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PSYCHOPATHOLOGY BY: MISS PATRICIA JOSEPH KIMONG
Abnormal psychology Studies the causes, treatment & consequences of psychological disorders/ mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety & psychoses
Differential psychology attempts to explain between individual Personality refers to individual differences in general/ normal behavior Psychopathology focuses on abnormality
Conventional criteria for defining abnormality
Statistical deviance- an approach that conceptualizes abnormality in terms of behaviors that are extreme, rare/ unique as opposed to typical
Social norm approach
A rule/ guideline determined by cultural factors for what kind of behavior is considered appropriate in social contexts E.g. some governments condemn the consumption of alcoholics drink, whereas others have very relaxed attitudes towards drug
Personal distress Individual·s level of suffering takes into consideration and whether they want to get rid of the suffering Disadvantages : abnormality is not always associated with subjective suffering or the experience of discomfort .
g. Maladaptiveness The extent to which behavior interferes with a person·s capacity to carry out everyday tasks such as studying/ relating to others E. panic attack & obsessivecompulsive disorder . anxiety disorders such as phobias.
Mental illness approach An approach to psychological disorder that integrates physical & psychological variables in order to understand the processes underlying abnormal behavior Clinical psychologists & psychiatrists focus on specific symptoms that meet the criteria for predefined diagnosis .
believed in the connection between psychological & physical disorders He explained pathologies which were common disorders in ancient Greek society. the Greek philosopher & physician credited with the invention of medicine.HISTORICAL Hippocrates. .
Psychological illness was attributed to a physiological dysfunction. Psychological symptoms have physiological causes is represented by the somatogenic approaches to psychopathology .
Plato: disorders are intrapsychical (all in the mind) conflicts & embedded in some of the salient psychogenic theories of abnormal psychology. ´All in the mindµ .
Psychopathology did not develop as major area of psychology until the beginnings of the twentieth century Symptoms were regarded as the expression of supernatural forces that controlled the individual·s mind & body Treated through obscure rituals ² Exorcism & shamanism .
Ancient Egyptians: have special temples for the mentally ill & performed rituals & included the use of opium to reduce pain. Behavioral abnormalities treated with violence Mentally ill individuals were marginalized .
Phillippe Pinel (1745-1826) proposed the moral treatment for mental disorders & categorize symptoms. Bedlam.in 1484 ´possessedµ individuals to be burned alive. .Hoeksema.1800. established in 1243. the first formal attempt at psychopathological hospitalization 1970. (2001). Nolen.
first classification of symptoms. labeling and describing different psychological disorders Case Phineas Gage.Modern Approaches Somatogenic by Wilhelm Griesinger (1817-1868) Brain pathology was the cause of all mental disorders Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926).how strutural changes in the brain may impair normal psychological functioning .
Franz Anton Mesmer )(17341815) believed psychological disorders to be the expression of psychical rather than physical factors & caused by ¶magnetic fluids· ² astrological energy force inside people·s body. Developed a hypnotic method mesmerism .
nonetheless experimented with mesmerism. Found that patients experienced substantial relief after being able to talk about their symptoms under hynopsis. Catharsis . Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893) believed that psychological disorders were caused by a degeneration of the brain.
Psychoanalysis & Psychodynamic theories Freud·s studies hysterical disorder Development of psychoanalysis/ psychodynamics (exploration of the unconscious) Unconscious intrapsychical origin to mental ilness. literature & sociology) . All behaviors are influenced by unconscious processes Used to understand human behavior (philosophy.
Treatments may last for 10/20 years Based on case studies & is largely untestable Based on circular interpretations & speculative theories not robust & representative empirical evidence . Psychopathological symptoms as a compromise between unconscious and conscious forces that represents a symbolic expression or repressed events.
Behaviorism In the first half of the twentieth century while psychoanalysis was gaining momentum in Europe Study of empirically observable behavior Uninterested in hypothetical psychodynamic conflicts Symptoms would be a consequence of reinforcing/ punishing specific behaviors .
Witmer (1867-1956) imported to the US the techniques he learned in Germany from Wilhelm Wundt First experimental clinic .study of the deficiencies in children Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) & John Watson (1878-1958) applied the principles of classic conditioning to the study of phobias .
Thorndike (1874-1949) Skinner (1904-1909)= rewarding desirable behaviors was more effective than punishing undesirable ones (operant conditioning) .
Cognitive Emerged in 1960s & 1970sattempted to understand the internal mental processes (cognitions) People·s subjective interpretations of events can have a direct impact on their behavior & emotion. .
Bandura (1896) conceptualized this idea as self efficacy (individual·s belief about the extent to which they can successfully execute the appropriate behaviors to control & influence important life events) .
role of therapist= changes in the patient·s beliefs . Ellis (1973)= Rational Emotive Therapy. conceptualizes illness as the result of irrational negative beliefs about oneself & the world Dryden & DiGiuseppe (1990).
Neuroanatomy.Biological approaches Divided into : Nerophysiology.dealing with the processes/ functions of the brain.dealing with the structure of the brain Neurotransmitter (chemical messenger that carry information between neurons & other cells Imbalance=psychological disorders .
dopamine levels have been linked to psychosis & schizophrenia Endocrine system (production & release of hormones) in the blood= affect mood. levels of energy & reactions to stress .serotonin affects emotion & impulse regulation . Eg.
The Biophychosocial Model A multidisiplinary approach ro psychopathology based on the idea that mental illness results from combination of biological. . psychological. environmental & social factors.
inherited vulnerability which is likely to result in psychological disorder when they experience an unbearable life event .stress model (some people possess an enduring. Diathesis.
Diagnosis 2 frameworks: 1) Idiographic adopted by psychoanalytic & psychodynamic theories) Emphasizes the singularity of mental illness Assumes psychological disorders to be manifested differently in every individual .
described & classified psychological disorders .2) Nomothetic preestablished categories & compare every case with previously defined.
International Classification of Diseases. 2 taxonomies diagonosing mental disorders ´ ICD. Injuries & Causes of death (WHO.Diagnostic & Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorder (APA.1994) .1992) DSM.
Diagnosis in DSM are based on: Some core symptoms that need to be present Prespecified periods of time for symptoms to be present & sometimes Symptoms that should not be present .
Major Psychological Disorders Schizophrenia Psychotic disorder characterized by the patient·s lack of insight & loss of contact with reality & episodic Unable to distinguish between inner & external reality Severe thinking & perception impairment .
Syndromes: Hallucinations (fake perceptions) Delusions (false beliefs) Disorganied speech Diorganized behavior Negative symptoms Passivity Neurocognitive deficits .
Experience more than one of the syndromes Conceptualized by Kraepelin as ¶early madness· Not involved double personality & aggressive manner Types : catatonic. hebephrenic & paranoid«residual & undifferentiated .
hallucinations & thought disorder) Undifferentiated.Positive symptoms (the presence of something unusual-delusions.vivid & horrifying hallucinations (thought disorder & disorganized behavior) Residual. Catatonic-Kinetic abnormalities Hebephrenic-Disorganized thought disorder & decreased affect Paranoid.Symptoms which are not representative of any other type of schizophrenia) .
Treated by antipsychotic/ neuroleptic drugs Cognitive therapy + antipsychotic drugs can help to reduce hallucination & delusions .
persistent low mood (eg speech reduction. often suicidal. pessimistic) Learned helplessness & hopelessness .life events Depression.Affective Disorders Exaggerated intensity of mood experiences throughout long periods of time Unrelated/ disproportionate reactions to external life real. lack of joy. feeling of guilt.
over confidence Abnormal talk & speech (eg. inconsistency & incoherent) Psychotic symptoms (delusions of grandeur) Manic behavior. Optimism.opposite extreme of affect than depression Exacerbated elevated mood & an inappropriate sense of well-being\ Eg.overactivity & increased sexual & aggressive impulses Treated with lithium & antipsychotics & hospitalization . Mania.
Anxiety disorders & obsessional states Experience of high levels of anxiety Anxiety can be experienced psychologically (eg. unpleasant & dreadful feelings) & somatically (muscular tension & increased heart attack) .
Common anxiety disorders is phobias (experience of irrational/ disproportionate fear of an object/ phobic stimulus that leads individual to avoid contact with that object Treatment: systematic desensitization (progressive exposure to the phobic object) .
Obsessive-compulsive disordera disorder characterized by intense & repetitive obsessions that generate anxiety Tends to start in early adulthood Rituals to relieve the individual from anxiety .
sensitive/ have more vulnerable schemas to interpret events .Causes of phobias Psychodynamic-conflict between unconscious sexual/ aggressive impulses & social/culture norms Behaviors.induced in humans as in animals through association & conditioning Cognitive.
Biological.overactivity of the noradrenaline neurotransmitters is associated with anxiety attacks whilst serotonin has been associated with the adaptational function of preparing the individual for danger & stress Diathesis-stress model.psychological & biological .a ubiquitous human emotion Neuropsychological.
a serious & permanent concern about one·s body shape. an active pursuit & maintenance of low body weight. economic & social factors. weight & related physical symptoms Related to cultural.Eating disorders Exacerbated worry about food. weight & thinness. 3 the absence of menstrual periods in female. body shape. 2.disturbance of hormonal status) .experience of anxiety Anorexia (1.
unassertive. but have low self estee. Associated with anxiety ² fail to stop from eating. Also tend to be ambitious and achievement-oriented. Anorexia individuals ² quiet. . and sexually inexperienced. anxious.
group/ family in treatment .person to indulge in alcohol & drugs consumption Treatment: psychotherapy & psychopharmacological drugs Treatment. Bulimia nervosa.
feeling & behaving that deviates from cultural expectations & impairs a person·s educational. are stable over time & are pervasive & inflexible . occupational & interpersonal functioning Begins at early age.Personality Disorders A persistent pattern of thinking.
DSM Cluster A: antisocial. narcissistic & histrionic. borderline.avoidant. erratic & emotional behavior Cluster C. dependent & passive-aggressive-anxious &fearful behaviors . schizoid & paranoiddramatic. obsessive-compulsive.odd & eccentric behaviors as well as disregard for others Cluster B: schizotypal.
avoidant personality disorder.lower in E .Combination of the Big 5 with personality disorder +ve correlation: Neuroticism (N) -ve correlation: Agreeableness (A) & Conscientiousness © Variable in direction & strength: Extraversion (E) & Openness (O) Eg.higher in E. Histrionic personality disorder.
Conclusions Modern conceptualizations of normality are based on statistical frequency. social norms & maladaptiveness Diagnostic approach: clinical psychology & psychiatry . personal distress.
Causes of psychological disorders: genetics dispositions (schizophrenia). situational demands Thank You .
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