What is Nutrition?
l The

entire process by which organism obtain energy from food for growth, maintenance and repair of damaged tissues l Nutrient – the substances that are required for the nourishment of an organism

6.1 Type of Nutrition
 

main types: 1. Autotrophic 2. Heterotrophic

trophos – feed (organism which can make their own food) l The source of energy for synthesising food can be either light energy or chemical energy. .1. Autotrophic lA process in which organisms synthesise organic substances from inorganic substances l Autotroph = Auto – self.

l The synthesis of food using light energy – photosynthesis (photo – light) l Photoautotroph – organisms which produce organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water using sunlight as a source of energy l Example: green plants .

and Nitrobacter sp.l The synthesis of food using chemical energy – chemosynthesis (chemo – chemical) l Chemoautotroph – organisms which synthesise organic compound by oxidising inorganic compound (hydrogen sulphide and ammonia) l Example: certain bacteria (Nitrosomonas sp.) .

2. trophos – feed (organism that cannot synthesis their own nutrients but obtain the nutrients from other organisms) . Heterotrophic lA type of nutrition in which organism obtain energy through the intake and digestion of organic substances. l Heterotroph =Hetero – other.

b) Saprophytism c) Parasitism .lThey    may practice a) Holozioc nutrition.

herbivores. zoon – animal .a) Holozoic nutrition         .holo –like.The organism feeds by ingesting solid organic matter which is subsequently digested and absorbed into their bodies .Examples: humans. carnivores and some carnivorous pitcher plants and Venus fly-traps .

The organism called saprophytes .b) Saprophytism        .Examples: bacteria.Feed on dead and decaying organic matter . fungi .Digest their food externally before absorbing the nutrients into their bodies .

worms (endoparasites).Obtain nutrient from living on (ectoparasites) or in (endoparasites) the body of another living organism (host) .They absorbs readily digested food from its host .c) Parasitism           . lice.The organism called parasite .Examples: fleas (ectoparasites). Rafflesia plant .

.  A: Autotrophic nutrition – A process in which organisms synthesise organic substances from inorganic substances  Heterotrophic nutrition .Differentiate between autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition.A type of nutrition in which organism obtain energy through the intake and digestion of organic substances.Test Yourself 1.

 A: Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis .Test Yourself 2.Name two types of autotrophic nutrition.

saprophytism and parasitism .Test Yourself 3.  A: Holozoic nutrition.Name three types of heterotrophic nutrition.

 a) Pitcher plants  A: holozoic nutrition  b) Green algae  A: photosynthesis  d) Tapeworm  A: parasitism .Name the nutritional habits of the following organisms.Test Yourself 4.

Diet fats-sweets group dairy products group protein-rich group vegetables group fruits group grain products group .

seeds. red meat.Diet Food Group Foods in the Group Products made with whole grains or enriched flour. Rich in proteins. Grain products Fruits and vegetables Protein-rich food Dairy products Fats-sweets food Dark green vegetables Most carbohydrates and fibre. spinach) and deep Various vitamins and minerals yellow vegetables (carrots). Vitamin B. oil. Vitamin B and Poultry. eggs. pastries. coffee and cooking nutrient value. (broccoli. Vitamins A. Milk and Legumes. Main source of calcium. fish. B and B2. Candy. Low in dressing. nuts and Protein. salad Supplies fats and sugar. organ meat such as kidneys minerals such as magnesium and and liver. Nutrients Mostly carbohydrates and fibres. as yoghurt and cheese.milk products such zinc. . iron and protein.

A balanced diet must contain enough: § Protein to provide all the essential amino acids for growth and repair for the body § Energy-food to meet the energy requirements of the individual § Minerals and vitamins to maintain good health § Roughage or dietary fibre to stimulate peristalsis § Water to aid the chemical reactions in the body  .Balanced Diet  Diet A balanced diet is a diet which supplies all the essential nutrients in the correct proportions.

l Basal metabolic rate varies with sex. Diet .l Basal metabolic rate and physical activity determine energy needs. age and state of health of a person.

climate Factors affecting the daily energy  requirement of the Human body 2. ~it is estimated that people with a larger build would have a higher basal metabolic rate than another person with a smaller build. ~this is due to the body needing more energy to regulate its body temperature.less humid countries would result in a tendency to actually lose more energy to a person’s surrounding.increased energy is also needed. ~growing children usually have higher basal metabolism rates than older people simply because of the fact they are growing.1.wet areas do not use as much energy to maintain their body temperature. ~those living in hot.body size ~living in colder. 3. basal metabolism. ~adults tend to have a decresing basal metabolic rate throughout their lives. ~for growth to take place.age . ~people living in cold temperature regions would actually have a much higher basal body size also than people to a person’s ~the difference inmetabolic rate contributes living in the tropics.

gender ~men normally have higher heat production than woman of the same size and age.4.because men usually have less fatty tissue in their body. ~fat healps to conserve heat. with less fat would lose heat a a quicker rate than women.and thus. ~an underactive thyroid gland would result in insufficient number of the hormone being created.occupation many of these is very active and does heavy labour is ~a person who hormones. ~an overactive thyroid. only moderately . 5.thereby causing a lower metabolic rate in the ~the function of the thyroid galand is to control the metabolic rate by secreting a hormone known as thyroxin.however. ~the result in men having a higher basal metabolic rate than women.may produced too 6.thereby speeding up the metabolic rate.

l the same amount of these foods store different amount of energy. l . l this is known as its energy value. l the amount of heat released from the burning of a fixed mass of food is equal to the amount of stored energy in the food. l the amount of stored energy in food is found by burning a known mass of the food to heat a certain amount of water in a food calorimeter.Energy value in food samples carbohydrates . fats and protein are our main supplier of energy.

Malnutrition • Kwashiorkor • Marasmus • Cardiovascular diseases • Rickets .

.KWASHIORKOR  Do you know what Kwashiorkor is??? Kwashiorkor is a form of malnutrition caused by inadequate protein intake in the presence of fair to good energy (total calories) intake.

thin.KWASHIORKOR What are the symptoms? •Failure to gain weight and failure of linear growth •Irritability •Lethargy or apathy •Decreased muscle mass •Swelling (edema) •Large belly that stick out (protrudes) •Diarrhea •Dermatitis •Hair changes -. or brittle •increased and more severe infections due to damaged immune system •Shock (late stage) •Coma (late stage) .hair colour may change. often lightening or becoming reddish.


Marasmus occurrence increases prior to age 1 whereas Kwashiorkor occurrence increases after 18 months. .Marasmus Marasmus is… a form of severe protein-energy malnutrition characterised by energy deficiency A child with marasmus looks emaciated and the body weight may reduce to less than 80% of the normal weight for that height.

l .Symptoms?? l dry skin. axillae. loose skin folds hanging over the glutei. etc l Drastic loss of adipose tissue from normal areas of fat deposits like buttocks and thighs l pigmented and depigmented hair l flaky paint appearance of skin due to peeling.


Cardiovascular Diseases What Are They?? A collection of diseases and conditions affecting : •The heart (cardio) •Blood vessels (vascular) – arteries. veins. and capillaries .

l l High blood pressure – the excessive force of blood pumping through the blood .Cardiovascular Diseases l Coronary Artery Disease – a disease of the arteries that supply the heart muscles with blood attack – a sudden heart failure l l Heart l l Stroke – the sudden death of brain cells when blood supply to the blood cells is cut off.

but lack of adequate calcium in the diet may also lead to rickets. . Rickets is among the most frequent childhood diseases in many developing countries.Rickets  Apa itu Rickets ( What is Rickets ) ? Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. The predominant cause is a vitamin D deficiency.

Craniotabes (soft skull) . and Tetany (uncontrolled muscle spasms all over the body). Skeletal deformity Growth disturbance Hypocalcaemia (low level of calcium in the blood).Symptoms of l l l Rickets l l l l l l Bone pain or tenderness dental problems muscle weakness ( rickety myopathy or "floppy baby syndrome") increased tendency for fractures (easily broken bones).






The Digestiv e System .


. •Most of its length is coiled in the abdominal cavity.Which body in parts of the are involved digestion? The Digestive System •Consists of the alimentary canal and the glands and organs associated with it. •The alimentary canal is like a tube that extends from the mouth to the anus.

Which body in parts of the are involved digestion? The Digestive System salivary gland pharynx mouth teeth oesophagus liver Gall bladder duodenum ileum ascending colon caecum appendix stomach pancreas pyloric sphincter descending colon rectum anus .

The Digestive System Mouth Food enters the body through the mouth. l The mouth leads to the buccal cavity. l .

l Salivary glands: secrete teeth saliva into the mouth via ducts. l Tongue: helps to mix food with saliva. Taste buds help one to identify and select suitable foods.The Digestive System Mouth  Teeth: chewing action (mastication) breaks down mouth large pieces of food into smaller pieces. This increases surface area to volume ratio of the food for enzyme action. Process of nutrition?? l What do you find in the mouth?: salivary gland .

The Digestive System Pharynx Connects the buccal cavity to the oesophagus and larynx (voice box). l Leads to the trachea. l Both food and air must pass through the pharynx then they enter the body. while food will go into the oesophagus. l Air will pass to the trachea. l .

and it prevents food from going the wrong way. it induces coughing to force the food/water particles out and prevent choking. l If food or water enters the trachea. the larynx moves up and the epiglottis moves downwards so that the epiglottis covers the larynx. l . l During swallowing.The Digestive System Pharynx The epiglottis is above the larynx.

The Digestive System Oesophagus Also known as the gullet. l A narrow. muscular tube. l . l Passes through the thorax (chest) and the diaphragm to join the stomach.

present from the oesophagus to the rectum: l Longitudinal l These muscles are antagonistic muscles – when one contracts.The Digestive System Oesophagus l Made up of 2 layers of muscles. the other relaxes muscles (outer layer) l Circular muscles (inner layer) circular muscles longitudin al muscles Part of the gut wa .

l longitudin al muscles Part of the gut wa .The Digestive System Oesophagus The muscles cause peristalsis – rhythmic. l It helps to move food along the gut while circular muscles mixing the food with digestive juices. wave-like contractions of the gut walls.

Which body in parts of the are involved digestion? The Digestive System mouth teeth salivary gland oesophagus .

The gut wall dilates (becomes wider and shorter). When longitudinal muscles contract. This widens the lumen for wall dilates to food to enter. circular muscles relax. PERISTALSIS The Digestive System Oesophagus l l When circular muscles contract. longitudinal muscles relax. The gut wall constricts (becomes narrower and longer). Food is squeezed or pushed forward. allow food to enter circular muscle longitudinal muscles food mass wall constricts to push food .


The Digestive System Oesophagus



When circular muscles contract, longitudinal muscles relax. The gut wall constricts (becomes narrower and longer). Food is squeezed or pushed forward. When longitudinal muscles contract, circular muscles relax. The gut wall dilates (becomes wider and shorter). This widens the lumen for food to enter.

Process of nutrition??

The Digestive System Stomach
The stomach is a distensible (muscular) bag. l The muscles of the stomach wall are thick and welldeveloped. l When fully stretched, it sends signals to the brain to indicate that it is full.

The Digestive System Stomach
The stomach wall has many pits which lead to gastric glands. l They secrete gastric juices into the stomach.

ne enzyme found in gastric juice?

l Food stays in the stomach because of the pyloric sphincter – a ring of circular muscle located between the stomach and duodenum. l l Contracts: stomach exit closes l Relaxes: stomach exit opens.e The Digestive System Stomach can we find circular muscles? The stomach stores food for a few hours. It digests food to become chyme. Process of nutrition?? . food leaves the stomach.

The Digestive System – Small Intestine l Consists l Duodenum progress l Jejunum ively l Ileum of 3 parts: more coiled .

l Wall is adapted to absorb digested food Process ofproducts and nutrition?? water. of small intestine has 2 functions: l Contains . It contains digestive enzymes.The Digestive System – Small Intestine l Wall glands which secrete intestinal juice.

The Digestive System – Large Intestine l The large intestine is about 1.5 m long l Shorter large intestine l Consists and wider than the small intestine l Colon l Rectum of 2 parts: colon rectum small intestine l .

The Digestive System – Large Intestine l Only undigested food enters the colon. l It absorbs water and mineral salts from the food. l No digestion occurs in the colon. colon .

faeces is expelled through the anus. l When it contracts. rectum .The Digestive System – Large Intestine l The rectum temporarily stores faeces.

l caecum Process of nutrition?? appendix .The Digestive System – Large Intestine Between the small and large intestines lie the caecum and appendix. l The caecum has no function in humans. l The appendix contains bacteria that are useful to the body.

Which body in parts of the are involved digestion? The Digestive System .

Which body in parts of the are involved digestion? The Digestive System salivary gland pharynx mouth teeth oesophagus liver Gall bladder duodenum ileum ascending colon caecum appendix stomach pancreas pyloric sphincter descending colon rectum anus .

The Digestive System Liver The largest internal organ in the body l There are 3 important blood vessels attached to the liver: l l l l Hepatic vein Hepatic artery Hepatic portal vein .

stored in the gall bladder gall bladder l bile duct . in alkaline? l liver l Properties of bile: l l l Secretes bile into the duodenum Alkaline Greenish-yellow Contains bile salts and bile pigments l Produced in the liver.The Digestive System Liver l It is also the largest gland Why the body.

Neutralize acid in chyme l Activate intestinal enzymes l Speed up fat digestion l Gives faeces its colour gall bladder bile duct .The Digestive System Liver l Functions of bile: l liver l l Process of nutrition?? When the gall bladder contracts. bile is secreted into the duodenum via the bile duct.

The Digestive System Pancreas
Connected to the duodenum via the pancreatic duct l Secretes pancreatic juice which contains digestive enzymes. l Also secretes hormones which control blood glucose level.

Process of nutrition??

What is Digestion?

Definition of Digestion
Digestion is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates, fats and proteins into simpler substances that cells can absorb and use.

Physical digestion The mechanical break up of food into small particles.

Chemical digestion The breaking down of large molecules in food into small, soluble molecules which can be absorbed.

Chemical digestion involves hydrolysis catalyzed by digestive enzymes.

What is Digestion?

•Physical digestion breaks down food into smaller particles. •Purpose: to increase surface area to volume ratio of the food to aid enzyme action. •Food substances are not chemically changed during physical digestion. •Where does physical digestion occur?

Physical Digestion

chewing / –In the mouth mastication –Along the alimentary canal peristalsis –Physical digestion of fats in the small intestine emulsifica tion

•Surface area of fat molecules is ons/bile. •Bile molecules place themselves in between the fat and water – half the molecule is hydrophilic.colorado. half is hydrophobic. slowing down fat digestion. Picture taken from http://www. speeding up enzyme action. •This reduces the surface area for enzymes to work.html . •This prevents the fat from clumping together.What is Digestion? EMULSIFICATION • •Fats do not dissolve in water • Physical Digestion – they tend to clump together.

small intestine .What is Digestion? •Breaking down of large molecules in food (starch. stomach. •Hydrolytic reactions – catalysed by ENZYMES Chemical Digestion •Three groups of enzymes: parts of •Chemical digestion occurs mainly in 3Proteases Carbohydrases Lipases the alimentary canal: –Mouth. protein. fats) into small soluble molecules which can be absorbed.

• • Food in the mouth stimulates the salivary glands to secrete saliva. –The pH of saliva is neutral. Mucin in saliva softens the food. starch maltose •The tongue rolls the food into small. •Saliva is mixed with food. –Digests to Chemical Digestion .. •The boli are swallowed and passed down into the oesophagus. round masses called boli (singular: bolus).What is Digestion? In • the mouth . •Salivary amylase is found in saliva: •The optimum pH of salivary amylase is pH 7. slippery..

.What is Digestion? In • the stomach ..  •The presence of food in the stomach stimulates the gastric glands to secrete gastric juice into the stomach. Gastric juice contains 3 substances: –Hydrochloric acid –Pepsinogen –Prorennin Chemical Digestion  .

hydrochloric pepsinoge pepsi acid Chemical Digestion n n protein s pepsin polypeptid es .What is Digestion? In • the stomach .. Action of Pepsin  •Pepsinogen is activated to pepsin by hydrochloric acid. Pepsin then digests protein to polypeptides..

hydrochloric –Insoluble casein can prorennibe digested..What is Digestion? In • the stomach . renni remain in the stomach to acid n n caseinoge n casein rennin pepsin casei n polypeptid es . Chemical Digestion –Soluble caseinogen would pass through the stomach as easily as water and not be digested. Action of Rennin  •Prorennin is activated to rennin by hydrochloric acid. Rennin curdles milk proteins by converting soluble protein caseinogen into insoluble casein..

. Purpose of Hydrochloric • Acid denaturing Stops the activity of salivary amylase by pepsin it rennin Activates pepsinogen and prorennin to form and respectively Chemical Digestion Provides acidic medium for the action of pepsin and rennin Kills harmful microorganisms in food  .What is Digestion? In • the stomach ..

–Gall bladder releases bile. which contains enzymes s ucrase.  •When chyme enters the small intestine. pancreatic ALT l ipase. i ntestinal lipase. SMILEE e nterokinase. and t rypsinogen.. m altase.. It does not contain enzyme Chemical Digestion . and e repsin. which contains pancreatic a mylase. l actase. it stimulates 3 glands: –Intestinal glands secrete intestinal juice. ! –Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice.What is Digestion? In • the small intestine .

What is Digestion? In • the small intestine . •All 3 fluids are alkaline:  –Neutralize acidic chyme –Provide suitable pH for the action of pancreatic and intestinal enzymes Chemical Digestion ...

Carbohydrate • digestion • pancreatic starc h amylase Chemical Digestion maltose lactose sucros e maltase glucos e glucose + galactose glucose + fructose lactase sucrase .What is Digestion? In the small intestine ...

. Protein digestion enterokinase trypsin erepsin Chemical Digestion trypsi n polypeptid es amino acids trypsinoge n proteins polypeptid es .What is Digestion? In the small intestine ..

What is Digestion? In the small intestine ... Fat digestion • • lipase fat fatty acids + s glycerol Chemical Digestion ss speeds up fat digestion in the small intes .

What is Digestion? Digestive Enzymes maltose Carbohydrate digestion mouth star ch salivary amylase small intestine star ch pancreatic amylase maltose maltase lactase sucrase glucos e glucose + galactose glucose + fructose lactose sucros e .

What is Digestion? Digestive Enzymes hydrochloric renni acid rennin pepsin Protein digestion prorenni n caseinoge n casein n casei n polypeptid es enterokinase trypsin erepsin stomach small intestine trypsinoge n proteins polypeptid es trypsi n polypeptid es amino acids .

What happens to food after digestion? Absorption •Where does absorption occur? üIn the small intestine and large intestine •What nutrients are being absorbed? üSimple sugars üAmino acids üFatty acids and glycerols üWater and mineral salts .

What happens to food after digestion? Absorption How does absorption take place in the small intestine? •Glucose and amino acids: diffusi –Absorbed by on into blood capillaries of the villi. diffusi •Fatty acids and glycerol: on –Absorbed by into the epithelium –Combine to form fat globules which enter the lacteals small colon intestine •Water and mineral salts: –Absorbed by the and – . active transport –Absorbed by when there is lower concentration of digested food substances in the small intestine than in the blood capillaries.

Surface area 2.What happens to food after digestion? Absorption : Small Intestine Adaptations of the Small Intestine for Absorption •The rate of absorption of digested food substances depends on 3 factors: 1.The thickness of cell membranes 3.Concentration gradient • .

Inner walls have folds 2.The epithelial cells of the villi have numerous microvilli. .The small intestine is long. which are minute finger-like projections. providing large surface area and ample time for absorption. Surface Area •The surface area of the small intestine is increased for absorption in 4 ways: 1.What happens to food after digestion? Absorption : Small Intestine 1 . 3. 4.The surface of the folds are lined with numerous villi (singular: villus).

What happens to food after digestion? Absorption : Small Intestine .

What happens to food after digestion? Absorption : Small Intestine .

3 . away •The lacteal continually transports from the villus. Thickness of Cell Membranes •The villi have very thin membranes: the epithelium is only one-cell thick. Concentration Gradient •In each villus is a lacteal (lymphatic capillary) surrounded by blood capillaries. for acids . while the blood capillaries fats transports and away. sugars •This maintains the concentration gradient needed aminothe absorption of food substances.What happens to food after digestion? Absorption : Small Intestine 2 .

.What happens to food after digestion? Egestion •Some food substances cannot be digested and remain unabsorbed in the large intestine. they are discharged as faeces through the . anus •This process is known as egestion or defecation. •When the rectum is full. •These are stored temporarily in the rectum.

•The hepatic portal vein transports sugars to the liver. •Blood capillaries unite to form the hepatic portal vein.What happens to food after digestion? Transport and Assimilation Transport of Simple Sugars •After absorption. the blood in the villi is rich in sugars. .

•Excess glucose is returned to the liver –Hormone insulin (produced by Islets of Langerhan in the pancreas) stimulates the liver to convert glucose to glycogen for storage. the liver will convert glycogen back to glucose. most sugars are converted to glycogen and stored. –Used during respiration to provide energy for cells.What happens to food after digestion? Transport and Assimilation Assimilation of Simple Sugars •In the liver. . •Glucose leaves the liver and is distributed around the body by the bloodstream. –When more glucose is required.

•How are amino acids used? –Converted to protoplasm by cells. used for growth and repair of body parts –Used to form enzymes and hormones •Excess amino acids are deaminated.What happens to food after digestion? Transport and Assimilation Transport and Assimilation of Amino Acids •Amino acids pass through the liver before they are transported to the rest of the body. .

Protein synthesis 4.Deamination of amino acids 6.Heat production .Detoxification 7.Regulation of blood glucose concentration 2.Production of bile 3.Iron storage 5.What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver The Liver has 7 Functions 1.

•After a meal: –Amount of glucose in the blood rises –Stimulates Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas to secrete insulin into the bloodstream –Insulin is transported to the liver. –Blood leaving the liver contains a constant amount of glucose.What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver 1 . What about adrenaline?? . –Insulin stimulates liver to convert excess glucose to glycogen for storage. Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration •Blood normally contains about 70-90 mg of glucose per 100 cm3 of blood.

–Glucose enters the blood. blood glucose level returns to normal. . –Islets of Langerhan are stimulated to secrete hormone glucagon.What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver 1 . –Glucagon stimulates liver to convert stored glycogen to glucose. Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration •When body cells need glucose: –Glucose level in the blood drops.

The hypothalamus signals to the stomach to stop contracting.What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver 1 . Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration •If we have not eaten for a long time: –Glucose level in the blood drops below average. –Brain sends signals to the stomach. –Blood that is low in glucose reaches the hypothalamus in the brain. –This causes strong contractions and we feel hunger pangs. . –After eating. the blood glucose level rises.

Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration high blood glucose pancreas pancreas concentratio secretes secretes n glucagon insulin converts converts glucose to glycogen to glycogen glucose normal blood glucose concentration .What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver low blood glucose concentrati on 1 .

•The liver synthesizes these amino acids to form proteins.g.What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver 2 . e. bladd is of fats. •Bile er used in the emulsifica tion 3 . fibrinogen (for blood clotting) . Production of Bile •The liver produces bile which is stored in gall the before use. Protein Synthesis •Blood plasma contains amino acids from the diet. globulins.: –Albumins.

a gland near the liver. •Haemoglobin is broken down. . •Haemoglobin from red blood cells is brought to the liver. •They are destroyed in the spleen. forming iron and bile. which is involved in the transportation of oxygen around the body. Iron Storage •Red blood cells contain a iron. •Iron is stored in the liver.What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver 4 . •These cells become worn out after some time.

•The remains of the amino acid are converted into glucose. •Urea leaves the body in urine. glycogen . •Excess glucose is converted to . •The amino groups are removed and converted to urea. Deamination of Amino Acids •Excess amino acids are transported to the liver.What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver 5 .

increasing the risk of gastric ulcers. .What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver 6 . Detoxification •This is the process of converting harmful substances into harmless ones. •Breaks down alcohol to acetaldehyde by the action of alcohol dehydrogenase •Acetaldehyde can be broken down to compounds which can be used in respiration. •Excessive alcohol consumption stimulates acid secretion in the stomach.

What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver 6 . Detoxification •Prolonged alcohol use can lead to cirrhosis of the liver. –Liver cells are being destroyed and replaced with fibrous tissue –Cells are less able to function –Can lead to liver failure and death .

•The heat is distributed by the blood to other parts other body. •Heat is produced from these reactions. •Helps to maintain body temperature. Heat Production •There are many chemical reactions taking place in the liver. .What happens to food after digestion? Functions of the Liver 7 .

emotional distress or misuse of laxatives. .Constipation l Bowel Evaluating Eating Habits movements are difficult and do not occur often enough. l Due to constipation. producing haemorrhoids. and/or a diet low in dietary fibres. l It is caused by a lack of exercise. abdominal pressure causes blood vessels in the rectum to enlarge.

Bulimia is characterised by eating too much food through vomiting or the use of laxatives. l .Eating Disorders Evaluating Eating Habits Both anorexics and bulimics have a constant fear of being fat and fear rejection l Anorexia nervosa is characterised by constant dieting. tend to gain weight easily and live in constant fear of becoming obese. rapid weight loss and feeling too fat in spite of the weight loss. Bulimics often have mouth and throat problems due to repeating vomiting.

Photosynthesis .

Photosynthesis lThe synthesis of organic compounds lFrom the splitting of water (photolysis) in the light dependent reaction lAnd from the reduction of carbon dioxide in the light independent reaction .

Photosynthesis LIGHT ATP H2O Light dependen t reaction 2H+ Light independ ent reaction Oxygen Carbohydrate CO2 .

l Flattened shape – increasing surface area l Thin – so that gases can diffuse quickly l A vascular system – to supply water & take away the products l Stomata – To allow gas exchange l Chloroplast containing cells – to .Leaf structure l The leaf is the main site for photosynthesis in plants l It has several special features which help it carry out this role.

Leaf structure Cuticle Upper epidermis Palisade Vascular tissue Spongy mesophyll Lower epidermis Air space Stoma Guard cell .

Palisade cell structure Chloroplast Cell surface membrane Vacuole Tonoplast Starch grain Cytoplasm Nucleus Cellulose cell wall Cytoplasm .

Chloroplast structure .

Chloroplast structure Oil droplet Thylakoid membranes Ribosomes Granum Stroma DNA Starch grain Intergranal membrane .

FaCtOrS aFfEcTiNg pHoToSyNtHeSiS .


When the concentration of carbon dioxide and temperature are controlled at constant level.LIGHT INTENSITY Light is essential during the light reaction of photosynthesis. the rate of photosynthesis is directly proportional to light intensity up to a certain point. l .

Light intensity Rate of photosynthesis Light intensity .

the rate of photosynthesis slows down because the pigment chlorophyll is damaged by ultraviolet rays.Concentration of carbon dioxide l Carbon dioxide is needed in the dark reaction as a raw material used in the synthesis of glucose if there is no other factors limiting photosynthesis and increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide results in an increase in the rate of photosynthesis.  . l At a very high light intensity.

035% CO2 Light intensity  .Carbon dioxide concentration Rate of photosynthesis 1% CO2 0.

As a result the rate of photosynthesis decreases as the lower concentration of carbon dioxide becomes the limiting factor.WATER SUPPLY Water is needed for photosynthesis. . wilting occurs and the stomata is closed.This prevents the diffusion of carbon dioxide into the leaves. however water is rarely the limiting factor in photosynthesis because the amount of water required is small. If water is not supplied.

.Temperature The dark reaction of photosynthesis is catalysed by the photosynthetic enzyme and therefore changes in temperature will affect the rate of photosynthesis. The optimum temperature for most of the plants are between 25-30 degree celcius. an increase of 10 degree Celsius in the surrounding temperature will doubled the rate of photosynthesis. However. when the temperature is too high the photosynthetic enzyme are destroyed and photosynthesis stops altogether. Generally.

Temperature Rate of photosynthesis 25ºC Increasing KE Enzymes denatured Temperature .

Carring attitude towards plants…  THE NEED TO TAKE CARE OF PLANTS. l Climate a) The type of plant cover influences regional climates. b) The destruction of forest causes drought and turns fertile land into desert. b) Plants stop the movement of dust and pollutants. l Air quality a) Plants influence the quality of the air that we breathe. . c) Plants reduce the greenhouse effect caused by burning of fossil fuels by absorbing and removing large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmoshere. l Sustains life  a) Green plans produce and generates the supply of oxygen that all living things need.

.l Water quality a) Forests are important in maintaining healthy watercatchment areas. b) Forest hold sil in place.rivers and lakes.and filtering sediments from water flowing into streams. l Fish and wildlife habitat a) Plants provide the necessary habitats for wildlife and fish populations. l Control of erosion a) Plants and trees help to protect the soil from erosion caused by heavy rains. b) Uncontrolled felling of trees and clearing of plants and clearing of plants can cause landslides.

b) Each species serves an important role in the ecosystem.l Ecosystem a) Humans.  . l Food a) Humans use about 3000 species of plants as food. b) About 80% of all medicinal drugsoriginate from wild plants and there are many important drugs yet to be discovered from plants. l Medicine a) Plants have been providing humans with medicines thoughout human history.plants and animals all live together supporting each other.

nature observation and ecotourism. b) We build our houses and furniture using wood from plants.l Industrial products a) We use fibres from plants to provide clothing.hunting.restand beauty from nature. c) We produce fuel products are made from plants.gardens and roads which are important for us to seek l Recreation a) Our forests provide many recreational activities like hiking.palm oil bodies. l Aesthetics a) We use plants to enchance the beauty of our homes. .soy diesel and ethanol made from corn.


l lFood processing is the process of preparing food to make it more attractive. more palatable and to last longer has to be processed so that it can withstand long periods of transportation and storage l lFood .

lOne of the main purpose of food processing is to preserve food by overcoming the factors that cause food spoilage  .

ammonia.l Food   spoilage is caused by : *the action of microorganism in food. The presence of these substances spoil the food and sometimes make it toxic . hydrogen sulphide and other organic substances. especially decomposing bacteria and fungi which act on carbohydrates and proteins in food to produce carbon dioxide. water.

Rancid food is harmful to the body .lThe oxidation of food due to the oxygen reacting with enzymes and chemical released by the cells in the food . smell and taste different as a result of oxidation . Oily food can also become rancid .

which can cause food poisoning  .l Food    has to be processed : * to extend their lifespan so that they can be stored for future use * to avoid wastage * to prevent the spread of diseases due to contamination of food .

 *to ensure there will be the     continuous supply of food for the population *to increase their commercial value *to prevent the bacteria and fungal decay *so that they can withstand long periods of transportation and storage *so that food can be supplied to the local or global market all year round in good condition  .

milk has been processed to produce a variety of dairy products such as cheese. ice cream. butter and chocolates   .lTo diversify the uses of food substances. yogurt. For example .

RELATING THE FOOD PROCESSING METHODS WITH FACTORS CAUSING FOOD SPOILAGE q Microorganisms require nutrients.water.oxygen and a suitable temperature for optimal growth and reproduction q q Microorganisms can only survive in condition with optimum pH and solute concentrations as these will not destroy them q q Hence.fermentation and drying of food .food can be preserved by destroying the microorganisms present in the food or by stopping their activities q q A few methods of processing and preserving food that have been practised since the early days are cooking.


l Certain bacterial spores may also be killed.COOKING l Cooking at high temperatures or boiling for at least five minutes l Heating food to high temperatures can kill microorganisms and denature the enzymes that cause the breakdown of food. However toxins produced by bacteria are not .

FERMENTATION PROCESS l Yeast is added to fruit juices or other food substances. l E. l The ethanol produces also has a great commercial value. Fruit juices and tapai. .g. stops the activity of bacteria that causes food spoilage. l Fermentation produces ethanol which at high concentrations.

l The ultraviolet rays from the sun also kill bacteria and many other harmful microorganisms.DRYING l Drying under the hot sun. l Drying removes water from food. in hot air or in the oven. This prevents microorganisms from growing as microorganisms cannot live without water. . l The enzymatic activity in food also stops.


PICKLING FOOD lFood is soaked in an acidic solution such as vinegar.g. lE. onions and mangoes . Chillies. lMost organisms cannot lives in low pH conditions. ginger.

TREATING FOOD WITH SALT AND SUGAR lFood is soaked in a concentrated salt solution or boiled with sugar. vegetables and ducks’ eggs . lE.g. Meat. lMicroorganisms lose water through osmosis in a hypertonic solution.


Ø In this process.Ø Milk is preserved by pasteurisation to destroy bacteria which cause diseases such as those which cause tuberculosis and typhoid.milk is heated to Ø a) 63 for 30 minutes Ø b) 72 for 15 seconds Ø and then rapidly cooled to below 10 Ø .

Ø Fruit juices and soup can also preserved using this method.pasteurised milk needs to be stored in the refrigerator because of its short shelf life. .This is to prevent those microorganism active again.Therefore.Ø While maintaining the nutrient content The purpose of pasteurisation is to kill microorganisms and natural flavour of the milk Ø Nutrient like vitamin B are not destroyed. Ø Pasteurisation is unable to kill all types of bacteria.


Ø Canning uses the heat sterilisation method to kill microorganism and their spores. Ø The food is packed in cans and steamed at a high temperature and pressure to drive out all the air. Ø The cans containing food are then sealed while the food is being cooled. Ø The airtight containers all the vacuum created within the cans prevent the

Ø Pathogens and food-spoiling bacteria are destroyed and the enzymes in the food are inactivated. Ø Canning keeps food sterile for long periods hence,the shelf life of canned food is usually longer although the cans may eventually corrode. Ø However,if the food is not thoroughly cooked,there is a danger


This bacteria can survive in food which is mildly heated and stored at room temperature.Under these conditions,the bacteria produce a toxin which can kill human at very low concentrations.

Ø Consequently,because canned food needs to be thoroughly cooked,it is low in quality.


fish and meat products can be preserved this way. Ø Meat. Ø Food stored at temperatures below 0 can remain fresh for a long period of time.Ø Refrigeration is a common method used by household to prevent food spoilage. Ø The extremly low temperatures prevent growth of microorganisms or germination of spores because .

. .The End!!! Bubye.

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