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Design Manual for a cycle-friendly infrastructure

CE342-Advanced Traffic Engineering and Management

Joselito R. Lacuarin PhD. in Civil Engineering University of the Philippines-diliman

Center for research and Contract Standardization in Civil and Traffic Engineering – The Netherlands

Order of Presentation:
Chapter 4: Road-section

4.1 Introduction 4.2 Design Decisions for road-section 4.3 Design Elements for road-sections 4.4 Mixed profile

Design Aspects in Separating Bicycle and motorized traffic Way in which cyclist do or don’t share space on a roadsection w/ other types of traffic (possibilities of separating) Physical separation
 Cycle-track

Regulation, layout & features & use which are important to cyclist on a given type of road section (point of attention)

along road One-sided two-way track One-sided one-way track Two-sided one-way track Two-sided two-way track  Cycle-track with it own alignment

Track

width Mopeds permitted on cycle-track or not permitted Road marking Method of separation verge, railing, kerbstone Width of partition

 Layout

of partition: vegetation, parking  ( on track with its own alignment routing, vegetation and lighting (sense of social safety)  Longitudinal section  pavement

Visual Separation
Recommended Cycle-lanes

lanes

Width

of lane Colour / structure of pavement Marking Presence of parking-spaces Lighting

Mixing

All (riding or driving) traffic- types mixed two-way traffic, one-way traffic, partial one-way traffic, sheltered from cars, parallel roads Limited combinations of Traffic types bicycle and pedestrian, bicycle and moped, lowvolume goods-traffic, bicycle and bus, bicycle and tram, bicycle and farm traffic

Elements Parking/

influencing the driving behavior no parking on street Design of parking facilities Horizontal alignment  Regulation Pavement Lighting

4.1 Introduction
5 main requirements in the design of road section: 1. Coherence 2. Directness 3. Attractiveness 4. Safety 5. Comfort Visibility – of riding – differences in speed, Complexity surface, side-pavement, road Hilliness – number of recognizable over its Findability- clearly inclines per unit length eyemarking anticipation time, contact, whole length volume of – width and for Traffic impedimentcycle, space location View – walls,railing or planting must have no By offering alternative routs change in maneuvers, discontinuity of route Change in function thus there is beview changes Consistency of quality – if there are detrimental effect against rain, Weather impediment – shield on it cyclist orits significant should be clear standard use motorized wind blinding – vegetation etc.. Chance ofright using cycle-carriagewayChoosing thesnow lay-out: not too narrow, not motorized are not blinded Actual speed flow- cycle route should be too wide wide enough Sense of social safety – visibility of cycling facilities Delays- journey time wasted

Shape, function and use : 3 ways of improving 1. Adjust design 2. Influencing use/ function 3. Change function

4.2 Design Decisions for road-section
4 types of cyclist maneuvers on road-sections
1. Encounters (Moped-riders/cyclists encounter one another or motorized traffic) a) Cycle-tracks

b) Cycle-lanes with partial one-way traffic c) Mixed profiles
2. Overtaking maneuvers 3. Deviating maneuvers 4. Maneuvers carried out on arrival and departure

Causes includes: oncoming traffic, Factors includes: width of cycleFactors also includes: opening cyclewidth of unlawfully parked tracks,by oncoming trafficenough volume of be low Being cut-off speedcars, traffic, cycles Motor vehicles must tracks, volume of traffic, cycles in car-doors, sudden crossing of in groups, weather, Vehicles deviate when gradient visibility groups, weather, overtaking percentage pedestrians, mechanical troubles, weather conditions, faulty design, path holes

4.3 Design Elements for road section
1. Physical separation
a. b. c. d. e. Cycle-track width Two-way Cycle-track width Forms of Separation Dividing Verge Raised adjoining cycle track

f. Road marking 2. Design elements visual separation a. Cycle-lanes and recommended lanes b. Width of cycle-lanes and recommended lanes c. Parking beside cycle-lanes

Functions: separating ofred Premises: twocoloured traffic types, side, Preferably cyclist can ride side by protection from weather, cycling comfort, safe distance from parked vehicle, maximum Protective In Consequences:increases safety of a case comfort, maneuvers effect Safety and not possible: alternativerelation to preventcycle-track, effective inatroute for blinding, destination cycle Advantages: departure & width a possible alternative If there are no pavement It motorized, lowering driving speed, is = 2.5m Clear parking-management peak-time guidingto cross the road, Space is volume of traffic and raising the Functions: needs side, never cyclist of cycle-track room for width must bicycle traffic Use: when partition for be prevent cyclist from needed physically alternative route attentiveness level to taken can be less motorized traffic separated from on the edge of the riding If wider lanes cycle track = continuous side are preferred, supplementary Use: one-way footpath Disadvantages: problems at intersection, strip Design: grass, parking lane, sett-paving measures are necessary of broken line line, two-way = addition increase chance of “frontal encounters”, at middle increased chance of accidents Design: broken line width=0.10m length=0.30m spaced at 2.70m

4.4 Mixed profile

1. Carriageway-width for mixed traffic 2. Measuring-segments 3. Attuning of function and use 4. Tight or spacious profile per road-category
a. One-way traffic b. Partial one-way traffic c. Two-way traffic d. recommendation

Divided into: table 4.3 In addition to Measuring segments for the make-up of a cross-sectiobal profile Tight profile -width = 2.25m,close goodCarriageway (no space for if with overtaking), vehicle= 2.6m is recommended
Measuring segment Max (30kph) Max (50kph) Spacious Profile –Tight Profileroom to overtake Enough

Spacious profile Should have “speed-limiting measures”eg. Design: In Germany “bicycle-street” Cyclist 0.75 cyclist Steps to be undertaken: Application of red asphalt Recommended Length !> 300m Passenger car 1.75 Critical profile a road best tight and spacious. – between design Goods function of vehicles 2.60 Determine Evaluation: Verify “just room” Bicycle-edge 0.25 combinations Estimate representative use/intended behavior Bicycle-parked vehicle 0.50 Speed: “Not too tight, not too spacious”, Bicycle-moving vehicle 1.05 Attune the representative use 0.85 tight or spacious to a consider also sight distances. Vehicle-vehicle (both moving) 0.30 0.80 profile
Moving vehicle-kerb

Calculate carriageway-width

0.25

0.50

Check width with possible combination of road users.

4.5 Particular forms of mixing of traffic-types
1. Cyclist and pedestrian
a) Cyclist and car-free areas?

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Depends on the position of the cycle route inshould be clearly Presence of road networkindicated Layout the mopeds makes less safe to b) Separating cyclist and pedestrians?Factors depending on: Bicycle and cyclist Lowering Goods vehicles by: bus traffic Directive for separating and mixing of bicycle and Putting C7 Allocation volumes, function for cycling pedestrian of exclusive spaceof the c) Design on separating sign “Close to goods vehicles” or C8 Recommendations: area cyclist, function Cycle-function Through toDistributor cycle- of the area to Access cycleNot too strict trailers, putting physical trucks with cycle pedestrian limiting the width or height route route route Mopeds use the main carriageway within Bicycle and moped Bus-function measures Provisions on unless built-up areas; parkingthe road concerned Separating or Low volume goods-vehicles traffic has more than one traffic atmixing, each direction Separating or Bicycle and Bus Connecting separating mixing, depending principle mopeds Outside built-up areas in depending on bus-lane Bicycle, tram and (goods) vehicles on volumes only use the cycle-tracks ofvolumes RONAcategory 4 and higher Bicycle and farm traffic mixing Access busseparating mixing lane

4.6 Longitudinal section

1. 2. 3.

Gradients Bridges and tunnels Socially safe tunnel solutions

4.7 Special layout elements
1. Bends in road-sections 2. Gangways and winding 3.Transition from separated to mixed profile

4.8. Case