Cardiovascular functioning

AIMS
‡ Explore the relationship between structure and function of the heart. ‡ Examine the cardiac cycle. ‡ Determine the factors that contribute to the passage of blood. ‡ Examine how cardiovascular systems physiology are integrated.

Structure of the heart

The cardiac cycle

Principles of cardiac cycling
During the cardiac cycle heart valves open and close in response to differences in blood pressure on their two sides.

Anterior view

Left lateral view

There are three distinct phases to the cardiac cycle. 1. Ventricular filling 2. Ventricular systole 3. Isovolumetric relaxation

Blood flows passively into the atria through the open AV valves, and into the ventricles where the pressure is lower. The atria contract forcing the remaining blood into the ventricles.

Isovolumetric contraction: Ventricles contract and intraventricular pressure rises, closing the AV valves.

Briefly the ventricles are completely closed chambers.

Ventricular ejection: Rising ventricular pressure forces the semilunar valves open. Blood is ejected from the heart.

To the lungs Isovolumetric relaxation: Ventricles relax and ventricular pressure drops. Blood backflows, closing the semilunar valves. Ventricles are tightly closed off again.

Meanwhile the atria have been filling with blood. When atrial pressure exceeds ventricular pressure AV valves open and the ventricular filling begins again.

Both atria contract at the same time and both ventricles contract at the same time.

Cardiac output
‡ Cardiac output (Q) is the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute. ‡ Cardiac output is directly related to stoke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR) Q (L.min-1) = HR (bpm) x SV (ml.b-1)

70 ml

Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle with each heart beat. SV = the difference between end diastolic volume and end systolic volume ESV=amount EDV=amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of systole diastole (contraction) (relaxation)

70 ml

Circulatory blood flow

Blood vessel structure
Lumen

Tunica Intima

Tunica media

Tunica adventitia

Arteries, veins and capillaries

Blood pressure and circulation

Systemic pathway of blood

Venous valves
Hinge like flaps formed from the tunica intima. Most abundant in the limbs where the upward flow of blood is opposed by gravity. One-way valves prevent backflow. Venous valve

Venous valve

To heart

Venous muscular pump

Contracting skeletal muscles push against the veins. Blood is forced through oneway venous valves. To heart

Summary

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