Referensi:

Hill, P. and Peterson, Mechanic and Thermodynamic of Propulsion Boyce, M.P., Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook Rolls Royce, The Jet Engine
Centrifugal Compressors
Principle of Operation
The impeller is rotated at high speed by the turbine and air is continuously induced into the centre of the impeller. Centrifugal action causes it to flow radially outwards along the vanes to the impeller tip, thus accelerating the air and also causing a rise in pressure to occur. The air, on leaving the impeller, passes into the diffuser section where the passages form divergent nozzles that convert most of the kinetic energy into pressure energy. In practice, it is usual to design the compressor so that about half of the pressure rise occurs in the impeller and half in the diffuser. To maximize the airflow and pressure rise through the compressor requires the impeller to be rotated at high speed, therefore impellers are designed to operate at tip speeds of up to 1,600 ft per sec. By operating at such high tip speeds the air velocity from the impeller is increased so that greater energy is available for conversion to pressure. To maintain the efficiency of the compressor, it is necessary to prevent excessive air leakage between the impeller and the casing; this is achieved by keeping their clearances as small as possible.
The Airflow
Impeller Types
F2 = 90o
F2 < 90o
F2 > 90o
Velocity Triangles
Mrel
Mrel
Prewhirl
Prewhirl Types: o Free vortex prewhirl
Impeller
An impeller in a centrifugal compressor imparts energy to the fluid. Consist of: Inducer Radial blades Two D surfaces for flow analysis
Impeller
Impeller and Meridional Plane
Impeller
Velocity Profile
Impeller
Slip Factor Slip, is caused by: Coriolis force Boundary layer development Leakage Number of vanes Vane thickness
Diffuser
Diffusing passages have a vital role in obtaining good performance from turbomachines. Their role is to recover the maximum possible kinetic energy leaving the impeller with a minimum loss in total pressure. To avoid flow separation, the opening angle should be maximum 7o.
Losses
Rotor Losses
Shock losses Incidence loss Disc friction loss Diffusion blading loss Clearance loss Skin friction loss
Losses
Stator Losses
Recirculating loss Wakemixing loss Friction loss
where
stress limited tip speed for current material technology is about 650 m/s !
where
limited tip speed for high efficiency (>85%) is about M2 = 1.5 ! 6. Determine impeller eye area and impeller eye tip diameter D1t using eq.
where
For constant deceleration blade, several approaches can be used, for example: > constant meridional velocity
>
constant breadth
>
2 K 1 2 tan E M ! 1 tan E 2 K 1
1 K 1
K 1 r sin E 2 ! M r sin E 1 K 1 M 2 2
1 2
Questions?