INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES

€ International

agencies are Institutions who has the membership of at least three states, having activities in several states, and whose members are held together by a formal agreement.

2. 5.1. 6. 4. 3. SAARC WORLD BANK IDA IMF GATT WTO .

and cultural development emphasizing collective selfreliance.full form is South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation € The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an organization of South Asian nations. founded in December 1985 and dedicated to economic. social. € Its . technological.

Nepal. Pakistan. € Meetings of heads of state are usually scheduled annually. Nepal.€ Its seven founding members are Bangladesh. . and Sri Lanka. meetings of foreign secretaries. Afghanistan joined the organization in 2005. twice annually. India. € It is headquartered in Kathmandu. Bhutan. the Maldives.

€ To contribute to mutual trust. social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realize their full potential.The objectives of the Association as defined in the Charter are: € To promote the welfare of the people of South Asia and to improve their quality of life. € To promote and strengthen collective selfreliance among the countries of South Asia. . understanding and appreciation of one another's problems. € To accelerate economic growth.

cultural.€ To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic. € To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries. € To strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interest. social. . technical and scientific fields. and € To cooperate with international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes.

and research.World Bank is an organization whose focus is on foreign exchange reserves and balance of trade. € It is a non-profit-making international organization owned by member governments. € The World Bank Group gives loans at low rate of interest to member countries. advice. € It is a group of five international organizations. € . finance and technical assistance to member countries to reducing poverty and provides aid to member countries in their process of economic development with loans. € The World Bank Group gives advice.

€ The Bank came into existence on 27th December 1945.C. . D.. € It also has offices in 124 other member countries.€ The Group has its headquarters in Washington.

. € The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). established in 1956. established in 1988 and € The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). established in 1966.€ The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). € The International Development Association (IDA). established in 1960. € The International Finance Corporation (IFC). established in 1945.

€ The activities of the World Bank Group cover many activities. Some of these activities are as follows: 1. Reduction of pollution 4. Development of system for good government . for example. development of facilities likes roads and electricity 5. Development of health and education 2. Development of infrastructure. Development of agriculture and rural development 3.

But. € The IBRD has 184 countries as its members. Other four organizations of the Group have between 140 to 176 member countries. A President heads the Board. member countries govern it through a board. the World Bank Group is part of the United Nations system.€ In general. . € A Board of 24 Executive Directors controls the activities of the World Bank Group.

an affiliate of the World Bank. € It is the largest single multilateral source of concessional lending to low-income countries. € The International Development Association (IDA). was established in 1960 to promote economic development in the world's poorest countries³those that cannot afford to borrow from the IBRD.INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION (IDA) is a finance agency helping poorest nations and administered by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development to provide assistance on concessionary terms to the poorest countries. € .

under the name International Development Association. € . As a result. with extended grace periods. unlike the resources of a regular lending institution. € The IDA started operations in November 1960. without objections. a motion of US Secretary of the Treasury Robert Anderson that a new agency.The IDA's loans are interest-free and repayable over very long terms. the IBRD's Board of Governors approved. € On 1 October 1959. the IDA's resources. must be regularly replenished through contributions if the agency is to continue in business. be established as an affiliate of the Bank.

€ Its headquarters are in Washington. € All members of the IMF are also IBRD members. € . when the first 29 countries signed its Articles of Agreement.C.. and vice versa. in particular those with an impact on exchange rate and the balance of payments. United States.The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the intergovernmental organization that oversees the global financial system by following the macroeconomic policies of its member countries. D. 1945. € The IMF was formally organized on December 27.

three main principles of IMF the € 1) Surveillance € 2) Conditional Financial Support € 3) Technical Assistance € The .

.€ The appraisal (judge the value or quantity)of a country·s economic and structural policies and performance from an international standpoint. the exchange rates and balance of payments. € It is a regulatory or jurisdictional function. which historically has been focused on the assessment of the exchange arrangements.

€ Provide short term loans (1 to 5 years) to countries experiencing balance of payments problems so that they can restore conditions for sustainable economic growth conditional upon policies and procedures developed by the fund to govern the access to and the use of its resource by member countries. .

the 25% of the quota is paid in some major currency (ie// € US Dollar. which is calculated based upon a country·s relative size in the world economy. . Yen while the remaining 75% is paid in their own currency. determined by their quota.€ Most loans are provided by member countries. British Pound. € Upon joining.

from identification of need. to implementation. monitoring. € The IMF attaches great importance to country ownership. and evaluation. € The recipient country is fully involved in the entire process of technical assistance. € About three-quarters of IMF technical assistance goes to low and lower-middle income countries.The IMF·s goal for its technical support is to contribute to the development of the productive resources of member countries by enhancing the effectiveness of economic policy and financial policy. € .

€ The primary actions of the organization were to freeze and reduce tariff levels on various commodities. € GATT was created in 1947.€ General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a treaty organization affiliated with the United Nations whose purpose was to facilitate international trade. .

Although the GATT was initially largely limited to a tariff agreement. over time. it increasingly came to concentrate on nontariff trade policies and domestic policies having an impact on trade. the GATT has been the major focal point for industrial country governments seeking to lower trade barriers. as average tariff levels fell.€ Since 1947. .

€ The main aim/ principles of GATT are: € Most favoured nations (MFN). same treatment to all the nations who has signed the agreement. . imported goods and domestic goods should be treated same except the payment of custom duty. i.e. i. € Until 1994 the main concern of GATT was to check dumping and unethical business practices. € National Treatment.e. € It is a multi-national treaty initially signed by 23 countries and then 102 countries in 1948.

. € Due to many differences in opinions in Uruguay round the Director General of GATT Arthur Dunkel made a final draft known as ´Dunkel Draftµ. € . in the form of Singel agreement by all the members and signed by them in April 1994. € This final draft or agreement was covered into formal international organisation called W. € 8th round started in 1986 named as Uruguay round (more than 8yrs to complete negotiations).Besides the above GATT reduces traffic on trade and trade restrictions.T. which came into effect from 1st Jan. € Till now 1994. 8 rounds have been held.1995.O.

. exporters. negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world·s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. and importers conduct their business.€ The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. € At its heart are the WTO agreements. € The goal is to help producers of goods and services.

Regulation of supply of Agricultural inputs viz. Seed. Fertilizers and Pesticides and enforcement of their quality by implements in various quality control Acts. To arrange timely wide publicity day to day basis on scientific Agricultural Activities among farming community through different extension activities. .€ € € € € Implementation of Action Plan of perspective plan prepared Village wise.. Distribution of Agricultural Implements and Farm machinery to reduce cost of cultivation. Introduction of new varieties through Minikit programme. Crop-wise and Forming Situation wise to increase productivity by adopting strategies identified for different yield gaps.

Organizing Farmers failed schools to ensure adoption of Integrated Pest Management Practices by Farmers.€ € € € € € Transfer of Technology on Farm Extension Demonstrations for better impact.) agreement" on our Agriculture. through Farmers Training Programme. Ryutu Club meetings and village group meetings. . To create awareness among farming community about implications of "World Trade Organization (W. Formation of Ryutu Clubs in all habitations of the mandal by involving progressive. To create awareness among farming community about National Agricultural Insurance Scheme. literate and enthusiastic farmers and to impart special training to Ryutu Club members for better implementations of latest Technical know how.O. To Emphasize on cultivation cost reduction measures and to improve quality of crop produce by adopting Integrated Nutrient Management and Integrated Pest Management Practices.T.

5. The WTO administers the Understanding on Rules and Procedures governing the settlement of Disputes. administration and operation of the Plurilateral Trade Agreements. and also provide framework for the implementation. the WTO cooperates as appropriate. . of this Agreement and Trade Agreements. 4. The WTO facilitates the implementation.1. 3. with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) and its affiliate agencies. 2. administration and operation. The WTO provides the forum for negotiations among its members concerning their multilateral trade relations in matters dealt with under the agreement and a framework for the implementation of the results of such negotiations. With a view to achieving greater coherence in global economic policy-making. and furthers the objectives. as may be decided by the Ministerial Conference. The WTO administers the Trade Policy Mechanism (TPRM).

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