ELECTRICITY

NIKHILA DEVI.B
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

MALLAREDDY INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

. electricity is transmitted only through wires leading to significant amount of losses. y Significant amount of the budget is spend on making transmission artifacts.TRANSMISSION AS CARRIED OUT TODAY y In the present scenario.

y As a result of this. cost per unit of production increases. y Loss in the transmission also implies loss in the natural resources. .SOME FACTS y The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid system causes a loss of 262630% of the generation.

There were three popular theories present in the literature of the late 1800's and early 1900's. They were: y Transmission through or along the Earth. . scientists postulated a number of theories to explain the propagation of electromagnetic energy through the ether. y Propagation as a result of terrestrial resonances. y Coupling to the ionosphere using propagation through electrified gases.Early Theories of Electromagnetic Propagation In pre-World War I physics.

FATHER OF THE WIRELESS Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was the genius who lit the world. Tesla's discoveries include the Tesla Coil. radio. whose discoveries in the field of alternating polyphase current electricity advanced the United States and the rest of the world into the modern industrial era.wireless transmission of electrical energy. remote control. fluorescent light. . discovery of cosmic radio waves and use of ionosphere for scientific purposes.

rather than telegraphy. . In spite of this he had made numerous experiments of high quality to validate his claim of possibility of wireless transmission of electricity.THE TESLA THEORY The most well-known and famous Wardenclyffe Tower (Tesla Tower) was designed and constructed mainly for wireless transmission of electrical power.. But this was an unfortunate incidence that people of that century was not in a position to recognise his splendid work otherwise today we may transmit electricity wirelessly and will convert our mother earth a wonderful adobe full of electricity . The most popular concept known is Tesla Theory in which it was firmly believed that Wardenclyffe would permit wireless transmission and reception across large distances with negligible losses.

Colorado Experiment It was not until 1954-1959 when experimental measurements were made of the frequency that is propagated in the resonant cavity surrounding the Earth. can be produced with an oscillator. In his Colorado Springs Notes." . in 1899. Tesla's experimental measurements of the wave length and frequency involved closely match Schumann's theoretical calculations. Tesla noted that these stationary waves ".. Some of these observations were made in 1899 while Tesla was monitoring the electromagnetic radiations due to lightning discharges in a thunderstorm which passed over his Colorado Springs laboratory and then moved more than 200 miles eastward across the plains. recent analysis shows that it was Nikola Tesla who.. first noticed the existence of stationary waves in the Schumann cavity.

Ideas of esla Tesla thought of a project where he would be transmitting power to the whole world through the power generated in the Niagra Falls hydroelectric power house .

This will result in practical wireless transmission of electrical power. resonant cavity can be excited and that power can be delivered to that cavity similar to the methods used in microwave ovens for home use. . It has been proven that electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at extreme low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity Knowing that a Cavity. it should be possible to resonate and deliver power via the Schumann Cavity to any point on Earth.Experimental Station at Colorado Springs where the first wireless transmission experiments were preformed (1899(1899-1900).

The intent of Project Tesla is to create pulses or electrical disturbances that would travel in all directions around the Earth in the thin membrane of nonnonconductive air between the ground and the ionosphere.Schumann cavity Schumann Resonance is analogous to pushing a pendulum. This point is called the anti-pode. . The antitraveling waves would be reflected back from the anti-pode to the transmitter to be antireinforced and sent out again. The pulses or waves would follow the surface of the Earth in all directions expanding outward to the maximum circumference of the Earth and contracting inward until meeting at a point opposite to that of the transmitter.

to power a light bulb. One. attached to the power source.MODE N ADVANCEMEN S DVANCEMEN The MIT design consists of two copper coils. That also means by source antenna. unit is bound to the originating coil. is the sending unit. in MIT's case. Power transformers make use of something 1) Power from mains to antenna. which is made similar. it fills the space around it with a magnetic field oscillating at a particular frequency. But 2) Antenna resonates at a frequency of 6. to transmit of copper power between coils over short distances. A copper coil within an oscillating magnetic field generates a current. enough. called magnetic induction. 5m (16. the smaller that range is. Rather than send out electromagnetic waves. those coils aren't designed to resonate with each emitting electromagnetic waves other.4ft) Since the magnetic field doesn't radiate. The second copper coil is designed to resonate with that oscillating magnetic field.4MHz. the power that isn't picked up by the receiving which must also be resonating at 6.4MHz smaller the receiver. People/other objects not that this system has a limited range. Resonant coupling makes the transfer of 3) 'Tails' of energy from antenna 'tunnel' up to energy almost a million times more efficient. most of 4) Electricity picked up by laptop's antenna.4MHz. rather than Energy used to re-charge device 5) Energy not transferred to laptop re-absorbed being lost into the environment. and the affected as not resonating at 6. y y y y y .

.DECLARATION THE FOLLOWING TECHNOLOGY WHICH I WILL BE SHOWING IS ENTIRELY MY IDEA TO THE BEST OF MY KNOWLEDGE.

.A NE IDEA: IDEA We know that the basic principle of transponders is to convert em wave signal to electrical pulses.

Thus we can convert electric signals to a particular frequency of em wave and design a transponder which will work on that particular frequency. then we can easily transmit electricity without wires .

wirelessly. . If wireless transmission of electricity is possible then we produce power in the solar cells in the space stations and transmit it to the earth wirelessly.Future Advancements Nowadays there are a lot of talks on cleaner fuels.

MERITS. DEMERITS & ECONOMICS OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES .

Africa is in need of power to run pumps to tap into the vast resources of water under the Sahara Desert. yet there is no method for delivering power. and there are practically no losses. The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy used by the consumer and rid the landscape of wires. so there will be no transmission and distribution loss.it makes no difference what the distance is. and substations. . costly. towers. cables. Rural areas. There are areas of the world where the need for electrical power exists. and capital intensive grid of cables. require the electrical power necessary to bring them into the 20th century and to equal standing with western nations. The efficiency of the transmission can be as high as 96 or 97 per cent. The electrical energy can be economically transmitted without wires to any terrestrial distance. and transmission towers. based on this method would eliminate the need an inefficient. To transmit wireless power to any distance without limit.MERITS An electrical distribution system. such as those in China.

it was found that the frequency is very small and such a frequency is very biologically compatible .DEMERITS Biological Impact .One common criticism of Impact: the Tesla wireless power system is regarding its possible biological effects. Calculating the circulating reactive power.

which is an exact parallel of Tesla s Direct Electricity. dispersed receiving stations will be needed.Economic Impact The concept looks to be costly initially. Only private. so no power cord will be necessary! Monthly electric utility bills from old-fashioned. a single resonant energy receiver is required. much like cable TV of today. In terms of economic theory. . In the 21st century. lossprone electrified wire-grid delivery services will be optional. fossil-fuelled. which may eventually be built into appliances. Just like television and radio. many countries will benefit from this service. Direct TV is the rage.

y It has a tremendous economic impact on human society. The electric signals can be economically transferred to any terrestrial distance without wires. . y Wireless transmission of electricity have tremendous merits like high transmission integrity and low cost (90(9097% efficient) and can be transmitted anywhere globally. Many countries will benefit from this service.CONCLUSION without wires is not a theory or y The transmission of power a mere possibility.

on the other hand. The Hertz waves represent energy which is radiated and unrecoverable. is preserved and can be recovered." NICOLA TESLA .. The current energy.. in its entirety. above which is a rarefied and conducting atmosphere. theoretically at least.THE END "We are living on a conducting globe surrounded by a thin layer of insulating air.