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Aerodynamic Design of Centrifugal Compressor

Dr. Firman Hartono

Aerodynamic Design of Centrifugal Compressor


Setelah mengikuti kuliah ini mahasiswa dapat:
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Melakukan proses perancangan aerodinamika kompresor sentrifugal

Referensi:
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Hill, P. and Peterson, Mechanic and Thermodynamic of Propulsion Boyce, M.P., Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook Rolls Royce, The Jet Engine

Centrifugal Compressors
Principle of Operation
The impeller is rotated at high speed by the turbine and air is continuously induced into the centre of the impeller. Centrifugal action causes it to flow radially outwards along the vanes to the impeller tip, thus accelerating the air and also causing a rise in pressure to occur. The air, on leaving the impeller, passes into the diffuser section where the passages form divergent nozzles that convert most of the kinetic energy into pressure energy. In practice, it is usual to design the compressor so that about half of the pressure rise occurs in the impeller and half in the diffuser. To maximize the airflow and pressure rise through the compressor requires the impeller to be rotated at high speed, therefore impellers are designed to operate at tip speeds of up to 1,600 ft per sec. By operating at such high tip speeds the air velocity from the impeller is increased so that greater energy is available for conversion to pressure. To maintain the efficiency of the compressor, it is necessary to prevent excessive air leakage between the impeller and the casing; this is achieved by keeping their clearances as small as possible.

The Airflow

Impeller Types

F2 = 90o

F2 < 90o

F2 > 90o

Velocity Triangles

Centrifugal Compressor Parts


A centrifugal compressor usually consist of:
 Inlet guide vanes  Impeller

inducer shrouded / un shrouded splitter


 Diffuser  Volute / Scroll

Inlet Guide Vanes


The IGV give circumferential velocity to the fluid at the inducer inlet (pre-whirl). since

Mrel

Mrel

Pre-whirl
Pre-whirl Types: o Free vortex pre-whirl

Forced vortex pre-whirl

Control vortex pre-whirl

Impeller
An impeller in a centrifugal compressor imparts energy to the fluid. Consist of:  Inducer  Radial blades Two D surfaces for flow analysis

Impeller
Impeller and Meridional Plane

Impeller
Velocity Profile

Impeller
Slip Factor Slip, is caused by:  Coriolis force  Boundary layer development  Leakage  Number of vanes  Vane thickness

F2 angle between relative flow and tangential direction

Diffuser
Diffusing passages have a vital role in obtaining good performance from turbomachines. Their role is to recover the maximum possible kinetic energy leaving the impeller with a minimum loss in total pressure. To avoid flow separation, the opening angle should be maximum 7o.

Losses
Rotor Losses
Shock losses Incidence loss Disc friction loss Diffusion blading loss Clearance loss Skin friction loss

Losses

Stator Losses
Recirculating loss Wake-mixing loss Friction loss

Centrifugal Compressor Design


Known variable from thermodynamic design: Tc, Lc, m 1. Calculate temperature rise using eq. 2. Determine blade number Z, F2 and Wr2/U2. 3. Calculate U2 from eq. In case no pre-whirl (IGV) exist, (UCU)1 = 0, then

where

Note: Q = W , Wm2 = Wr2

stress limited tip speed for current material technology is about 650 m/s !

Centrifugal Compressor Design


4. Calculate Wr2 from known value Wr2/U2 and U2. 5. Calculate M2 from eq.
M2! A K 1 1 A 2
2 2 W Wr 2 W 1  r 2 tan F 2  U 2 U 2 2 U A! 2 a T02 01 T01

where

limited tip speed for high efficiency (>85%) is about M2 = 1.5 ! 6. Determine impeller eye area and impeller eye tip diameter D1t using eq.

M1rel < 1.4 to avoid strong shock wave

Centrifugal Compressor Design


7. Calculate rpm from eq.

8. Calculate D2 from eq. 9. Calculate axial depth, b2 from eq.

where

Centrifugal Compressor Design


10. Blade Design
To avoid blade separation, it is suggested to design a constant deceleration blade, i.e.:

For constant deceleration blade, several approaches can be used, for example: > constant meridional velocity

>

constant breadth

>

linear breadth (straight sloping)

Centrifugal Compressor Design


Inducer
Inducer angle distribution depend on the inlet flow condition For axial inlet air flow:

Note: Ee (r) + F1 (r) = 90o.

Centrifugal Compressor Design


Radial Clearance
To avoid shock in diffuser passage, the high impeller outlet velocity should be reduced by means of an enough radial clearance Clearance calculation
Calculate E* and r* from known M2 and E. Determine M inlet diffuser ( < 1 to avoid shock) By using the known E*, r* and M, calculate r inlet diffuser

2 K  1 2 tan E M ! 1  tan E 2 K 1


1 K 1

K 1 r sin E 2 ! M r sin E 1 K  1 M 2 2
 

1 2

TJE 500 N Compressor Design


TJE 500 N is a turbojet engine designed to produce static thrust of about 500 N at sea level standard condition The compressors design point: Tc = 4.06, m = 0.88 kg/s, Lc = 78%

Questions?