• Some materials like glass, ceramic, polymers and papers are non-conducting materials. • They prevent flow of current through them. • They provide electrical insulation.

DIELECTRICS :the non-conducting materials when placed in electric field modifies the electric field and themselves undergo appreciable change are called dielectrics.

.Energy Band Diagram • The forbidden gap Eg is very large for dielectric. • Conduction cannot occur even when dielectric contains impurities. • Excitation of e. • Resistivity ranges from 1010 to 1020 ohm-m.from the normally full valance band to empty conduction band cannot occurs.

Energy Band Diagram • Figure: .

.DIELECTRIC CONSTANT The ratio of the capacitance of the given capacitor with the material filling the entire space between its plates to the capacitance of capacitor in vacuum.

Dielectric Constant .

• Atom do not have permanent dipole moment.Dielectric Polarization • In atom. called dielectric polarisation. . • Atoms in electric field acquires an induced electric dipole moment. centre of mass of the electron coincides with the nucleus.



E α .DIELECRIC POLARIZATION Atoms of the dielectrics acquire induced dipole moment when placed in an external electric field this process is called dielectric polarization. P = α.IS MOLECULAR OR ATOMIC POLARIZIBILITY . Atoms are said to be polarized.





POLAR DIELECTRICS A polar dielectric molecule is one in which center of gravity of positive charge is separated from centre of gravity of negative charge by finite distance. .


NON-POLAR DIELECTRICS Molecules in which center of gravity of negative charge coincides with positive charges are called non-polar molecules. . Symmetrical molecules are non-polar molecules.


∫ εr E0.ds = q/εo .GAUSS’S LAW OF DIELECRICS the total flux through a closed surface is ( 1/ε0 )times the total charge enclosed inside the closed surface.

E = F/q0 ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY .The magnitude of electric intensity vector is the force on unit positive charge at that point and the direction will be the direction of force.

P = n . Pin .ELECTRIC POLARIZATION Induced dipole moment per unit volume is called electric polarization.

coulomb/meter2 .ELECTRIC POLARIZATION pin p + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ E0 UNIT.

ELECTRIC DISPLACEMENT VECTOR Displacement vector is defined as displacement flux linked with unit area at that point. D = q / a = б .

.E ‘ = σ ‘/ ε0 (where E ‘ is induced electric field) + + + + + + + +σ ‘ E 0 = σ / ε0 (where E0 is field in absence of dielectrics) .......E0 E‘ + + + + + + + + + -σ ‘ E0 .RELATION BETWEEN D.....E..P + + + + + + + +б + .- - - - - -σ ..

RELATION BETWEEN D. E + P .E.P P = ε (k – 1) E D = ε0 .


ELECTRONIC POLARIZATION It results from a displacement of the centre of the negatively charged electron cloud relative to positive nucleus of an atom by electric field No field Applied field + ATOM + .

IONIC POLARIZATION In ionic lattice. giving a resultant (apparent) dipole moment to the whole body. the positive ions are displaced in the direction of an applied field while the negative ions are displaced in the opposite direction.+ + Electric field .+ + + .. + + + + + + + + + + + - .

No field Applied field _ a + _ b + .IONIC POLARIZATION When electric field is applied to the ionic material cations and anions get separated in opposite direction which give rise to net dipole moment.

ORIENTATIONAL POLARIZATION It is found only in materials having permanent dipole moment. . In absence of electric field the orientation of molecule is random while after applying electric field they align with electric field.

ORIENTATION POLARIZATION: The electric field tends to direct the permanent dipoles. Electric field +e -e .

INTERNAL FIELDS IN SOLIDS The electric field which is responsible for polarizing a molecule inside dielectric is called molecular field. (2) the molecules inside the sphere are treaded as individual dipoles . Assume dielectric consist of two parts(1) The dielectric outside the sphere is treated as continuum of dipoles.

Total internal field is splitted into 4 componentsE = E0 + E1 +E2 + E3 .INTERNAL FIELDS IN SOLIDS Ein = E0 + E’ Ein =external applied field + sum of all the fields due to surrounding.

INTERNAL FIELDS IN SOLIDS (1) E0 = external field due to charged capacitor. (4) E3 = field due to polarized molecules present inside the sphere. . (3) E2 = field at the centre due to induced polarized charge at the surface. (2) E1= depolarizing field due to bound charge on outer faces of dielectrics.




diamond.(εr + 2) . silicon and germanium.g.CLAUSIUS-MOSOTTI EQUATION This is applicable to those dielectrics which exhibits Only electronic polarization e. α = 3ε0 (εr-1) / n.

Also we have used the assumption (1)Molecule is isotropic (2) Other short range force = 0 . This is not applicable to strong solution and solids.CLAUSIUS-MOSOTTI EQUATION LIMITATIONS:This equation is applicable to neutral liquids and specially to gases .

LANGEVIN’S THEORY OF DIPOLAR ORIENTATION (1) As the temperature is increased polarization becomes smaller due to thermal agitation . . (2) In polar dielectrics dielectric polarization.susceptibility depends on temperature.polarizibility.



DIAMAGNETIC MATERIALS The materials when placed in magnetic field acquires feeble magnetism in the direction opposite to magnetic field are called diamagnetic materials. .

Metals. (3)Relative permeability is less than unity.. (5)Magnetization M is linear function of magnetic field H. gold . (6)Eg. . hydrogen. (4)Susceptibility is independent of temperature. (2)Negative magnetic susceptibility. silver etc. air.DIAMAGNETIC MATERIALS Properties:(1)Feebly magnetized by magnetic field in opposite direction .

ne ol fd i aidl p fd pi l e e P ae a gi r n a t mc ne ol fd i aidl p fd pi l e e Dae imt agi n c .

The electronic polarizibility of atom is 3.08gm/cm3 . Q(2) If Nacl crystal is subjected to an electric field of 1000v/m And the resulting polarization is 4. calculate the relative permittivity Of Nacl.Q(1) the atomic weight and density of sulphur are 32 and 2.what will be relative dielectric constant. .28×10-40 F-m2 .If sulphur has cubical Symmetry .3×10-8 c/m2 .


PARAMAGNETIC MATERIALS Substance when placed in magnetic field are magnetized in the direction of field are called paramagnetic materials . .

PARAMAGNETIC MATERIAL . these moments are randomly directed and there is no net magnetization of the material. when a magnetic field is present. . • However. the moments align preferentially along the direction of the external field.• If no field is applied. The sum of these moments causes the magnetization.

PARAMAGNETISM ne ol fd i aidl p fd pi l e e P ae a gi r n a t mc ne ol fd i aidl p fd pi l e e Dae imt agi n c .

.PARAMAGNETIC MATERIAL • feebly magnetized in the direction of magnetic field . • Susceptibility of paramagnetic has small positive value . • It looses magnetism due to rise in temperature. • Relative permeability is greater than 1 .

Paramagnetism arises from atoms or ions with permanent magnetic dipole moments that exist independent of any applied field. q The orientation of each moment is independent of the orientation of its neighbors.PARAMAGNETISM •Each particular paramagnetic material has a characteristic Curie constant. q .

law and C is the Curie constant. which is described by a positive paramagnetism susceptibility that depends inversely on the absolute temperature: q χ = C T • This equation is known as the Curie-Weiss law.PARAMAGNETISM Another common magnetic behavior is paramagnetism. .

paramagnetism disappears.PARAMAGNETISM At magnetizing fields H paramagnetic magnetization (Langevin. which is near 0 Kelvin in paramagnetic solids. q > 10 T. T saturates Below the paramagnetic Curie temperature (q). 1904). q .

q) • M : induced magnetization C : Curie’s cst. as temperature increases the paramagnetic magnetization decreases. these forces are extraordinarily small compare to the forces generated by the thermal motion of electrons. • q : paramagnetic Curie T • H : inducing magnetic field T : temperature in Kelvins • however.PARAMAGNETISM PARAMAGNETISM • according to Curie-Weiss’s law. . with some exceptions in metals – M = C x (H / T .

K . . wie i e ls h mr t na Q.P gCl t f la. x m t s . .PARAMAGNETISM M M K >0 H K <0 D m nts i a e m a g i n F.A pB M l. H . oe n.e ot n wo e m cn t d F es f ro ans n e m eias r g OP. Tr Cl u h .. a z s Pr m nts aa a e m g i lo t m iu .M .


THE CURIE-WEISS LAW paramagnetism is stronger at low T where the deranging effects of collisions are less q most pure mafic silicates are paramagnetic. but also Fe-sulphides and Fe-carbonates q χ =C/ T .


at .• Ferromagnetism is not found in liquids and FERROMAGNETISM gases. • Susceptibility of ferromagnetic has large positive value . • Ferromagnetism decreases with temperature curie temperature ferromagnetic properties of material disappear all of a sudden and material behaves as paramagnetic . • Relative permeability is greater than 1 .

Generally a Metal or Metal-Oxide 3. Exhibits the Phenomenon of Magnetic Hysteresis .GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS 1. or Magnetic Moment 2. Magnetization will decrease as Temperature increases 4. Can Exhibit a Very High Magnetization.

the magnetic susceptibility is usually large.FERROMAGNETISM In ferromagnetic materials. all magnetic moments permanently line up and lock together. This effect is about 104 times stronger than the paramagnetic alignement and can be explained only by quantum mechanics. .

FERROMAGNETISM Magnetic Domains Magnetic domains in an unpolarized ferromagnetic solid are random because of the random orientation of the grains within the material. Under the influence of an external field. the polarization direction of the individual domains and their size may change irreversibly. creating a permanent magnet. .

We have seen that in diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials a NET magnetization may be induced in the PRESENCE of an applied magnetic field • FERROMAGNETISM * In FERROMAGNETIC materials however a SPONTANEOUS magnetization may even exist in the ABSENCE of any external magnetic field M Ms Mr H .

FERROMAGNETISM M saturation m agnetization M s iso e a th rm l re a e t m n n m g e a n tiza n tio co rcitive e force H cr M rs H c H re a e m n nt co rcivity e .

⇒ When the external magnetic field is then reduced to back ZERO the magnetization does NOT return to zero but a REMNANT magnetization Mr instead .FERROMAGNETISM • * We begin by applying a magnetic field to a piece of ferromagnetic material that is initially UNMAGNETIZED ⇒ With increasing magnetic field strength the magnetization increases and eventually SATURATES at some characteristic value Ms .

FERROMAGNETISM • as the magnetic field strength is increased the magnetization saturates at a value Ms • when the magnetic field is returned to zero a spontaneous magnetization Mr known as the remnant magnetization or remance persists .

FERROMAGNETIM *To overcome the spontaneous remnance it is necessary to REVERSE the magnetic field strength to a value Hc known as the COERCIVE FIELD * Solids with large remnant magnetizations and coercive fields are referred to as HARD magnetic materials *A complete cycle of the magnetic-field strength through positive and negative values gives rise to a HYSTERESIS CURVE .


HARD AND SOFT MAGNET *ferromagnetic material showing the coercive field required to demagnetize the ferromagnet * for a hard magnetic material the area enclosed by the hysteresis curve is large * when the area enclosed is small however the ferromagnetic is referred to as soft indicating the ease with which the material may be magnetized and demagnetized .

000 Oe) .*Easy to Demagnetize “SOFT” MAGNETIC MATERIALS *Easy to Change the Direction of Magnetization *Coercivity is small (~ 0.02 to ~ 10 Oe) *Hard to Demagnetize “HARD” MAGNETIC MATERIALS *Hard to Change the Direction of Magnetization *Coercively is large (~ 100 to ~ 10.

g.Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13..5B9) .g..Zn]Fe2O4 Amorphous alloys(e.Fe72Co8Si5B15) Nanocrystalline alloys (e. [M.VARIOUS SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIALS Iron Fe-Si alloys Fe-Ni alloys Fe-Al & Fe-Al-Si alloys Soft ferrites MoFe2O3.

Propertis relevant to soft magnetic materials .

VARIOUS HARD MAGNETIC MATERIALS Iron & cobalt steel Nickel and cobalt alloys (alnicos) Oxides (Hard ferrites) Rare earth inter-metallic compounds .

Hysteresis loop of hard magnetic materials .

* * At temperatures higher than this ferromagnets becomePARAMAGNETIC .FERROMAGNETISM The saturation magnetization is temperature DEPENDENT and VANISHES completely above the CURIE TEMPERATURE (TC ).

75 x 106 1.CURIE’S TEMPERATURE FOR FEROMAGNETIC MATERIALS Ms METAL PARAMAGNETIC Fe Co Ni Gd MS(0) TC (K) 1043 1404 631 289 MS(0) (A/m) 1.45 x 106 0.51 x 106 5.66 x 106 FERROMAGNETIC TC T .

FERROMAGNETISM ⇒ For ferromagnetism the Curie temperature and the constant q in the Curie-Weiss law are ALMOST identical ⇒ A SMALL difference exists however since the transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism is GRADUAL .

FERROMAGNETIM In ferromagnetic materials the spins of electrons in UNFILLED d-BANDS spontaneously align parallel to each other below TC • * This alignment results in the formation of magnetic DOMAINS and occurs even in the ABSENCE of an applied magnetic field .


. ⇒ An external field ALIGNS the domains and gives rise to a NET magnetization that PERSISTS even when the external field is removed.FERROMAGNETISM ∀ ⇒ With NO applied field however the spins of different domains are RANDOMLY oriented with respect to each other and the net magnetization is ZERO .


MOLECULAR-FIELD THEORY OF FERROMAGNETISM In diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials we have discussed how an EXTERNAL magnetic field may be used to align magnetic moments • * Weiss postulated that in ferromagnetic materials the spontaneous alignment of moments may occur due to the presence of an internal MOLECULAR FIELD .

2) ⇒ Here γis the so-called MOLECULAR FIELD CONSTANT .1) He is the EXTERNAL field and Hm is • * Quite generally it is found that the molecular field may be written as H m =γ M (14 .MOLECULAR-FIELD THEORY OF FERROMAGNETISM • * In the presence of an applied magnetic field the TOTAL magnetic field that acts on the magnetic moments can then be written as H Tot = H e + H m ⇒ In this expression the MOLECULAR field (14 .

M(T)/M(0) 1 T>Tc T=Tc T<Tc



the intersection point of these curves yields the value of the spontaneous magnetization at zero magnetic field only when the temperature is less than the curie temperature is a non-zero spontaneous magnetization possible when the temperature equals the curie temperature the intersection of the curves is located at the origin indicating that the ferromagnetic behavior is lost completely

1. Ferromagnetic Materials have the strongest magnetization and are the most commercially important magnetic materials. 2. Ferromagnetism arises from the electronic structure, specifically the electronic spins, within an atom. 3. Macroscopically, magnetic materials want to form Magnetic Domains. 4. Manipulating domains is the key to manipulating macroscopic magnetic properties.

5. The Hystersis Loop is a primary tool for characterizing magnetic materials. 6. Magnetic Recording produces two different magnetization states to produce the “0” and “1” of digital data. 7. Data is written Inductively, and can be Read-Back by Induction or Magneto-Resistance (MR, GMR) 8. Practical Applications include Hard Disk Drives, Floppies, VCRs, Mag Stripes, Credit Cards, and others.

Summary Diamagnetism Paramagnetism Non-perfect Antiferromagnetism Antiferromagnetism Ferromagnetism Ferrimagnetism important for rock and paleomagnetism .


the magnetic moments of individual atoms are strong. • In antiferromagnetic materials. • The macroscopic magnetization of the material is negligible even in the presence of an applied field. but adjacent atoms align in opposite directions.ANTIFERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS • Antiferromagnetic materials include chromium and manganese. .

etc .Cr2O3. • most of the antiferromagnetic materials are ionic compound.MnS.Mno.ANTIFERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS • manganese and chromium exhibits antiferromagnetism.

nickel. or cobalt. there is a net magnetic moment within a domain. but there is incomplete cancellation of the moments because they are not equal.FERRIMAGNETIC MATERIALS • Ferrimagnetic materials include oxides of iron. • Thus. • The magnetic moments of adjacent atoms are aligned opposite to each other. .

• The magnetic effects are weaker than in ferromagnetic materials. but are still substantial. the domains align themselves with the applied field.FERRIMAGNETIC MATERIALS (CONT’D) • In the absence of applied magnetic field. . the domains are randomly oriented so that the net macroscopic magnetization is zero. • In the presence of an applied magnetic field.

• Ferrites are non-conducting magnetic media so eddy current and ohmic losses are less than for ferromagnetic materials.• Ferrites are the most useful ferrimagnetic materials. FERRITES . • Ferrites are ceramic material containing compounds of iron. • Ferrites are often used as transformer cores at radio frequencies (RF).

(below Curie-Néel temperature) no field applied field Ferromagnetic s.l. no field applied field Antiferromagnetic no field applied field Ferrimagnetic .FERROMAGNETISM Ferromagnetic s.s.

FERROMAGNETISM This alignment persist up to the Curie temperature Tc where forces from the thermal motion of electrons become stronger than the self-alignment forces . at this point. the magnetic susceptibility becomes the paramagnetic susceptibility and varies according to the Curie-Weiss law. .

• It exhibits low hysteresis energy losses. • Materials reaches its saturation magnetization with relatively low applied field. .Soft Magnetic Materials • Magnetic materials which are easily magnetized and de-magnetized. • They are characterized by thin hysteresis loop.

. • Magnetic flux through a conducting material changes. the lower the power losses and greater the possibility of using the material at high frequency.Soft Magnetic Materials • Smaller the area. voltage are induced.

. inductors used in communication equipment.Types of Soft Magnetic Materials • Heay duty flux multipliers: these are the cores of transformers. Electrical steel is used for manufacturing cores. • Light duty flux multipliers: These are the cores of small special purpose transformers. NiFe alloys and soft ferrites are used in these applications. motors and generators.

Ni-Fe alloys and soft ferrites are used. saturable core devices. • Microwave System Components: Soft ferrites and garnets are used in these applications. computers. .Types of Soft Magnetic Materials • Square loop Materials: They are used in magnetic amplifiers.

• They loss magnetization by ac fields. .mechanical illtreatment and change in temperature. • They are characterized by thick hysteresis loop.Hard Magnetic Materials • They have a high resistance to demagnetized.



5. 4.CONTENTS 1. 6. 2. 3. Introduction Light and Magnetism What is the Magneto-Optical Effect? Electromagnetism and Magneto-Optics Electronic Theory Measurement of Magneto-Optical Effect .

Discovered by Faraday on 1845 • PHENOMENON :.INTRODUCTION • MAGNETO-OPTICAL EFFECT :.Change of Linear Polarization to Elliptically Polarized Light Accompanied by Rotation of Principal Axis • CAUSE :-Difference of Optical Response between LCP and RCP • APPLICATION:– – – – Magneto-Optical Disk Optical Isolator Current Sensors Observation Technique .

• MO EFFECT IN WIDE MEANING 3.What is the Magneto-Optical Any change ofEffect? optical response induced by magnetization • MO EFFECT IN NARROW MEANING Change of intensity or polarization induced by magnetization – Faraday effect – MOKE (Magneto-optical Kerr effect) – Cotton-Mouton effect .


These are:   The Polar Orientation The Longitudinal Orientation The Transverse Orientation The three orientations are defined in terms of the direction of the magnetisation vector M with respect to the surface of the material and the plane of incidence of an incident optical beam.In magnetic media (ferro-magnetic or ferri-magnetic) the effects are much larger.         . although difficult to detect. In these cases it is usual and convenient to refer to three principal orientations.

converted to elliptically polarised light. . on reflection.LONGITUDINAL CASE In the longitudinal case the magnetisation vector is in the plane of the surface and parallel to the plane of incidence The effect is that radiation incident in either of these linearly polarised states is.


POLAR CASE In the Polar case the magnetisation vector is perpendicular to the plane of the surface. The effect is that radiation incident in either of these linearly polarised states is. converted to elliptically polarised light. . on reflection.


TRANSVERSE CASE in such a case. . the reflected radiation remains linearly polarised and there is only a change in reflected (or transmitted) amplitude such that as M changes sign from +M to -M the reflectivity changes from R+R to R-R.


4. • Transmission of EM wave : Maxwell equation • Phase difference between RCP and LCP→rotation – Amplitude difference →circular dichroism . Electromagnetism and Magneto optics • Light is the electromagnetic wave.

PHENOMENOLOGY OF MO EFFECT Linearly polarized light can be decomposed to LCP and RCP Difference in phase causes rotation of the direction of Linear polarization Difference in amplitudes makes Elliptically polarized light In general. elliptically polarized light With the principal axis rotated .

ELECTRON THEORY OF MAGNETOOPTICS • Magnetization→Splitting of spin-states – No direct cause of difference of optical response between LCP and RCP • Spin-orbit interaction→Splitting of orbital states – Absorption of circular polarization→Induction of circular motion of electrons • Condition for large magneto-optical response – Presence of strong (allowed) transitions – Involving elements with large spin-orbit interaction – Not directly related with Magnetization .

MICROSCOPIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTRONIC POLARIZATION Wave function perturbed by electric field Unperturbed wave function + E + - + - = + + P-like +  ・ ・ S-like Expansion by unperturbed orbital .

Rotating analyzer technique 4. Cross-polarizer technique 2. Faraday modulation technique 5. Measurement of elleipticity . Optical retardation modulation 6.MEASUREMENT OF MO EFFECT 1. Vibrating polarizer technique 3. Measuring system for MO spectrum 7.

• Amorphous : TbFeCo. • Magnetic semiconductor : CdMnTe etc. Ni • Intermetallic compounds and alloys : PtMnSb etc. Co. • Superlattices : Pt/Co.MO SPECTRA OF MATERIALS • Magnetic garnets • Metallic ferromagnet : Fe. Fe/Au etc. GdFeCo etc. • Granular : Al2O3:Co など .

the number of atom in volume of one cubic meter of hydrogen gas is 9.53 A0 .calculate dipole moent induced in each atom . .calculate polarizibility and relative permittivity.Q:-an electric field of 9×104 v/m is applied on a sample of neon gas at N. the radius If hydrogen atom is 0.000134 . Q:.T.if the dielectric constant of neon at N.P is 1.8×1026 .T. find the atomic polarizibility of neon .P .

Q:-a magnetic material has magnetization of2300A/m and produces a flux Density of 0.diamagnetic Al2O3 is subjected to an external magnetic field Of 105A/m .Evaluate magnetization and magnetic flux density in Al2O3.calculate magnetizing force and relative permeability Of material. Q:. (susceptibility Of Al2O3 = 5×10-5 ) Q:-the susceptibility of paramagnetic FeCl3 is 3.7×10-3 at 270C what will be The value of its relative permeability µr at 200K and 500K .000314wb/m2 .

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