A Human Area Networking System

NANDAGOPAL S

NANDAKUMAR G

CONTENTS
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ INTRODUCTION TO H.A.N RED TACTON-A DEFINITION WORKING PRINCIPLE FEATURES OF RED TACTON COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS AND SCOPE AVAILABLE PROTOTYPES CONCLUSION REFERENCE

INTRODUCTION TO H.A.N
‡ H.A.N (Human Area Networking) is a form of communication which makes the human body the communication network ‡ It is used to provide safe and high speed network transmission ‡ Main area of application is regarding mobile terminals and terminals that are embedded in environment ‡ Cables are not used due to difficulty in routing ‡ Weak radio signals are not used due to reduction of data speeds by packet collision and other such problems in crowded place; also security risk from unwanted signal interception ‡ Prevents all these problems by using weak electric fields on surface of body as transmission medium

HUMAN AREA NETWORK

RED TACTON - A DEFINITION
‡ RedTacton is an HAN system developed by Japanese company NLL, which claims it can send data through the surface of skin at speeds of up to 10 Mbps ‡ The technology uses minute electric fields emitted on the surface of the human body ‡ A transmission path is formed the moment a part of the human body comes in contact with a RedTacton transceiver ‡ RedTacton works natural, physical movements ‡ The name is derived from tacton which means action triggered by touching along with the word red, which in Japanese culture is an auspicious colour of warmth and love

WORKING PRINCIPLE
‡ An electric pulse of around +5V is induced towards the body by the transmitter s signal electrode (Ea) ‡ System requires a ground close to transmitter signal electrode so electric field induced from body (Eb) can follow return path to transmitter ground ‡ Field Ec escapes from body to ground, mainly through feet ‡ Electric field reaching detector Es = Ea (Eb + Ec) ‡ Signal is coupled to electro-optic crystal at receiver changing the crystal s optical properties ‡ This change is detected by laser light and transformed to digital data by receiver circuit

WORKING PRINCIPLE

RED TACTON TRANSCEIVER
‡ ‡ ‡ Figure shows block diagram of transceiver circuit Transmitter circuit induces electric fields towards the body Data sense circuit distinguishes transmitting and receiving modes by detecting both transmission and reception data and outputs control signals corresponding to the two modes to enable two-way communication. Receiver consists of an electrooptic sensor and a detector circuit that amplifies the minute incoming signal from the electro-optic sensor and converts it to electrical signal

‡

RED TACTON TRANSCEIVER
‡ The electro-optic sensor consists of an electro-optic crystal with laser light ‡ The electro-optic sensor has 3 key features: a) it can measure electric fields from a device under test (DUT) without contacting it, which minimizes measurement disturbance b) ultrawide-band measurement is possible c) it supports one-point contact measurement that is independent of the ground

RED TACTON TRANSCEIVER
‡ The received electric field changes the refractive index of the crystal ‡ This in turn changes the polarisation of the sensor s light beam as it shines through the crystal ‡ Photodetectors register polarization changes as changes in light intensity and convert those changes into electrical signals, which are then processed by the receiving terminal

RED TACTON TRANSCEIVER
‡ Basically, a receive-first half-duplex communication scheme is implemented that sends only after checking to make sure that there is no data to receive in order to avoid packet collisions between terminals in compliance with the IEEE 802.3 protocol.

HUMAN SAFETY
‡ The transmitting and receiving electrodes of the RedTacton transceiver are completely covered with insulating film, so the body of the person acting as the transmission medium is completely insulated When communication occurs, displacement current is generated by the electrons in the body because the body is subjected to minute electrical fields. However, such displacement currents are very common in everyday occurrences to which we are all subjected to

‡

FEATURES OF RED TACTON

FEATURES OF RED TACTON
‡ TOUCH: Communication with just a touch or step
‡ Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and other human movements can be the triggers for unlocking or locking, starting or stopping equipment, or obtaining data ‡ Using RedTacton, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations through physical contact according to the human's natural movements

FEATURES OF RED TACTON
‡ BROADBAND & INTERACTIVE:
‡ Because the transmission path is on the surface of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at the same time ‡ Taking advantage of this speed, device drivers can be downloaded instantly and execute programs can be sent

FEATURES OF RED TACTON

FEATURES OF RED TACTON
‡ ANY MEDIA:
‡ In addition to the human body, various conductors, dielectrics or their combinations can be used as transmission media. ‡ A communication environment can be created easily and at low-cost by using items close at hand, such as desks, walls, and metal objects ‡ But there are limitations on the length of the conductor to be propagated, on installation locations, and on the thickness of the dielectric to be passed through

FEATURES OF RED TACTON
DIELECTRICS CONDUCTORS

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGIES
WIRELESS LAN ‡ Communication speed can deteriorate in crowded spaces due to a lack of bandwidth REDTACTON ‡ Device drivers can be downloaded instantly and executable programs can be quickly sent

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGIES

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGIES

COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNOLOGIES

APPLICATIONS AND SCOPE
‡ RedTacton supports two-way exchange of large amounts of data between portable electronic devices ‡ RedTacton provides an independent transmission path for each individual person (that is, for each conductor) even in congested places, so it provides very secure, fast communication without any interference ‡ Almost anything that acts as a conductor a human or animal body, water, metal, etc. can serve as a RedTacton transmission path; there is no need for a dedicated cable or antenna

APPLICATIONS AND SCOPE
‡ Touch a printer to print ‡ Print out where you want just by touching the desired printer with one hand and a PC or digital camera with the other hand to make the link ‡ Complicated configurations are reduced by downloading device drivers "at first touch"

APPLICATIONS AND SCOPE
‡ Red Tacton devices embedded medicine bottles transmit information on the medicines' attributes ‡ If the user touches the wrong medicine, an alarm will trigger on the terminal he is carrying ‡ The alarm sounds only if the user actually touches the medicine bottle, reducing false alarms common with passive wireless ID tags, which can trigger simply by proximity

APPLICATIONS AND SCOPE
‡ When a consumer stands in front of an advertising panel, advertising and information matching his or her attributes is automatically displayed ‡ By touching or standing in front of items they are interested in, consumers can get more in-depth information

APPLICATIONS AND SCOPE
‡ An electrically conductive sheet is embedded in the table ‡ A network connection is initiated simply by placing a laptop on the table ‡ Using different sheet patterns enables segmentation of the table into subnets

APPLICATIONS AND SCOPE
‡ Carrying a mobile RedTacton-capable device in one's pocket, ID is verified and the door unlocked when the user holds the doorknob normally ‡ Secure lock administration is possible by combining personal verification tools such as fingerprint ID or other biometric in the mobile terminal

APPLICATIONS AND SCOPE

AVAILABLE PROTOTYPES
‡ The receiver must be able to detect very weak electrical-field signal components with high sensitivity ‡ The receiver s signal electrodes are susceptible to electromagnetic noise from the environment and its ground electrodes are susceptible to noise introduced via floating capacitance with the earth ground ‡ Both filters for removing noise components and differential detection for suppressing ambient noise are needed

AVAILABLE PROTOTYPES
‡ Mainly, Large Scale Integration (LSI) is implemented to to recognise the chip used in the device ‡ Two types of LSI- analog and digital ‡ Analog LSI: BPSK with carrier frequency of either 6.75 or 9 MHz and the bit rate of about 500 Kbit/s ‡ Digital LSI: 16-bit central processing unit (CPU) that operates at 10 MHz, a 256-KB Flash memory for storing application software and a 24-KB random access memory (RAM)

AVAILABLE PROTOTYPES
‡ CARD TERMINAL: ‡ This terminal comprises the analog LSI, the digital LSI, an E2PROM, an oscillator, a power-supply IC, a coin battery (2.5 V), and electrodes ‡ The front has light emitting diodes (LEDs) to indicate the communication state ‡ The E2PROM stores various evaluation data for later analysis

AVAILABLE PROTOTYPES
‡ EMBEDDED TERMINAL: ‡ This terminal comprises the analog LSI, the digital LSI, an E2PROM, an oscillator, an RS232C driver, a power-supply IC, and a transmission driver ‡ The power supply is 5 V and a 9-pin D-sub RS232C interface enables connection to external devices ‡ The transmitting and receiving electrodes are connected to the terminal s SMA connector via a coaxial cable

AVAILABLE PROTOTYPES
‡ COMPACT MODULE: ‡ A communication module containing one analog LSI and one digital LSI, an E2PROM, and an oscillator can be implemented as an ultra small package ‡ This package can be mounted on the circuit boards of various devices by ordinary reflow mounting, which enables a wide range of applications

AVAILABLE PROTOTYPES

CONCLUSION
‡ RedTacton is an exciting new technology for human area networking ‡ RedTacton system supporting two-way intrabody communication at a rate of 10 Mbit/s between any two points on the body ‡ NTT is committed to using its comprehensive commercialization functions to push this research out to the marketplace as quickly as possible while moving ahead with tests and trials in collaboration with commercial partners as necessary

REFERENCES
‡ www.wikipedia.org ‡ www.scribd.com ‡ https://www.nttreview.jp/archive/ntttechnical.php?contents=ntr2 01003sf2.html ‡ T. G. Zimmerman, Personal Area Networks: Near-field intrabody communication, IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 35, Nos. 3&4, pp.609- 617, 1996 ‡ A Touch Too Much , IEEE Spectrum, Jan 2006

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