encouragement. Students who break rules are either ignored. and checks. facial expressions. such as being a monitor near the teacher for young students and working with a friend or on a special project for older students. each of which may be positive or aversive.y There are several types of reinforcers. and (d) activity reinforcers. and gestures. (b) graphic reinforcers. or punished immediately. (c) tangible reinforcements. ³Correct´. such as cookies and badges for young students and certificates and notes to parents for older students. . Examples of positive reinforcers are: (a) social reinforcers. reminded about appropriate behaviour.

Te successful teacher monitors student work in a systematic fashion. it remains an isolated incident and does not develop into a problem. is ignored. but the teacher stops the misbehaviour immediately. The successful teacher has a another. If the misbehaviour is not noticed. and exhibits with-it-nees and overlapping abilities. so that student attention is turned easily from one activity to another. Students are expected to work and behave. clearly defines acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Similarly. If a student misbehaves. He emphasizes the importance of responding immediately to group student behaviour that might be inappropriate or undesirable in order to prevent problems rather than having to deal with problems after they emerge. lessons are well paced.Gr p Managerial ppr ach The group managerial approach to discipline is based on acob Kounin¶s research. Kounin believes that students engagement in lesson and activities is the key to successful classroom management. or is allowed to continue for too long. He describes what he calls the ³ripple effect´. it often spreads throughout the group and becomes more serious and chronic. .

or aggressive rejection of the entire group on the part of students. Redl holds that disciplinary problems have three causes: In ivi ual case hist ry: the problem is related to the psychological disturbance of one child. . Mixture f in ivi ual an gr up causes: The problem centers around an individual.Gr p Gui ance ppr ach It is based on manipulating or ³changing´ the surface behavior of students as individuals and groups. The main representative of this approach is Fritz Redl. frustration and irritability. and it leads to withdrawal. but is triggered by something in the group. Gr up c n iti ns: the problem reflects unfavorable conditions in the group. Boredom is one of the major causes of disciplinary problems.

When group members act together to defy and resist the teacher¶s efforts. the teacher may react by trying to match force with force. . Poor interpersonal relations. yelling or making idle threats. Group elements to be considered include the following: Dissatisfaction with classroom work. the teacher must understand the group ± its needs and interest ± and be able to manipulate the surface behavior of the group. Perhaps one of the most difficult managerial tasks for the teacher is dealing with a hostile or aggressive group. giving assignments that lack challenge. variety. In some cases the teacher¶s behavior is the source of the problem ± being inconsistent in enforcing rules. Disturbances in group climate Poor group organization Sudden changes and group emotions. displaying frequent outbursts of emotion. or interest.To maintain good discipline.

the goal of their behavior may become withdrawal from the social situation. they will turn to mistaken goals that result in antisocial behavior. contradicting. e maintains that acceptance by peers and teachers is the prerequisite foe appropriate behavior and achievement in school. but at the same time allows students to participate in decisions and to make choices. P wer eekin : their defiance is expresses in arguing. Reven e eekin : their mistaken goal is to hurt others to make up for being hurt or feeling rejected and loved. his approach is rooted in humanistic psychology and maintains that every person has a prime need for acceptance. he main representative of this approach is Rudolph Dreikurs. behavior and achievement improve. eople try all kinds of behavior to get status and recognition. Dreikurs identifies 4 mistaken goals: Attenti n ettin : they want other students or the teacher to pay attention to them. . rather that confrontation. teasing.Acceptance Appr ach It is based on the assumption that when students are given such acceptance by the teacher and peers. temper tantrums. Withdrawal: if students feel helpless and rejected. It is also based on the democratic model of teaching in which the teacher provides leadership by establishing rules and consequences. and low level hostile behavior. If they are not successful in receiving recognition through socially acceptable methods.

not be perfect. Be optimistic. Exhibit faith in student¶s abilities. supporting. Encourage effort. Teach students to learn from mistakes. avoid negative statements. To encourage students Be positive.Dreikurs suggests several strategies for working with students who exhibit mistaken goals to encourage then and to enforce consequences. enthusiastic. results are secondary if students try. . Encourage students to improve.

his approach is rooted in humanistic psychology and the democratic model of teaching. ood behavior results from good choices.Success Approach It is based on the teacher¶s helping students make proper choices by experiencing success. lasser¶s view about discipline is simple but powerful. eachers use this approach in elementary and junior high schools more than in high schools. e insists that although teachers should not excuse bad behavior on the part of the student. he most representative of this approach is illiam lasser. . bad behavior results from bad choices. teacher¶s job is to help students make good choices. Behavior is a matter of choice. they need to change whatever negatives classroom conditions exist and improve conditions so they lead to student success.

Glasser makes the following suggestions to teachers: Stress students¶ responsibility for their own behavior continually y Establish rules y Accept no excuses y Utilize value judgments y Suggest suitable alternatives y Enforce reasonable consequences y Be persistent y Continually review. and they must get students involved in making rules making commitments to the rules. . and enforcing them. Glasser makes the point that teachers must be supportive and meet with students who are beginning to exhibit difficulties.

Guidelines for Using unishment y Learn what type of punishment school authorities allow. y Be sure the punishment fits the misbehavior. It should also be in line with school policy. Punishment should fit the situation and take into consideration the developmental stage of the student. y Don¶t assign extra homework as punishment y Don¶t punish when you are at a loss for what else to do or in an emotional state. . y Give the student the benefit of doubt.Punishment Punishment is sometimes necessary to enforce rules and regulations.

y Your Teaching Skills. y Know Your School y The Philosophy of the School. .Guidelines for Class Management y Know Yourself y Your Language Ability . y General Knowledge of an English Speaking Country. geography). Things that you are good at. y Your Attitude to Discipline. y Your Talents. y Others teachers¶ attitudes. y You Specialist Knowledge (literature. history.

y Balancing fluency and accuracy. y Ensuring that English is spoken. y Involving all the students. y Using appropriate language. y Giving encouragement.y Know you Students y Names y Backgrounds y Interests y Previous Experiences of Learning English y Attitudes to English y An Encouraging Class Atmosphere y Giving a sense of purpose suggestion. .

y What to bring to class. y Be Prepared y A scheme of work. y Lesson plans.y The classroom itself y Physical conditions of the classroom. y . where notes are made y Changes or activity y Pair work and group work. y Lesson routing y General classroom lesson started Getting the lesson started. hands up. y Timing.

y Using audio visual aids. . y The black / white board. y The overhead projector y The audio cassette / tape recorder y The slide projector / the video recorder.

Last Thought : ³Being an effective Class Manager is not a talent hich some people just have and others do not ± it is a set of s ills and an attitude learned throught patience and practice´ .


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