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What is a Rocks?

Rocks are generally classified by mineral and chemical composition, by the texture of the constituent particles and by the processes that formed them. These indicators separate rocks into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.

The Three Classes of Rocks?


The The The

Igneous Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Metamorphic Rocks

Igneous rocks
A magma rock plutonic volcanic

Earth

lava

TYPES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS


Andesite - an Intermediate volcanic rock Anorthosite - an igneous ultramafic rock composed predominantly of plagioclaseAplite - a very fine grained intrusive igneous rockBasalt - a volcanic rock of mafic composition Adakite - a class of basaltic rocks containing relatively small amounts of the trace elements yttrium and ytterbiumHawaiite - a class of basalts formed from Ocean Island (hot spot) magmatism Basanite - a volcanic rock of mafic composition; essentially a silica undersaturated basalt Boninite - a high-magnesian basalt dominated by pyroxene Carbonatite - a rare igneous rock composed of >50% carbonate mineralsCharnockite - a rare type of granite containing pyroxeneEnderbite - a variety of charnockite Dacite - a felsic to intermediate volcanic rock with high iron content Diabase or dolerite - an intrusive mafic rock forming dykes or sillsDiorite - a coarse grained intermediate plutonic rock composed of plagioclase, pyroxene and/or amphibole Dunite - an ultramafic cumulate rock composed of olivine and accessories Essexite - a silica undersaturated mafic plutonic rock (essentially a foid-bearing gabbro) Foidolite - a plutonic igneous rock composed of >90% feldspathoid minerals Gabbro - a coarse grained plutonic rock composed of pyroxene and plagioclase basically equivalent to basaltGranite - a coarse grained plutonic rock composed of orthoclase, plagioclase and quartzGranodiorite - a granitic plutonic rock with plagioclase > orthoclase Granophyre - a subvolcanic intrusive rock of granitic composition Harzburgite - a variety of peridotite; an ultramafic cumulate rockHornblendite - a mafic or ultramafic cumulate rock dominated by >90% hornblende Hyaloclastite - a volcanic rock composed primarily of glasses and glassy tuff

Icelandite - a volcanic rock Ignimbrite - a fragmental volcanic rock Ijolite - a very rare silica-undersaturated plutonic rock Limey shale overlaid by limestone. Cumberland Plateau,Tennessee Kimberlite - a rare ultramafic, ultrapotassic volcanic rock and a source of diamonds Komatiite - an ancient ultramafic volcanic rock Lamproite - an ultrapotassic volcanic rock Lamprophyre - an ultramafic, ultrapotassic intrusive rock dominated by mafic phenocrysts in a feldspar groundmass Latite - a silica undersaturated form of andesite Lherzolite - an ultramafic rock, essentially a peridotite Monzogranite - a silica undersaturated granite with <5% normative quartz Monzonite - a plutonic rock with <5% normative quartz Nepheline syenite - a silica undersaturated plutonic rock with nepheline replacing orthoclase Nephelinite - a silica undersaturated plutonic rock with >90% nepheline Norite - a hypersthene bearing gabbro Obsidian - a type of volcanic glass Pegmatite - an igneous rock (or metamorphic rock) with giant sized crystals Peridotite - a plutonic or cumulate ultramafic rock composed of >90% olivine Phonolite - a silica undersaturated volcanic rock; essentially similar to nepheline syenite Picrite - an olivine-bearing basalt Porphyry - a rock, usually granitic, with a porphyritic texture Pumice - a fine grained, extremely vesicular volcanic rock Pyroxenite - a coarse grained plutonic rock composed of >90% pyroxene Quartz diorite - a diorite with >5% modal quartz Quartz monzonite - an intermediate plutonic rock, essentially a monzonite with 5-10% modal quartz

Rhyodacite - a felsic volcanic rock which is intermediate between a rhyolite and a dacite Rhyolite - a felsic volcanic rock Comendite - a peralkaline rhyolite Pantellerite - an alkaline rhyolite-rhyodacite with amphibole phenocrysts Scoria - an extremely vesicular mafic volcanic rock Sovite - a coarse grained carbonatite rock Syenite - a plutonic rock dominated by orthoclase feldspar; a type of granitoid Tachylyte - essentially a basaltic glass Tephrite - a silica undersaturated volcanic rock; can be a generic term Tonalite - a plagioclase-dominant granitoid Trachyandesite - an alkaline intermediate volcanic rock Benmoreite - sodic trachyandesite Basaltic trachyandesite Mugearite - sodic basaltic trachyandesite Shoshonite - potassic basaltic trachyandesite Trachyte - a silica undersaturated volcanic rock; essentially a feldspathoid-bearing rhyolite Troctolite - a plutonic ultramafic rock containing olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase Trondhjemite - a form of tonalite where plagioclase-group feldspar is oligoclase Tuff - a fine grained volcanic rock formed from volcanic ash Websterite - a type of pyroxenite, composed of clinoproxene and orthopyroxene Wehrlite - an ultramafic plutonic or cumulate rock, a type of peridotite, composed of olivine and clinopyroxene

Example of Igneous Rocks


Basalt Pumice

Granite

Sedimentary rocks
clastic sediments matter evaporites

diagenesis

mudstone shale siltst one sandstones carbonate rocks limestone dolostone

TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS


Argillite - a sedimentary rock composed primarily of clay-sized particles Arkose - a sedimentary rock similar to sandstone Banded iron formation - a fine grained chemical sedimentary rock composed of iron oxide minerals Breccia - a sedimentary or tectonic rock composed of fragments of other, broken rocks Cataclasite - a rock formed by faulting Chalk - a sedimentary rock composed primarily of coccolith fossils Chert - a fine grained chemical sedimentary rock composed of silica Claystone - a sedimentary rock formed from clay Coal - a sedimentary rock formed from organic matter Conglomerate - a sedimentary rock composed of large rounded fragments of other rocks Diamictite - a poorly sorted conglomerate Coquina - a sedimentary carbonate rock formed by accumulation of abundant shell fossils and fragments Diatomite - a sedimentary rock formed from diatom fossils Dolomite or dolostone - a carbonate rock composed of the mineral dolomite +/calcite Evaporite - a chemical sedimentary rock formed by accumulation of minerals after evaporation Flint - a form of chert Greywacke - an immature sandstone with quartz, feldspar and rock fragments within a clay matrix Gritstone - essentially a coarse sandstone formed from small pebbles Itacolumite - porous, yellow sandstone

Jaspillite - an iron-rich chemical sedimentary rock similar to chert or banded iron formation Laterite - a residual sedimentary rock formed from a parent rock under tropical conditions Lignite - a sedimentary rock composed of organic material; otherwise known as Brown Coal Limestone - a sedimentary rock composed primarily of carbonate minerals Marl - a limestone with a considerable proportion of silicate material Mudstone - a sedimentary rock composed of clay and muds Oil shale - a sedimentary rock composed dominantly of organic material Oolite - a chemical sedimentary limestone Sandstone - a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size Shale - a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size Siltstone - a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size Travertine - a sedimentary rock containing calcite and iron oxides Turbidite - a particular sequence of sedimentary rocks which form within the deep ocean environment Wackestone - a matrix-supported carbonate sedimentary rock.

Example of Sedimentary Rocks


Mudstone Carbonate Stone

Limestone

Metamorphic rocks
temperature pressure

recrystallisation

TYPES OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS


Anthracite - a type of coal Amphibolite - a metamorphic rock composed primarily of amphibole Blueschist - a metamorphic rock composed of sodic amphiboles with a distinct blue color Eclogite - an ultra-high grade metamorphosed basalt or gabbro; also a facies of metamorphic rocks Gneiss - a coarse grained metamorphic rock Gossan - the product of the weathering of a sulfide rock or ore body Granulite - a high grade metamorphic rock formed from basalt; also a facies of metamorphic rocks Greenschist - a generic term for a mafic metamorphic rock dominated by green amphiboles Greenstone Hornfels - a metamorphic rock formed by heating by an igneous rock Marble - a metamorphosed limestone Migmatite - a high grade metamorphic rock verging upon melting into a magma Mylonite - a metamorphic rock formed by shearing Pelite - a metamorphic rock with a protolith of clay-rich (siltstone) sedimentary rock Phyllite - a low grade metamorphic rock composed mostly of micaceous minerals Psammite - a metamorphic rock with a protolith of quartz-rich (sandstone) sedimentary rock Pseudotachylite - a glass formed by melting within a fault via friction Quartzite - a metamorphosed sandstone typically composed of >95% quartz Schist - a low to medium grade metamorphic rock Serpentinite - a metamorphosed ultramafic rock dominated by serpentine minerals Skarn - a metasomatic rock

Slate - a low grade metamorphic rock formed from shale or silts Suevite - a rock formed by partial melting during a meteorite impact Talc carbonate - a metamorphosed ultramafic rock with talc as an essential constituent; similar to a serpentinite Soapstone - essentially a talc schist Adamellite - a variety of quartz monzonite Appinite - a group of varieties of lamprophyre, mostly rich in hornblende Aphanite - an aphanitic felsic volcanic rock which confounds identification via optical means Borolanite - a variety of nepheline syenite from Loch Borralan, Scotland Blue Granite - essentially larvikite, a monzonite Epidosite - a type of metasomatite; essentially altered basalt Felsite - an aphanitic felsic volcanic rock which confounds identification via optical means Flint - typically a form of chert, jasper, or tuff Ganister - a Cornish term for a palaeosol formed on sandstone Ijolite - a silica-undersaturated plutonic rock associated with nepheline syenites Jadeitite - a very rare rock formed by concentration of jadeite pyroxene; a form of serpentinite Jasperoid - a hematite-silica metasomatite analogous to a skarn Kenyte - a variety of phonolite, first found on Mount Kenya Vogesite - a variety of lamprophyre Larvikite - a variety of monzonite with microperthitic ternary feldspars from Larvik, Norway Litchfieldite - a metamorphosed nepheline syenite occurrence near Litchfield, Maine Luxullianite - a tourmaline-bearing granite with a peculiar texture, occurring at Luxulyan, Cornwall, England Mangerite - a hypersthene-bearing monzonite Minette - a variety of lamprophyre Novaculite - a chert formation found in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Texas Pyrolite - a chemical analogue considered to theoretically represent the earth's upper mantle Rapakivi granite - a granite which exhibits the peculiar rapakivi texture Rhomb porphyry - a type of latite with euhedral rhombic phenocrysts of feldspar Shonkinite - an archaic and informal term used to describe melitilic and kalsititic rocks; often used today Taconite - a term for banded iron formation primarily used in the United States of America Teschenite - essentially a silica undersaturated, analcime bearing gabbro Theralite - essentially a nepheline gabbro Variolite - devitrified glass

Example of Metamorphic Rocks