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OGI EE564 Howard Heck

© H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

1

EE 564

Where Are We?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Transmission Line Basics Analysis Tools Metrics & Methodology Advanced Transmission Lines

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Losses Intersymbol Interference Crosstalk Frequency Domain Analysis 2 Port Networks & S-Parameters

S-Parameters

6. Multi-Gb/s Signaling 7. Special Topics

© H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

2

EE 564

Acknowledgement

Much of the material in this section has been adapted from material developed by Stephen H. Hall and James A. McCall (the authors of our text).

S-Parameters

© H. Heck 2008

Section 5.5

3

EE 564

Contents

Two Port Networks Z Parameters Y Parameters Vector Network Analyzers S Parameters: 2 port, n ports Return Loss Insertion Loss Transmission (ABCD) Matrix Differential S Parameters (MOVE TO 6.2) Summary References Appendices

© H. Heck 2008 Section 5.5 4

S-Parameters

Y. Heck 2008 Section 5. S. Each has a specific advantage. I1 I2 + V1 + V2 - S-Parameters 2 Port Network Port 2 The ports can be characterized with many parameters (Z. Analysis of a 2-port network is sufficient to explain the theory and applies to isolated signals (no crosstalk).EE 564 Two Port Networks Linear networks can be completely characterized by parameters measured at the network ports without knowing the content of the networks.5 5 Port 1 . Each parameter set is related to 4 variables: 2 independent variables for excitation 2 dependent variables for response © H. ABDC). Networks can have any number of ports.

Heck 2008 Section 5. Open circuit reflections inject noise into measurements.5.1] [5. Disadvantage: Requires open circuit voltage measurements.5.4] ZN2 where I k ≠ j =0 (Open circuit impedance) [5.5 6 . which are difficult to make.3] V1 Z11 V = Z 2 21 Z12 I1 Z 22 I 2 S-Parameters 2 Port example: V V1 = Z11 I1 + Z12 I 2 2 = Z 21 I1 + Z 22 I 2 Advantage: Z parameters are intuitive.5. © H.2] [5.5.EE 564 Z Parameters Impedance Matrix: Z Parameters V1 Z11 V Z 2 = 21 VN Z N 1 Z12 Z1 N I1 I2 Z NN I N Z ij = Vi Ij or [V ] = [ Z ][ I ] [5. Relates all ports to an impedance & is easy to calculate. Open circuit capacitance is non-trivial at high frequencies.

which are difficult to make.5.6] [5. Disadvantage: Requires short circuit voltage measurements.5] [5. © H. Heck 2008 Section 5.5.5. Short circuit reflections inject noise into measurements.8] where Yij = Ii Vj Vk ≠ j = 0 (Short circuit admittance) [5.7] I1 Y11 Y12 V1 I = Y Y V 2 21 22 2 S-Parameters 2 Port example: I1 = Y11V1 + Y12V2 I 2 = Y21V1 + Y22V2 Advantage: Y parameters are also somewhat intuitive. Short circuit inductance is non-trivial at high frequencies.EE 564 Y Parameters Admittance Matrix: Y Parameters I1 Y11 Y12 Y1N V1 I Y V2 2 21 = I N YN 1 YN 2 YNN VN or [ I ] = [Y ][V ] [5.5 7 .5.

5 8 .EE 564 Example ZA + Port 1 V1 I1 ZC I2 ZB + V2 Port 2 = Z B + ZC S-Parameters Z11 = V1 I1 = I 2=0 V1 V1 Z A + ZC = Z A + ZC Z12 = V1 I2 = I1=0 I 2 ZC = ZC I2 Z 21 = V2 I1 = I 2= 0 I1 Z C = ZC I1 Z 22 = V2 I2 = I1=0 V2 V2 Z B + ZC © H. Heck 2008 Section 5.

Voltage and current are difficult to measure directly.5 9 . S-Parameters Characterizes the network by observing transmitted and reflected power waves. making measurement easier. VNA is a microwave based instrument that provides the ability to understand frequency dependent effects. Heck 2008 Section 5. The input signal is a frequency swept sinusoid. We characterize the device under test using S parameters. Matched load is a unique. It is also difficult to implement open & short circuit loads at high frequency. and is insensitive to length.EE 564 Frequency Domain: Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) I1 I2 VNA offers a means to + + 2-Port V1 V2 characterize circuit elements Network as a function of frequency. Incident and reflected waves the key measures. © H. repeatable termination.

5 10 © H.5. P =V 2 Port 2 use V1+ ai = P = to get R bi represents the square root of the power wave injected into port j.9] [5.5. Heck 2008 .5. ai represents the square root of the power wave injected into port i. bj = V j− R R [5.10] [5.EE 564 S Parameters a1 a2 Port 1 + V1 b1 2 Port Network + b2 V2 - S-Parameters We wish to characterize the network by observing transmitted and reflected power waves.11] Section 5.

13] © H. For the 2 port case: bj ai a1 a2 Port 1 + V1 b1 2 Port Network + b2 V2 - Port 2 S-Parameters b1 = S11a1 + S12 a2 b2 = S 21a1 + S 22 a2 [5.5 11 .5.EE 564 S Parameters #2 We can use a set of linear equations to describe the behavior of the network in terms of the injected and reflected power waves.12] where Sij = = power measured at port j power measured at port i S12 a1 S 22 a2 in matrix form: b1 S11 b = S 2 21 [5. Heck 2008 Section 5.5.

5.5.17] b1 S11 b S 2 = 21 bn S n1 © H.18] Section 5.5.16] S-Parameters b1 = S11a1 + S12 a2 + + S1n an b2 = S 21a1 + S 22 a2 + + S 2 n an bn = S n1a1 + S n 2 a2 + + S nn an [5.k ≠ j = bn = Vn− Z 0n [5.5.14] Z 0i Z0 j Vk+ 0 .15] V j+ [5.5.5 12 .EE 564 S Parameters – n Ports an = Vn+ Z0n Vi − Sij = bi aj = a k =0 . Heck 2008 S12 S1N a1 a2 S nn an or [ b] = [ S ][ a] [5.k ≠ j [5.

5 13 © H. Heck 2008 . j ≠0 [5. or the line length is zero.19] In general: Sii = bi ai = ρ0 a j =0 . is a measure of the power returned to the source. V1− b S11 = 1 a1 = a2=0 RS = 50Ω Z0 RL = Z0 z=0 z=l S-Parameters Z0 Z0 V1+ V1− Vreflected Z − 50Ω = + = = ρ0 = 0 V1 Vincident Z 0 + 50Ω [5. When there is no reflection from the load. the return loss.5.20] Section 5. S11 is equal to the reflection coefficient.5.EE 564 Scattering Matrix – Return Loss S11.

Z in = Z ( z = 0) = Z o 1 + ρ ( z = 0) 1 − ρ ( z = 0) Z0 ZL z=0 z=l [5.22]= Z in − 50 S =ρ 11 v RS = 50Ω Z in + 50 [5. If the network is driven with a 50Ω source. No phase difference means they are perfectly aligned and will constructively add. S11 is calculated using equation [5. © H.EE 564 Scattering Matrix – Return Loss #2 When there is a reflection from the load. An imaginary component implies a phase difference between Vinc and Vref .22] In this case S11 will be maximum when Zin is real. Use input impedance to calculate S11 when the line is not perfectly terminated.5 14 . Heck 2008 Section 5.5. S11 will be composed of multiple reflections due to standing waves.5.5.21] S-Parameters S11 for a transmission line will exhibit periodic effects due to the standing waves.

the insertion loss.5. the power ratio reduces to a voltage ratio: Port 2 S-Parameters S 21 = b2 a1 a 2=0 V2 Z o V2 − Vtransmitted = + = + = Vincident V1 V1 Zo − [5. Heck 2008 Section 5.5 15 . is a measure of the power transmitted from port 1 to port 2.22] S21 .EE 564 Scattering Matrix – Insertion Loss #1 a1 a2 Port 1 + V1 Z0 b1 2 Port Network + b2 Z0 V2 - When power is injected into Port 1 and measured at Port 2. © H.

Ohmic (i. Heck 2008 Section 5.e. skin effect) Field dampening effects (loss tangent) Radiation (EMI) S-Parameters Insertion and return losses include other effects. which are not true losses.5 16 . such as impedance discontinuities and resonance. Loss free networks can still exhibit significant insertion and return losses due to impedance discontinuities.EE 564 Comments On “Loss” True losses come from physical energy losses. © H.

Heck 2008 .5.25] Output reflection coefficient: ρ out = S 22 + S12 S 21 ρ S 1− S11 ρ S Section 5.EE 564 Reflection Coefficients Reflection coefficient at the load: ρL = Z L − Z0 Z L + Z0 [5.5.24] S-Parameters Input reflection coefficient: 2 S12 S 21 ρ L S12 ρ L ρ in = S11 + = S11 + 1 − S 22 ρ L 1 − S11 ρ L Assuming S12 = S21 and S11 = S22 .26] 17 © H. [5.23] Reflection coefficient at the source: ρS = Z S − Z0 Z S + Z0 [5.5.5 [5.5.

l is the length of the line.5 18 .8 ∠135° Positive Phase φ 0° Negative Phase 180° Port 1 Port 2 S21 = b2/a1 -90° S-Parameters We can calculate the delay per unit length (or velocity) from S21 : τd = φ ( S 21 ) 1 = f ⋅ 360 ⋅ l v p [5.27] Where φ (S21 ) is the phase angle of the S21 measurement. f is the frequency at which the measurement was taken. © H.5. Heck 2008 Section 5.EE 564 Transmission Line Velocity Measurements a1 b1 a2 b2 +90° 0.

open 0 Z in.EE 564 Transmission Line Z0 Measurements Impedance vs.5. γ ZL z=l open & short 19 . © H. and Z0. ρ in .29] [5. we can find the impedance.open [5.28] in . S-Parameters We can use Zin equations for open and short circuited lossy transmission. Heck 2008 Z0.5. short Z in .30] Zin z=0 Section 5.5. β ZL z=l Zin vs f will be a function of delay (β ) and ZL. Z = Z tanh ( γl ) [5. short = Z 0 coth ( γl ) Z 0 = Z in . frequency Recall 1 + ρe −2 jβl Z in = Z 0 1 − ρe − 2 j β l Zin z=0 Z0.5 Using the equation for Zin .

5 20 . γ ZL z=l open & short Input reflection coefficients for the open and short circuit cases: S-Parameters ρ in .open 1 − ρ in . short 1 − ρ in .5.32] 1 − ρ in . short e − 2 jβ ( 0 ) 1 + ρ in .open = ZVNA 1 − ρ in .open [5.5.open e − 2 jβ ( 0 ) Now we can apply equation [5.open © H.open 2 2 S12 (1) S12 = S11 + = S11 + 1 − S11 (1) 1 − S11 Z0. Heck 2008 Section 5. short 1 + ρ in .EE 564 Transmission Line Z0 Measurement #2 Zin ZVNA z=0 ρ in .31] [5. short = ZVNA Z in .30]: Z 0 = Z in.5. short Z in .open e −2 jβ ( 0 ) 1 + ρ in . short e −2 jβ ( 0 ) = ZVNA = ZVNA 1 + ρ in. short 2 2 S12 ( − 1) S12 = S11 + = S11 − 1 − S11 ( − 1) 1 + S11 Input impedance for the open and short circuit cases: Z in .

5 2. Heck 2008 Section 5.2 0.5 .EE 564 Scattering Matrix Example Using the S11 plot shown below.35 0.5 5.45 S-Parameters 0.0 2.5 Frequency [GHz] 4.1 0.05 0 1.3 0.4 S11 Magnitude 0.15 0.25 0.0 1. S Z0 RL = 50Ω z=0 z=5" 0.0 4.0 3.5 3.0 21 © H. calculate Z0 and estimate R = 50Ω ε r..

7 ps / inch 5in Step 2: Calculate ε length). ∆f peaks = 2.1 0.4 0.76GHz = t d = 423.2 0.3 0.7 ps = 84.5 22 .05 1.37inch / m εr = εr = ε r = 1 .94GHz Peak=0.7 ps d 1 2t d S-Parameters τd = 423.15 0.94GHz − 1.25 0.76GHz 2.35 0. Heck 2008 Section 5.384 S11 Magnitude Step 1: Calculate the τ of the transmission line based on the peaks or dips.0 © H.45 0.7 ps / inch ⋅ 39.EE 564 Scattering Matrix Example #2 0.c 3 ⋅108 m / s 1 τd =v= r based on the velocity (prop delay per unit 1 84.

S11 = Z in − 50 = 0.7 ps = e − j 9.76GHz⋅( −5)⋅84. assuming a 50Ω port.76GHz.) Step 3: Calculate the input impedance to the transmission line based on the peak S11 at 1.384 Z in + 50 Z in = 112.EE 564 Example – Scattering Matrix (Cont.33 = Z o 50 − Z o 1 − ρ ( z = 5) 1− ( −1) 50 + Z o Z o = 74.9Ω Solution: ε 75Ω 2008 © H.5 23 .0 and Z0 = Section 5.366 ≈ −1 50 − Z o 1+ (−1) 1 + ρ ( z = 5) 50 + Z o Z in = Z o = 112. Heck r = 1.33Ω Step 4: Calculate Z0 from Zin at z=0: S-Parameters ρ ( x ) = ρ ( 0 ) e 2 γl = e j 4π ⋅ fl LC 50 − Z o j 4πfl e 50 + Z o LC = ej 4π ⋅1.

Disadvantages: They are more difficult to understand and it is more difficult to interpret measurements.5 24 .EE 564 Advantages/Disadvantages of S Parameters Advantages: Ease of measurement: It is much easier to measure power at high frequencies than open/short current and voltage. Heck 2008 Section 5. S-Parameters © H.

5.35] C= I1 V2 I 2 =0 [5.31] Section 5.34] S-Parameters The coefficients can be defined using superposition: A= V1 V2 I 2 =0 [5.5.5.5.33] I1 I2 I = CV + DI 1 2 2 2 1 2 Port 1 + V1 - 2 Port Network + V2 - Port 2 V1 A B V2 = I1 C D I 2 [5.29] B= V1 I2 V2 = 0 [5.5 D= I1 I2 V2 = 0 [5.5.36] 25 © H. Heck 2008 .EE 564 Transmission (ABCD) Matrix The transmission matrix describes the network in terms of both voltage and current waves (analagous to a Thévinin Equivalent).5. V = AV + BI [5.

5. © H. Heck 2008 Section 5. It is accurate.5 26 . it is well suited for cascading elements. intuitive and simple to use.EE 564 Transmission (ABCD) Matrix Since the ABCD matrix represents the ports in terms of currents and voltages. I1 + V1 I1 I2 I3 V2 + V3 - A C B D1 A C B D2 S-Parameters The matrices can be mathematically cascaded by multiplication: V1 A B V2 = ⋅ I1 C D 1 I 2 V2 A B V3 = ⋅ I 2 C D 2 I3 V1 A B A B V3 = ⋅ ⋅ I1 C D 1 C D 2 I 3 [5.37] This is the best way to cascade elements in the frequency domain.

42] 27 © H. Heck 2008 .5.EE 564 ABCD Matrix Values for Common Circuits Port 1 Z Port 2 A =1 B = Z C = 0 D =1 A =1 C =Y B=0 D =1 [5.41] Port 1 Zo .5.38] [5.γ l Port 2 A = cosh(γl ) C = (1 / Z o ) sinh(γl ) Section 5.5 B = Z o sinh(γl ) D = cosh(γl ) [5.39] B = Z1 + Z 2 + Z1 Z 2 / Z 3 D = 1 + Z 2 / Z3 Port 1 Y Z1 Port 2 Z2 Z3 Y3 Port 2 A = 1 + Z1 / Z 3 C = 1/ Z3 S-Parameters Port 1 [5.40] A = 1 + Y2 / Y3 B = 1 / Y3 D = 1 + Y1 / Y3 Port 1 Y1 Y2 Port 2 C = Y1 + Y2 + Y1Y2 / Y3 [5.5.5.5.

Heck 2008 Section 5.EE 564 Converting to and from the S-Matrix The S-parameters can be measured with a VNA.5 28 . and converted back and forth into ABCD the Matrix Allows conversion into a more intuitive matrix Allows conversion to ABCD for cascading ABCD matrix can be directly related to several useful circuit topologies S-Parameters © H.

© H. Port 1 L1 L1 Cvia Port 2 S-Parameters The model can be extracted as either a Pi or a T network The inductance values will include the L of the trace and the via barrel assumes the test setup minimizes the trace length.EE 564 ABCD Matrix – Example Create a model of a via from the measured s-parameters.5 29 . so that trace capacitance is minimal. The capacitance represents the via pads. Heck 2008 Section 5.

798 − j 0.827 Relating the ABCD parameters to the T circuit topology.827 = 1 + ⇒ L1 = L2 = 0.110 − j 0.153 0.35nH Z3 1 /( j ⋅ 2πfCVIA ) Section 5.153 Converted to ABCD parameters: A C B D (1 + S11 )(1 − S 22 ) + S12 S 21 = 2 S 21 (1 − S11 )(1 − S 22 ) S12 S 21 2 ZVNA S 21 ZVNA (1 + S11 )(1 + S 22 ) − S12 S 21 = S-Parameters 2 S 21 (1 − S11 )(1 + S 22 ) − S12 S 21 2 S 21 0. the capacitance can be extracted from C & inductance from A: C = j 0.572 = S 22 0.110 − j 0.08 0. Heck 2008 .798 − j 0.0157 j 20.0157 = Z1 Port 1 Z2 Z3 Port 2 A = 1+ 1 = Z3 1 ⇒ CVIA = 0.5 pF 1 j ⋅ 2πfCVIA Z1 j ⋅ 2πfL = 0.572 − 0.EE 564 ABCD Matrix – Example #1 The measured S-parameter matrix at 5 GHz is: S11 S 21 S12 − 0.5 30 © H.827 j 0.

Disadvantages: Difficult to directly measure: Must convert from measured scattering matrix.EE 564 Advantages/Disadvantages of ABCD Matrix Advantages: The ABCD matrix is intuitive: it describes all ports with voltages and currents. Easy conversion to and from S-parameters.5 31 . Allows easy cascading of networks. Heck 2008 Section 5. Easy to relate to common circuit topologies. S-Parameters © H.

The VNA uses S.5 32 . Heck 2008 Section 5.EE 564 Summary We can characterize interconnect networks using n-Port circuits. From S.parameters we can characterize transmission lines and discrete elements. S-Parameters © H.parameters.

Hall. (Wiley Interscience). Chapters 4.” Agilent Technologies application note 1287-9. Digital Systems Engineering. 2nd edition. Heck 2008 Section 5. “De-embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks Using A Vector Network Analyzer. John Wiley & Sons. B. (Wiley Interscience). 2000. 1st edition. Digital Signal Integrity.” Agilent Technologies application note 1287-1.M. Inc. 2000. Poulton. W. Microwave Engineering. Prentice-Hall PTR.EE 564 References D. 1998. Posar. 1st edition. “Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis. G. Dally and J. Young. Cambridge University Press. McCall. “In-Fixture Measurements Using Vector Network Analyzers. Inc. S. 2001. Hall. 2001. and J. High Speed Digital System Design. 2000.5 33 S-Parameters .3 & 11.” Agilent Technologies application note 1364-1. John Wiley & Sons. 1998. © H.

5 34 .EE 564 Appendix More material on S parameters. S-Parameters © H. Heck 2008 Section 5.

5 35 .EE 564 Reciprocal Lossless Z ij = Z ji Z ij = Z ji for any m.k ≠ j © H.n Re{ Z mn } = 0 Re{Ymn } = 0 [ Y ] = [ Z ] −1 S-Parameters Z ij = Vi Ij Ii Vj I k = 0 . Heck 2008 Section 5.k ≠ j Yij = Vk =0 .

5 36 .2] S2 N where Vk+ 0 .5.1] [5.5. Heck 2008 Section 5.k ≠ j = S-Parameters Vn = Vn+ + Vn− [ Z ][ I ] = [ Z ][ I + ] − [ Z ][ I − ] = [V ] = [V + ] + [V − ] ( [ Z ] + [U ] ) [V − ] = ( [ Z ] − [U ] ) [V + ] + − I n = I n + I n = Vn+ − Vn− ???? 1 0 0 1 [U ] = 0 0 1 [ S ] = [V + ]−1 [V − ] = ( [ Z ] + [U ] ) −1 ( [ Z ] − [U ] ) © H.EE 564 S Parameters Scattering Matrix: S Parameters V1− S11 − V2 = S12 − VN S1N S 21 S N 1 V1+ V2+ + S NN VN Vi − Sij = + Vj or [V ] = [ S ][V ] − + [5.

i ≠ j ∑S ki © H. Heck 2008 Section 5.2] [S] = [S] T where S-Parameters Reciprocal ∑S k =1 N k =1 N ki * S ki = 1 * S kj = 0.1] [5.5.EE 564 S Parameters #2 [ S ] = [V + ]−1 [V − ] = ( [ Z ] + [U ] ) −1 ( [ Z ] − [U ] ) [ S ]( [ Z ] + [U ] ) = [ Z ] − [U ] = [ S ][ Z ] + [ S ][U ] [ Z ] = ( [U ] − [ S ] ) −1 ( [U ] + [ S ] ) [5.5 37 .5.

Heck 2008 Section 5.5 38 .2] Z 0i Z0 j Vk+ 0 .5.k ≠ j = 1 2 1 an − bn 2 2 S-Parameters b Sij = i aj Vi ak =0 .5.1] [5.EE 564 S Parameters – n Ports an = Vn+ Z0n bn = Vn− Z 0n Vn = Vn+ + Vn− = Z 0 n ( an + bn ) Vn+ − Vn− In = = Z 0n Pn = 1 ( an − bn ) Z 0n 2 [5.k ≠ j − Sij = bi aj = a k =0 .k ≠ j V j+ [ b] = [ S ][ a] b1 S11 b S 2 = 21 bn S n1 S12 S1N a1 a2 S nn an b1 = S11a1 + S12 a2 + + S1n an b2 = S 21a1 + S 22 a2 + + S 2 n an bn = S n1a1 + S n 2 a2 + + S nn an © H.

k ≠ j = V j+ Section 5. n j n [5.5 39 © H. Heck 2008 .k ≠ j Z 0i Z0 j Vk+ 0 .5.EE 564 S Parameters #4 bi = ∑ Sij a j for i = 1.5.2] matched Tij is the reverse transmission coefficient of the ith port if I<j with all other ports matched Sij = bi aj ak =0 .3. .1] where Sij = Sij = S-Parameters Sij = [ b] = [ S ][ a] Γ ij is the reflection coefficient of the ith port if i=j with all other ports matched Tij is the forward transmission coefficient of the ith port if I>j with all other ports[5.k ≠ j Vi − Sij = bi aj = a k =0 .2.

Load and Thru (SOLT) • Calibrated to known standard( Ex: 50Ω ) • Measurement plane at probe tip Thru.5 40 . © H. Reflect. • Measurement plane moved to desired position set by calibration structure design. Line(TRL) S-Parameters • Calibrated to line Z0 – Helps create matched port condition. Open.EE 564 VNA Calibration Proper calibration is critical!!! There are two basic calibration methods Short. Heck 2008 Section 5.

Heck 2008 Section 5.EE 564 SOLT Calibration Structures OPEN S G SHORT S Signal Ground G LOAD THRU S G S G S-Parameters S G Calibration Substrate © H.5 41 .

Heck 2008 Section 5.EE 564 TRL Calibration Structures TRL PCB Structures Normalized Z0 to line De-embed’s launch structure parasitics Short 6mil wide gap Open S-Parameters 100 mils 100 mils Thru L1 Measurement Planes ? ? L2 ? © H.5 42 .

5 +j1.Verification Always check the calibration prior to taking measurements.j1 Zo = 0. • Smith Chart: Open & Short should be inside the perimeter.0 S11 (load) © H.0 -j1. Heck 2008 Perimeter Zo Perimeter = 0+/.2 .2 Normalized Normalized Zo Zo 1.0 20 20 Open Open ρ ρ -j0.0 +j1.j1 Capacitance Capacitance Section 5. • Ideal response is dot at each location when probing the calibration structures. load etc.0 S11 (Open) S21/12 (Thru) Short Short 0.5 43 . S-Parameters S11 (Short) Ζo Ζo Inductance Inductance +j0.0 1. Verify open.5 -j1.2 0.5 +j0.EE 564 Calibration.j X Zo = 0+/.2 ..5 -j0.j X Normalized Normalized Zo = 0.

Measure C using an open transmission line with negligible loss.EE 564 One Port Measurements Practical sub 2 GHz technique for L & C data. At the short. 1st order (Low Loss): • Zin = jwL (Shorted transmission line) • Zin = 1/jwC (Open transmission line) • For an electrically short structure V and I to order are ~constant. Heck 2008 .5 44 DUT = RS 50Ω V DUT Current Short Zin = jω L·I © H. Structure must be electrically shorter than λ /4 of fmax . S-Parameters Measure L using a shorted transmission line with negligible loss. we have Imax and Vmin . RS= 50Ω V Open Zin = V/jω C Section 5. At the open you have Vmax and Imin .

0 Short Short 0.Format Use Smith chart format to read L & C data Inductance Inductance +j0.j X Normalized Normalized Zo = 0.5 -j1.j1 Zo = 0.0 -j1.2 0.2 Normalized Normalized Zo Zo 1.0 20 20 Open Open S-Parameters ρρ -j0.0 1.0 Perimeter Perimeter Zo = 0+/.2 .j X Zo = 0+/.5 Ζo Ζo +j1.5 -j0.5 +j0.EE 564 One Port Measurements – L & C VNA .2 .5 45 . Heck 2008 Section 5.j1 Capacitance Capacitance © H.0 +j1.

Heck 2008 Section 5.EE 564 Connector L & C Use test board to measure connector inductance and capacitance Measure values relevant to pinout Procedure • Measure test board L & C without connector • Measure test board with connector • Difference = connector parasitics S-Parameters Short Open © H.5 46 .

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