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# Introduction to LS-DYNA

Nishant Jain

Outline
1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

LS-DYNA Architecture 1. Nodes and Elements, 2. Section Properties, 3. Material Model Rigid Parts Boundary Conditions Loading Contact Definition Resources Example

Detail Information *CONTROL ..20 *DATABASE 35 ADAPTIVITY.40 MATERIAL MODELS .45 *CONTACT ..53
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Resources
Tutorials 1. Introduction to DYNA : IntroDyna.pdf 2. Users Guide: Users_Guide.pdf 3. Keywords Manual : ls-dyna_971_manual-k.pdf 4. Example Manual : examples.pdf Input Decks : ....\examples 5. Sample Problems :Sample Problems.pdf Input Decks : ....\Sample Problems 6. Theory Manual :theory.pdf Metal Forming Tutorials 1. Forming Parameters : forming_parameters2.pdf 2. Spring-back : springback_parameters.pdf Web Sites www.dynasupport.com www.feainformation.com www.metalformingsimulation.com www.dynaexamples.com

http://www.dynasupport.com/support/howto http://www.dynasupport.com/support/tutorial

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## Description of Keyword Input

Keyword Data Block (Space Delimited)

LS-DYNA, unlike ABAQUS, does not follow any hierarchy. So, in an input deck, boundary conditions can be defined before defining the nodes.

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Keyword - Example

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## Nodes and Elements

Node Definition
ABAQUS
*NODE ** NID 400, X 2, Y 3, Z 4,

DYNA
*NODE \$ NID 400 X 2 Y 3 Z 4 ABAQUS Type of element (shell or solid) is identified in the data line by parameter Type Element is associated to a part by its Name The type of particular element within a shell or solid element is defined in type of element. N6 6, N7 7, N8 8

\$0123456789012345678901234567890123456789

Element Definition
ABAQUS
*ELEMENT,TYPE=S4R,ELSET=Blank ** EID N1 N2 N3 N4 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, *ELEMENT,TYPE=C3D8,ELSET=Blank ** EID N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

DYNA Type of element (shell or solid) is identified in the keyword Element is associated to a part by its ID The type of particular element within a shell or solid element is defined in section properties.

DYNA
*ELEMENT_SHELL \$ EID PID N1 1 1 1 *ELEMENT_SOLID \$ EID PID 1 1 \$ N1 N2 N3 1 2 3
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N2 2

N3 3

N4 4

N4 4

N5 5

N6 N7 6 7

N8 8
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Section
Section Properties
ABAQUS
*SHELL SECTION, ELSET=Blank, MATERIAL=CreaSteel, SECTION INTEGRATION = GAUSS ** T NIP 0.17 , 7

DYNA
*PART \$ PID SID MID 1 2 1 *SECTION_SHELL \$ SID ELFORM 2 16 0.8333 \$ T1 T2 T3 0.17 0.17 0.17 ADPOPT 1 NIP 7 T4 0.17 QR 0

This specifies type of element formulation within shell or solid element (eg axisymmetric) . ABAQUS does this in element definition (S4R, S3R, SAX)

## Flag to Indicate Adaptive meshing is used

ABAQUS *SHELL SECTION defines the element set name for which the section properties are defined. It also specifies the name of the material identifying the material properties that will be used. DYNA A part (collection of elements) is given a unique id using a *PART card. This part is associated to particular section properties defined by unique id This part is associated to particular material properties defined by unique id. The section properties are defined separately using *SECTION card
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Material
ABAQUS
*MATERIAL, NAME=CreaSteel *DENSITY 8.0E-09 *ELASTIC, TYPE = ISOTROPIC ** E PR 200000.0 ,0.3 *PLASTIC ** Stress Strain 200.00 ,0.00000 227.25 ,0.00995 257.50 ,0.02960 *POTENTIAL 1 ,1.0587 ,1.2433 ,0.9149 ,1.0

ABAQUS Different cards are used to define different properties Density Elastic Plastic Anisotropy Depending on what is required, either a card is included or excluded. ,1.0 DYNA There are different material models which require certain parameters. Depending on the properties to be included, different material models are used. For Example, Only Elastic: *MAT_ELASTIC Plasticity without anisotropy: *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTIC 0

DYNA
*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT \$ MID Density E PR 1 8.0E-09 200000.0 0.3 \$ R0 R45 R90 LCID 1.65 2.27 2.31 3 *DEFINE_CURVE \$ LCID 3 0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 \$ Strain Stress 0.00000 200.0 0.00995 227.2 0.02960 257.5

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LS-DYNA Architecture

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Rigid Parts
ABAQUS
*ELEMENT,TYPE=R3D3,ELSET=Punch 60090, 60442, 60415, 60441 *NSET, NSET=Ref_Punch 30027, *BOUNDARY Ref_Punch,1, ,0.0 Ref_Punch,3,6,0.0

DYNA
*PART \$ PID 2 SID 1 MID 3 ABAQUS 1. PR 0.3 2. The rigid properties are defined using rigid elements (R3D3, RAX...) A node from the rigid element is constrained (using *BOUNDARY), to constrain the rigid part.

## *MAT_RIGID \$ MID RO E 3 8.0E-09 200000.0 \$ CMO CON1 CON2 1.0 6 7

LS-DYNA 1. 2. The rigid properties are defined using rigid material card (*MAT_RIGID) The constraints for the rigid part are defined in the *MAT_RIGID card

\$\$Rigid body constraints in DYNA are applied through material definition using \$\$parameters CMO, CON1 and CON2 \$\$CMO: Center of mass constraint \$\$ 1: in global direction \$\$ 0: no constraints \$\$ CON 1 \$\$ 0: no constraints \$\$ 1: constraint x displacement \$\$ 2: constraint y displacement \$\$ 3: constraint z displacement \$\$ 4: constraint x and y displacements \$\$ 5: constraint y and z displacements \$\$ 6: constraint z and x displacements \$\$ 7: constraint x, y and z displacements \$\$CON2: is for Rotations and follow similar pattern to CON1 CROWN Technology Confidential

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Boundary Conditions
ABAQUS
*NSET, NSET=Ref_Punch 30027, *AMPLITUDE, NAME =Punch-Displacement, DEFINITION = TABULAR, SMOOTH = 0.5 0.0 ,0.0 ,0.025 ,20.0 *BOUNDARY, TYPE = DISPLACEMENT, AMPLITUDE = Punch-Displacement Ref_Punch,1, , 0.0 Ref_Punch,2, ,1.0 Ref_Punch,3,6,0.0

## DYNA Rigid Part

*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID ID DOF VAD LCID SF 2 2 2 1 1.0 0 \$\$DOF: applicable DOF \$\$ 1 - x translation, 2 - y translation, 3 - z translation \$\$VAD: type of boundary condition \$\$ 0 Velocity, 1 Acceleration, 2 Displacement *DEFINE_CURVE LCID SFA SFO 1 0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0 Time Multiplier 0.0 0.0 0.025 20.0 ABAQUS 1. 2. 3. The boundary conditions to the rigid part is given to the reference node of the rigid part. Type of boundary condition (Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration) is specified using TYPE parameter. The curve is defined using *AMPLITUDE card.

LS-DYNA 1. 2. 3. The boundary condition to the rigid part is given to the part id. Type of boundary condition (Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration) depends on the value of VAD The curve is defined using *DEFINE_CURVE card.

## DYNA Deformable Part

*BOUNDARY_SPC_NODE \$ NID XT YT ZT 1 0 1 XR YR ZR 1 1

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ABAQUS
*NSET, NSET=Ref_Clamp 60027, *AMPLITUDE, NAME =Load, DEFINITION = TABULAR 0.0 ,7357.5 ,0.025 ,7357.5 *CLOAD, AMPLITUDE = Load Ref_Clamp,2,1.0

DYNA
*LOAD_RIGID_BODY PID DOF LCID SF 4 2 2 1.0 *DEFINE_CURVE LCID SFA SFO 2 0 1.0 1.0 0.0 Time Multiplier 0.0 0.0 0.005 7357.5 0.025 7357.5

0.0

ABAQUS 1. The loading condition to the rigid part is given to the reference node of the rigid part. 2. Different cards used to change type of loading conditions (Concentrated force - *CLOAD; Distributed force *DLOAD) 3. The curve is defined using *AMPLITUDE card. LS-DYNA 1. The boundary condition to the rigid part is given to the part id. 2. Different cards used to change type of loading conditions (Concentrated force - *LOAD_RIGID_BODY (For Rigid Body) / *LOAD_NODE ; Distributed force - *LOAD_SHELL / *LOAD_SEGMENT (For Solid Element)) 3. The curve is defined using *DEFINE_CURVE card.

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Contact
DYNA
*CONTACT_FORMING_ONE_WAY_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE \$ SSID MSID SSTYP MSTYP 1 2 3 3 FS FD 0.1 0.01 20.0 \$ SOFT 0.0/4.0 \$\$SSID: Slave Id (can be node set, element set, part id depends on SSTYPl) \$\$MSID: Master Id (can be node set, element set, part id depends on SSTYPl) \$\$SSTYP: For Slave, 0 - Segment Set Id \$\$ 1 - Shell element set Id \$\$ 2 - Part set Id \$\$ 3 - Part Id \$\$ ..... \$\$MSTYP: Same as Slave \$\$FS: Static Coefficient of friction \$\$FD: Dynamic coefficient of friction Other Contact Definitions *CONTACT_FORMING_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_SINGLE_SURFACE *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC_GENERAL

## Detail Information: http://www.dynasupport.com/Support/tutorial/contact.modeling

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Resources
Tutorials 1. Introduction to DYNA : IntroDyna.pdf 2. Users Guide: Users_Guide.pdf 3. Keywords Manual : ls-dyna_971_manual-k.pdf 4. Example Manual : examples.pdf Input Decks : ....\examples 5. Sample Problems :Sample Problems.pdf Input Decks : ....\Sample Problems 6. Theory Manual :theory.pdf Metal Forming Tutorials 1. Forming Parameters : forming_parameters2.pdf 2. Spring-back : springback_parameters.pdf Web Sites www.dynasupport.com www.feainformation.com www.metalformingsimulation.com www.dynaexamples.com

http://www.dynasupport.com/support/howto http://www.dynasupport.com/support/tutorial

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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Example

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*CONTROL_

Resources
Tutorials 1. Introduction to DYNA : IntroDyna.pdf 2. Users Guide: Users_Guide.pdf 3. Keywords Manual : ls-dyna_971_manual-k.pdf 4. Example Manual : examples.pdf Input Decks : ....\examples 5. Sample Problems :Sample Problems.pdf Input Decks : ....\Sample Problems 6. Theory Manual :theory.pdf Metal Forming Tutorials 1. Forming Parameters : forming_parameters2.pdf 2. Spring-back : springback_parameters.pdf Web Sites www.dynasupport.com www.feainformation.com www.metalformingsimulation.com www.dynaexamples.com

http://www.dynasupport.com/support/howto http://www.dynasupport.com/support/tutorial

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*CONTROL_TERMINATION

## Only this parameter will be required in most cases.

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*CONTROL_TIMESTEP
Used for Mass Scaling : Specify the time step Use (-)time step to specify variable mass scaling

It is a new development in LS-DYNA where in by using this parameter the springback results are not affected by mass scaling. In my knowledge, it does not apply mass scaling to rigid elements and that somehow takes away the negative effects of mass scaling
*CONTROL_TIMESTEP \$\$ DTINIT TSSFAC ISDO TSLIMT DT2MS -8.0e-8 \$\$ IMSCL -1
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LCTM

ERODE

MSIST

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*CONTROL_SHELL

## For Thermal Analysis

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*CONTROL_HOURGLASS

IHQ = 4 for Reduced Integration Shell Element (Section type 2) IHQ = 8 for Fully Integrated Shell Element (Section type 16)

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*CONTROL_CONTACT

There are 4 more cards which are optional and are rarely used

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*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL

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*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLVER

## Use default values

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*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLUTION

## There are 3 more cards which are optional

Use Default for ALL If there is a convergence issue, use ILIMIT = 1; MAXREF = 200 (recommended for springback)

## DO NOT CHANGE DCTOL and ECTOL

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*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_AUTO

Use Default for ITEOPT and ITEWIN If there is a convergence issue, use ITEOPT = 150; ITEWIN = 0 coupled with changes in *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLUTION (recommended for springback)
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*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_STABLIZATION
Used for Springback Analysis

## *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_STABILIZATION \$\$ IAS 1 SCALE TSTART 0.01 0.0 TEND 1.0

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*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_DYNAMICS
Used for Dynamic Analysis like Gravity Analysis
1 0.60 0.38

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*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_EIGENVALUE
Used for extracting Eigen Values

## Specify number of Eigen values desired

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Implicit Simulation
Appendix P of the LS-DYNA 971 Manual provides useful information R:\OnlineHelp\Tutorials-DYNA\Springback_Manual

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*DATABASE_

ASCII Files

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Binary Files
*DATABASE_BINARY_D3DUMP \$\$ DT/CYCL LCDT BEAM NPLTC 7407 With D3DUMP, cycle is specified, I.e. If the time step is 6.75e-8 and we need to write the dump file every (0.5 ms), the value of CYCL = time at which restart files are required X time step = 0.0005X6.75e-8 = 7407 Every 7407 cycles the restart file is written Use option dpf d3dump on command line while submitting the job *DATABASE_BINARY_D3PLOT \$\$ DT/CYCL 5.0000E-04 With D3PLOT, specify the time at which state file is required *DATABASE_BINARY_INTFOR \$\$ DT/CYCL LCID 5.0000E-04 With INTFOR, specify the time at which state file is required LCDT BEAM NPLTC

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*DATABASE_BINARY_INTFOR

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## Use of INTFOR Binary Database

This database can only be opened using LS PREPOST Output : Contact Pressure/Force/Shear Stress Can be used to identify wrinkling (Contact Gap) Wrinkles\Methodology_evaluate_wrinkling_gap.ppt Wrinkles\LS_PREPOST_Wrinkles.ppt

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Elements are sub-divided into smaller elements according to the set indicators. Most widely used indicators for metal forming process are: Adaptive tolerance angle (ADPTOL) Maximum level of refinement (MAXLVL)

Change in angle :0

MAXLVL :- 1

MAXLVL :- 2

MAXLVL :- 3

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## Equal to blank thickness EVERY 1 OR 2 MM OF TOOL TRAVEL

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New option in LS 971 I have not tried this

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Material Models

## Available on LS-DYNA 971 Manual pg 1401 - 1409

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Material Models

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*MAT_PIECEWISE_PLASTICITY (MAT_24)
Most frequently used material model to define plasticity Specify the Failure parameter effective plastic strain at fialure FAIL LCSS defines the stress-strain curve LCSR can be used to incorporate strain rate effect

There are 2 more cards, which are not optional, but should be left blank if LCSS is defined

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*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT (MAT_36)
Gives maximum flexibility in modelling plasticity Define the plasticity (combination of HR, P1 and P2) Using stress-strain curve Holloman's law Hocket Sherby Stress-Strain in 3 directions Define Anisotropy (R00, R45. R90)

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*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT (MAT_36)
These 3 cards are used to define rolling direction

## For other AOPT options see pg 1427 of LS-DYNA 971 Manual

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## Plasticity with Damage

Failure Based on Damage Modelling

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## Other Material Models

Lot of Material Models available for Rubber Foam Spring Concrete Tissue

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*CONTACT
http://www.dynasupport.com/support/tutorial/contact.modeling

Contact
SURFACE_TO_SURFACE 1. Normal should point to each other 1. It checks for penetration on both sides of the shell element so direction of normal does not matter 1. It checks for penetration on both sides of the shell element so direction of normal does not matter AUTOMATIC_SURFACE_TO_SU RFACE FORMING_SURFACE_TO_SURF ACE

2. Thickness offset depends on parameters THKOPT Optional Card B of *CONTACT_SURFACE_ Also Parameter SHLTHK comes into picture if THKOPT = 1 THKOPT = 2

## 2. ALWAYS takes into account thickness offset.

2. Thickness offset is considered only for SLAVE side (used in metal forming applications).

THKOPT = 1, SHLTHK = 1 If one of them is rigid If both of them are rigid If none of them are rigid

THKOPT = 1, SHLTHK = 0
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Contact
Thickness offsets are always considered for a single surface contact and constraint method type contact
ONE_WAY_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE SURFACE_TO_SURFACE

It is a one way treatment, slave surface is checked for penetration against the master surface and not the other way round

It is a two way treatment, slave surface is checked for penetration against the master surface and vice versa.

http://www.dynasupport.com/support/tutorial/contact.modeling/contact.types
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## Card 1 is used primarily to define the contact surfaces/parts/nodes

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Contact Card 1
SSTYP 0: It is similar to defining Surfaces in ABAQUS. I prefer to use this option while modelling contact where solid elements are involved.

SSTYP 2: I use it rarely, prefer using Segment SSTYP 3: Parts with shell elements

Segments in Contact

SSTYP 0: Also, with shell elements if you want to distinguish between upper and lower surface.

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## Contact Card 2 (Required)

20.0

Card 2 is used primarily to define the friction, birth and death time of contact

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## Contact Card 3 (Required)

Card 3 is used, If we need to change the penalty stiffness if there is penetration (SFS, SFM) If we need to specify a different thickness to shell elements (SST, MST)

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Contact Card 4
For some Contact types, 4th Required card is there and is different for different option, _TIEBREAK _CONSTRAINT _DRAWBEAD _ERODING _INTERFERENCE And few more

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## Contact Card A (Optional)

SOFT =1, if the contacting surfaces have wide variation in the elastic bulk moduli for eg. Metal and Foam SOFT =2, with SBOPT 3 and DEPTH = 5 : This is used if the contacting surfaces have sharp features eg. Contact with shell edges

SOFT =4, it is applicable only with _FORMING. It is similar to ABAQUSs kinematics formulation. If adaptivity is there this contact is not robust. Also it should not be used on both sides of shell. I will not recommend this option

http://www.dynasupport.com/support/tutorial/contact.modeling/Contact.Parameters
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## Contact Card B (Optional)

See Slide 54

http://www.dynasupport.com/support/tutorial/contact.modeling/Contact.Parameters
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## Treatment of initial penetration in *CONTACT_AUTOMATIC

http://www.dynasupport.com/support/tutorial/contact.modeling/Contact.Parameters
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## Other Contact Options

_SMOOTH option is available in release 971: It converts the meshed rigid surface into smooth geometric surface (internally) I.e. no facets _TIED is use to tie surfaces. It is recommended to use segment to define the two surfaces (SSTYP = 0) _TIEBREAK: It can be used to model surfaces which are tied but fails when tensile stress and/or shear stress exceeds the defined values

http://www.dynasupport.com/support/tutorial/contact.modeling/contact.types
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## Other Contact TYPES

These contact types doesnt follow the same format (I.e. 3 required card) as explained earlier. They have different cards associated with them.
*CONTACT_INTERIOR

*CONTACT_2D

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