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# Aerodynamic Design of Centrifugal Compressor

## Aerodynamic Design of Centrifugal Compressor

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## Melakukan proses perancangan aerodinamika kompresor sentrifugal

Referensi:
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Hill, P. and Peterson, Mechanic and Thermodynamic of Propulsion Boyce, M.P., Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook Rolls Royce, The Jet Engine

Centrifugal Compressors
Principle of Operation
The impeller is rotated at high speed by the turbine and air is continuously induced into the centre of the impeller. Centrifugal action causes it to flow radially outwards along the vanes to the impeller tip, thus accelerating the air and also causing a rise in pressure to occur. The air, on leaving the impeller, passes into the diffuser section where the passages form divergent nozzles that convert most of the kinetic energy into pressure energy. In practice, it is usual to design the compressor so that about half of the pressure rise occurs in the impeller and half in the diffuser. To maximize the airflow and pressure rise through the compressor requires the impeller to be rotated at high speed, therefore impellers are designed to operate at tip speeds of up to 1,600 ft per sec. By operating at such high tip speeds the air velocity from the impeller is increased so that greater energy is available for conversion to pressure. To maintain the efficiency of the compressor, it is necessary to prevent excessive air leakage between the impeller and the casing; this is achieved by keeping their clearances as small as possible.

The Airflow

Impeller Types

F2 = 90o

F2 < 90o

F2 > 90o

Velocity Triangles

## Centrifugal Compressor Parts

A centrifugal compressor usually consist of:
 Inlet guide vanes  Impeller

## inducer shrouded / un shrouded splitter

 Diffuser  Volute / Scroll

## Inlet Guide Vanes

The IGV give circumferential velocity to the fluid at the inducer inlet (pre-whirl). since

Mrel

Mrel

Pre-whirl
Pre-whirl Types: o Free vortex pre-whirl

## Control vortex pre-whirl

Impeller
An impeller in a centrifugal compressor imparts energy to the fluid. Consist of:  Inducer  Radial blades Two D surfaces for flow analysis

Impeller
Impeller and Meridional Plane

Impeller
Velocity Profile

Impeller
Slip Factor Slip, is caused by:  Coriolis force  Boundary layer development  Leakage  Number of vanes  Vane thickness

## F2 angle between relative flow and tangential direction

Diffuser
Diffusing passages have a vital role in obtaining good performance from turbomachines. Their role is to recover the maximum possible kinetic energy leaving the impeller with a minimum loss in total pressure. To avoid flow separation, the opening angle should be maximum 7o.

Losses
Rotor Losses
Shock losses Incidence loss Disc friction loss Diffusion blading loss Clearance loss Skin friction loss

Losses

Stator Losses
Recirculating loss Wake-mixing loss Friction loss

## Centrifugal Compressor Design

Known variable from thermodynamic design: Tc, Lc, m 1. Calculate temperature rise using eq. 2. Determine blade number Z, F2 and Wr2/U2. 3. Calculate U2 from eq. In case no pre-whirl (IGV) exist, (UCU)1 = 0, then

where

## Note: Q = W , Wm2 = Wr2

stress limited tip speed for current material technology is about 650 m/s !

## Centrifugal Compressor Design

4. Calculate Wr2 from known value Wr2/U2 and U2. 5. Calculate M2 from eq.
M2! A K 1 1 A 2
2 2 W Wr 2 W 1  r 2 tan F 2  U 2 U 2 2 U A! 2 a T02 01 T01

where

limited tip speed for high efficiency (>85%) is about M2 = 1.5 ! 6. Determine impeller eye area and impeller eye tip diameter D1t using eq.

## Centrifugal Compressor Design

7. Calculate rpm from eq.

where

## Centrifugal Compressor Design

To avoid blade separation, it is suggested to design a constant deceleration blade, i.e.:

For constant deceleration blade, several approaches can be used, for example: > constant meridional velocity

>

>

## Centrifugal Compressor Design

Inducer
Inducer angle distribution depend on the inlet flow condition For axial inlet air flow:

## Centrifugal Compressor Design

To avoid shock in diffuser passage, the high impeller outlet velocity should be reduced by means of an enough radial clearance Clearance calculation
Calculate E* and r* from known M2 and E. Determine M inlet diffuser ( < 1 to avoid shock) By using the known E*, r* and M, calculate r inlet diffuser

2 K  1 2 tan E M ! 1  tan E 2 K 1


1 K 1

K 1 r sin E 2 ! M r sin E 1 K  1 M 2 2
 

1 2

## TJE 500 N Compressor Design

TJE 500 N is a turbojet engine designed to produce static thrust of about 500 N at sea level standard condition The compressors design point: Tc = 4.06, m = 0.88 kg/s, Lc = 78%

Questions?