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Situation of Childrens Rights in the Philippines

Population: around 94 million in 2010 Children and adolescents compose roughly half of the population



Increased poverty Weakened capacity of families and support systems to support childrens basic needs More difficult to achieve MDGs (overcrowded schools, higher teacherstudent ratios, household food security threatened, high malnutrition and under-nutrition)




Economic and Poverty Profile

High poverty rates 45% of the population lived at/below poverty line (around 19 million are children) Children living in poverty increased by 2% (2006) 1 out of 4 families had experienced hunger and did not have anything to eat during the preceding three months (2008) Wide regional disparities: rural areas are poorer than urban areas due to lagging productivity growth in the agricultural sector

Economic and Poverty Profile

Poverty results in high malnutrition rates and hunger among children; children die of preventable illnesses; poor health affects school attendance and performance Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino (4Ps)
Benefitted 1.035 million households in 668 municipalities and 61 cities in 79 provinces (2010)

Politics and Governance

Almost 100 provinces/cities with local development and investment plans for children; 70 provinces/ cities with local childrens code Little progress for children at the local level Gaps in the implementation of national laws on children Gaps in service delivery Limited resources and capacity Political will

Budget Allocation by Department for 2011 (2010)

Department Amount %
11.7% (10.4%)
UNESCO standard: 20%

(billions of pesos) 192 (vs. 161.2) DepEd 1 billion Addtl budget for school bldgs DOH 31.8 (vs. 24.6)

1.9% (1.5%) WHO standard: 5% 2.1% (0.93%) 1.54 trillion

DSWD - CCT Total National budget


34.1 (vs. 15.3) 21.2 1.645 trillion

Source: DBM website

Children and migration

1.3 million OFWs (vs 700,000 in 1991)

An estimated 12,000 children left behind daily

Family separation - negative long-term effects on children changing family structures
Children not adequately protected from abuse, early sexual activity and its consequences, drug abuse

reported cases of incest Child trafficking for labor and prostitution Consequence of escape from early marriage, displacement due to armed conflict and disaster

Legal Framework for Children

1987 Philippine Constitution Child and Youth Welfare Code CWC, LCPC RA 7610 (Special Protection against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination) Child 21 (2000-2025) National Plan of Action for Children Girl Child Plan ECCD Act

Legal Framework for Children

Child protection policy framework
Child labor, Juvenile Justice, anti-trafficking, antirape, sexual harassment, anti-child pornography

Local Government Code

LCPCs, youth representation/participation, SK

Magna Carta of Women Magna Carta for Disabled Persons

Armed Conflict
SRSG on Children and Armed Conflict 2010 report: Dec 2007-Nov 2009: 27 children killed and 70 wounded (50% and 68% increase from previous report) Child soldiers make up an estimated 10-15% of MILF troops and 3% of NPA forces In 2009: 750,000 people displaced (UN Security Council) UNCRC CO: extrajudicial killings, including of children, by the Philippine armed forces, National Police and death squads in Davao Almost 900,000 children affected in 2001-2008 50 cases of children tortured and 55 children arrested and detained

BASIC EDUCATION Inaccessible Decrease in enrollment rates (83.2% in 2006-2007 vs. 90.3% in 2002-2003) 30% of the pupils who started in Grade 1 do not reach Grade 6 Poor quality mean National Achievement Test scores for SY 2006-2007: 59.9% for elementary; 46.6% for HS

Early Childhood Development 20% of Grade 1 students will drop out of school vs. 1% of those who attended a pre-school program ECCD Act (RA 8980) not fully implemented
21% of barangays without daycare centers (2007) Only 13% of children aged 3-4 were being reached by ECD services (2009)

Poor quality of pre-school services (2004 UNICEF study) As of 2009, 58% of Grade 1 students were unprepared for elementary school

HEALTH HIV-AIDS (DOH-National Epidemiology Center)
From Jan 2009 (65 cases reported) vs 152 new cases reported in Jan 2011 6,167 reported cases (1984-2011) 78% males; 20% are aged 15-24; 43% aged 25-29 Mode of transmission mainly through sexual contact (90%) Since 2007, 75% are due to MSM


Malnutrition is responsible, either directly or indirectly for 35% of under-5 deaths Iron-deficiency anemia affects 55.7% of infants 6-11 months old, and 20.8% of children 1-5 years old 36% of lactating mothers surveyed in 2008 said they exclusively breastfed their babies.

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

The proportion of young people having sex before marriage rose from 18% to 23%, of which one fourth were engaged in risky behaviors (1994-2002) In 2008, 1 out of 10 children aged 15-19 was pregnant or had already had a child; 4 out of 10 births by teenage mothers were unwanted at the time of conception

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

Adolescents aged 15-19 are twice as likely as those over 20 to die during childbirth. The probability is five times higher for girls under 15 Mothers age 15-24 account for 3 out of 4 of maternal deaths Limited access to sexual and reproductive health services and information In 2010, DepEd is piloting sex education in 32 elementary and 32 high schools

Child Protection
CHILD PROTECTION Child Protection legal framework 6,524 child abuse cases reported (66% female; 29% sexual abuse) Prostituted children: DSWD 63 cases in 2009; NGOs 60,000-100,000; 4th highest number of prostituted children (ECPAT) estimated 200,000 street children Domestic violence is prevalent but underreported

Child Protection
Children in conflict with the law
Juvenile Justice Welfare Act 2006 not fully implemented Amendments to lower the age of criminal responsibility from 16 to 9 or 12 Children being kidnapped to commit snatching, hold-up, theft/robbery Setting up of centers for CICL

Child Participation
Adoption of the National Framework for Childrens Participation (NFCP) Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) Student Councils/Supreme Student Governments Representation in LCPCs/BCPCs National Anti-Poverty Commission Children Basic Sector (NAPC-CBS) UNCRC Committee observes that is still generally difficult for children, in particular children belonging to the minority and indigenous population, to be heard in the State party, and that their right to be heard in proceedings affecting them may be limited.