Fish Nutrition, Feed Formulation and Feed preparation

Arlyn Arreglado-Mandas CAPE Consultant Department of Science and Technology(DOST) Region XII, Cotabato City

Associate Professor College of Fisheries Mindanao State University Fatima, General Santos City

Outline I. Introduction to Fish Nutrition II. Digestive Physiology and Feeding Behavior of Fish III. Nutrient Requirements IV. Feed Formulation 1. Basic Informations Required 2. Procedure for Feed Formulation V. Feed Preparation

What is Fish Nutrition?

It is the combination of the processes of food ingestion, digestion, absorption and egestion in fish


How to maximize the use of feed? Understand the following: Feeding habits and behavior Digestive Physiology of fishes .

rate of digestion of food ± determines ‡feeding rates ‡Feeding frequency ‡ration size .Important informations on: 1.

*Any food that is not digested and absorbed will not have any nutritional value to the fish .

‡2. knowledge of the digestive physiology of fish necessary for an effective feed formulation and in choosing a proper feeding regime .

also includes the manner and the stimuli for feeding (food habit) .Feeding habits and Behavior of fishes .refers to the process of and ingestion of food .

feed on plankton and bacteria .feed exclusively on animal matter .feed on decaying matter Food availability -the key factor in determining what the fish will eat .Classification of fishes based on their food and diet ‡Herbivores ‡Carnivores ‡Omnivores ‡Planktivores ‡Detritivores -feed exclusively on plant materials .derive their nutrients from both plants and animals .

filter organisms .feed on bottom organisms or planktons .obtain nutrients by sucking body fluids of host fish .suck in mud or food-containing material to obtain food .Classification of feeding behavior of fishes based on the manner of feeding ‡Predators ‡Grazers ‡Strainers ‡Suckers ‡Parasites -feed on macroscopic animals .

Feeding Process in Fish ‡Appetite and Satiation -state that initiates arousal and feeding behavior -Appetite is controlled by the hypothalamus and is stimulated by the gut fullness and or other metabolic changes which affect food consumption .

food availability and food distribution 2. presence of predators 4. Biotic 1.Factors affecting appetite A. Selection of prey 5.1choice in terms of size and form is limited by the mouth gape of fish 5.5 times larger than another 3. Physiological condition such as starvation and circadian rhythm 5. Handling causes stress in fish . Competition.2 optimal foraging theory -states that the natural selection favors those fish that maximize efficiency of prey capture fish is 1.

Light intensity larval fish rely on vision to recognize food 4.Temperature -daily and seasonal fluctuation affect food intake 3. Unionized ammonia(NH3) .B. Abiotic 1. Dissolved oxygen-most important abiotic factor affecting feeding 2.

fish on a fixed feeding schedule can learn to anticipate feeding times but arousal is often due to Pavlovian coditioning(sight or sound of farm workers) ‡Capture food particle size and avoidance behavior is a factor in capture success .Stages in feeding ‡Arousal and Search.

Vision. Consider the chemical and physical characteristics of food.‡Location and Identification . olfaction and gustation are all important in finding or locating food. .

not all materials taken into the mouth are swallowed.gill arches and rakers and in the tissue surrounding the pharyngeal teeth .‡Taste Testing. they are tested for suitability by taste receptors inside the mouth.

More rejections and disintegration occur in pellets that are hard. . abrasive and are much longer than their which tastes good and have optimal particle size. shape and texture will be swallowed by the fish.‡Swallowing or Rejection.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive System Fish adapts anatomically and behaviorally resulting to anatomical differences in fish digestion .

. herbivorous fishes have an accesory masticatory apparatus or other physiological adaptation to help in breaking down plant cell walls before the digestion process starts. Carnivorous fishes have a relatively simple and short gut with thick mucosa for absorption b. and a long thin gut to enhance digestion and absorption.Example: a.

stomach. liver and pancreas It is tubular in structure and often referred to as the gut . esophagus.Digestive System of Fish includes the mouth. intestine.

4 Divisions of the gut 1. midgut-consists of the intestine and the pyloric ceca if present. headgut-includes oral or buccal cavity and gills 2. 4. hindgut-includes the enlarged portion of the intestines and the rectum or anus . foregut-begins at the posterior edge of the gills and includes the esophagus and stomach 3.

.HEADGUT Mouth and various ingestion mechanisms-the mouth has a variety of adaptations for capturing . handling. the more active feeders have strong jaws with sharp teeth to bite and shred the food while zooplankton feeders and most planktivores have practically no teeth.1. and sorting of food before entry into the stomach(different mouth shapes and teeth which vary in terms of type. number and arrangement) *generally.

wide esophagus that serves as a transitional area between the striated muscles of the mouth and the smooth muscles of the gut . FOREGUT Esophagus. -produces mucus and there is enzyme activity .most fishes have short.2.

.Stomach varies greatly in their anatomical structure due to adaptations to specific foods .generally. fish that eat relatively small. soft particles have small stomach whereas fish that eat large food particles have larger stomach.

stomachless fish. a U or J-shaped stomach 3.4 General configurations or shapes of fish stomachs 1. a stomach shaped like Y on its side where the stem faces the caudal portion 4. a straight stomach with enlarged portion 2. such as in carps and other cyprinids .

MIDGUT and HINDGUT-the digestion process actively continues into the intestines after preliminary digestion in the stomach .3.

Absorption takes place in the intestine among finfishes .

Nutrient Requirements .

digestibility and nutrient composition .The nutritional value of different artificial feeds depends on the palatability.

*The nutrient composition of the feeds should be tailored to the requirement of the fish to be fed .

Minerals .What then are the nutrients required by the fish? Answer: 1. Vitamins 5. Lipids 4. Protein 2. Carbohydrates 3.

1. Protein is the most important component of the diet of fish because protein intake generally determines growth .

‡It also provides energy .‡Protein is required in the diet to provide indispensable amino acids and nitrogen for synthesis of non-indispensable amino acids.

5 4.6 3.6 1.6 4.0 6.0 2.8 8.7 3.8 4.2 4.8 3.6 2.0 5.8 4.Table 1.1 4.0 3.4 1.1 4.0 2.0 4.8 1.4 2.4 5.1 2.7 2.0 2.1 5.2 3.1 4.6 5.0 4.3 4.2 .0 3. Indispensable amino acid requirements of different species of teleost (g / 100 g protein) Salmonid Amino acids Catfish Carp Tilapia Milkfish Sea Bream Sea Bass Arg His Ile Leu Lys 4.2 4.4 4.5 3.5 0.6 0.6 1.2 5.5 2.4 5.6 0.0 2.0 4.2 3.9 0.8 5.3 3.0 0.8 Thr Trp Val Met+Cys Phe+Tyr 2.3 4.0 4.6 3.

2 4.6 6.7 6.7 5.0 3.0 Poultry by-product meal 65 1.0 1.4 9.1 4.9 2.6 Soybean meal 48 1.0 2.9 4.0 4.2 1.3 3.3 5.1 8.2 3.2 2.7 (5.7 Corn gluten meal 60 3.0 Meat and bone meal 50 1.3 Blood meal 85 1.3 3.0 8.9 0.5 2.7 (2.7 3.2 2.6 6.5 3.6 2.0 5.5 Feather meal 85 0.8 2.8 7.8 5.8 6.2 4.9 7.4) 4.2 5. Amino acid composition of common protein sources (g/ 100 g protein) CP Met (+Cys) Lys Trp Thr Ile His Val Leu Arg Phe (+Tyr) Requirement 1.5 15.8 0.3 1.7 1.1 7.2 8.7 1.2 4.2 4.7 7.2 6.8 3.6 2.9 1.9 3.7 0.2 6.3 4.Table 2.7 5.2 0.5 3.3 3.3 5.5 2.5 0.0 4.9 0.4 4.3) Fish meal 68 3.0 2.1 12.7 8.0 4.6 3.1 0.3 5.1 .6 4.

0 5.3 8.1 4.2 Fish meal 8.1 7.5 0.9 3.2 2.1 His Ile Leu Lys Thr Trp Val Met+Cys .0 1.Amino acids Arg Milkfish 5.0 4.8 3.0 4.2 7.6 2.8 4.1 7.9 4.

2. Carbohydrates provides energy and contributes significantly to the water stability of pellets .

composed of fatty acids . . structure. etc. Lipids . precursors to many reactive substances.3.have many roles: energy supply.

Vitamins needed in trace amounts for normal growth and development .4.

Minerals important both in structure (bone formation) and osmoregulation .are required in trace amounts and are present in sufficient quantity in the surrounding water for the fish to absorb through their gills .5.

Locally available materials which can be utilized as supplemental feed or feed ingredients .



Feed Formulation .

What is Feed Formulation? It is a process in which feed ingredients and various vitamin and mineral supplements are blended to produce a diet with the required quantities of essential nutrients .

Why do we formulate? Answer: Because there is no single ingredient that contains all the nutrients required by the fish .

The primary objective of feed formulation is to produce a mixture that (is) : 1. Nutritionally balanced 2. Economical 3. Palatable .

Produces desirable final product (attractive & safe) . Water stable 5.4. Minimizes waste output & effect on water quality 6.

Storage and handling requirements . Pelletability of mixture 4.Practical considerations : 1. Ingredients price and availability 2. Anti-nutritional factors 3.

Nutrient requirement of the species 2.Basic information required for feed formulation 1.Type of ration desired (larval.Feeding behavior and digestive capacity of the species 3. finisher) . grower. starter.Available feed ingredient sources 4.

Expected feed consumption 6. Type of feed processing to be used . Feed additives required 7.5.

Algebraic Method 3.Methods of Feed Formulation 1.Pearson Square Method 2.Trial and Error Method 4.Linear programming .

68% 34% Rice bran 13% 26 ____ 26 47 X 100 = 55.Pearson Square Method Fish meal 60% 21 21 47 X 100 = 44.32% 47 .

65 44.53 8.47 5.06 22.94 11.35 27.32 446.68 55.2 4.7 55.3 Fish meal Rice bran .8 553.FORMULA 001 Ingredients Amount _______________________________________________________ (g/100g diet) 1kg 10kg 20 50 100 44.

depending upon the feed quality.Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is the wet weight (kg) of feed required to grow one kg of fish. cultured species. moisture. . culture system and so on.


Steaming 6. Weighing 4. Packing . Mixing 5.Steps 1. Sieving 3. Pelleting 7. Drying 8. Grinding 2.

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