USE OF FLY ASH IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

Presented
BY

Subhash Chandra
Sr. Engineer (AUD)

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

1

Various areas of use of Ash

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

2

Ash production and use in different countries
Country/ Region Ash Production (Million ton) 134.7 120.02 56.4 13.8 11.0 6.6 145 Ash Utilization (Mt) 55.6 69.6 52.4 2.5 10.7 2.3 78 Utilization Rate % 42.0 58.0 92.9 18.0 97.2 33.0 50 Year References

USA China EU 15 Australia Japan Canada India
2/22/2011

2008 2000 2008 2008 2006 2006 2009

ACAA, 2009 Wang, 2004 ECOBA, 2009 ADAA. 2009 JCOAL, 2010 CIRCA, 2010 FAU
3

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

Utilization of Ash in USA; Different avenues (based on ACAA, 2009)
Production 134.7 Million Ton Utilization 55.6 (42%) 1. Disposal 79.06

Concrete/Concrete Products /Grout 8%

2. Blended Cement/ Raw Feed for Clinker 3% 3. Structural Fills/Embankments 7% 4. Mining Applications 11%

8. Disposal 58% 5. Gypsum Panel Products 5% 6. Waste Stabilization/Solidifi cation 3% 4 Subhash Chandra7. Other Sr. 5% Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

2/22/2011

Cont

CCP Categories 1. Concrete/Concrete Products /Grout 2. Blended Cement/ Raw Feed for Clinker 3. Flowable Fill 4. Structural Fills/Embankments 5. Road Base/Sub-base 6. Soil Modification/Stabilization 7. Mineral Filler in Asphalt 8. Snow and Ice Control 9. Blasting Grit/Roofing Granules 10. Mining Applications 11. Gypsum Panel Products 12. Waste Stabilization/Solidification 13. Agriculture 14. Aggregate 15. Miscellaneous/Other

Fly Ash

Bottom Ash

Boiler Slag

FGD

Total

9.80 2.44 0.26 4.65 0.20 0.67 0.05 2.15 3.52 0.10 0.09 0.80

0.56 0.72 0.11 2.94 0.77 0.19 0.48 0.08 0.50 0.01 0.45 0.47

0.06 0.05 1.62 0.04 0.03 0.03

0.24 0.42 0.04 1.36 0.10 0.05 12.31 7.29 0.22 0.28 -

10.59 3.58 0.41 9.02 0.97 0.96 0.05 0.53 1.74 15.00 7.29 3.74 0.39 0.57 1.30

2/22/2011

Total Utilization Disposal

55.6
Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office 5

79.06

Utilization of Ash in Europe (EU15); Different avenues (based on ECOBA, 2009)
Production 56.42 Million Ton Utilization 54.8 (92.9%) Disposal 4.00 Disposal
7% Other uses 13%

Aerated concrete blocks 11% Grouting 7% Subgrade stabilisation 5% Pavement base course 9% Infill 9% Blasting grit 10%

Gypsum blocks 5%

Projection plaster 13% Set retarder for cement 11%

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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Cont
Total Production 56.42 Mt

Sector of use Cement raw material Blended cement Concrete addition Aerated concrete blocks Non-aerated concrete blocks Lightweight aggregate Bricks + ceramics Grouting Asphalt filler Subgrade stabilisation Pavement base course

Fly Ash 3.863 2.46 5.76 0.663 0.311

Bottom Ash 0.311 0.064 0.065 0.009 0.886

Boiler Slag

Other

0.005 0.13 0.049

0.093 0.346 0.095 0.128 0.003

0.019 0.015 0.161 0.122 0.412 0.067

0.057

0.01 0.091

1.556 0.516 2/22/2011 General engineering fill Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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Cont

Structural fill Soil amendment Infill Blasting grit Plant nutrition Set retarder for cement Projection plaster Plaster boards Gypsum blocks Self levelling floor screeds Other uses Reclamation, Restoration Temporary stockpile Disposal

1.841 0.04 0.446 603

0.182

0.019 0.002 0.064 0.603 0.008 0.638 0.817 5.577 0.303 1.533

0.087 17.079 0.829 2.231

0.068 1.901 0.216 0.459

0.144

0.086 1.874 0.321 1.383

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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Utilization of Ash in Australia; Different avenues (based on ADAA, 2009)
Production 13.76 Million Ton Utilization 2.51 (18.0%) Disposal 11.25
l

Di

l

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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Cont

Total Ash Produced CCP Use (M Tonnes) Category 1 Concrete/Concrete Products /Grout Cement/ Raw Feed for Clinker Mineral Fillers Category 2 Flowable Fill CLSM Structural Fills/Embankments Road Base/Sub-base Soil Modification/Stabilization Mineral Filler in Asphalt Agriculture Aggregate Category 3 Mining Applications (e.g. Backfill) Waste Stabilization/Solidification Miscellaneous/Other Total of All Beneficially Used in 2008 Total of All Sold in 2008

13.76 Fly Ash

Mt Bottom Ash Cenosp here Combined

1.55

0.02

0.00

1.57

0.31

0.22

0.00

0.53

0.11

0.00

0.00

0.11

0.03 1.97

0.26 0.24

0.01 0.00

2.22 0.29 11.25

2/22/2011

Disposal

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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Utilization of Ash in Japan; Different avenues (based on JCOAL, 2006)

Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries 1% Construction Works 4%

Other 13%

Disposal 3%

Public Works 13% Cement 66%

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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Cont

Item Sector Contents Raw material Cement Admixture Ready mixed Total Public works Soil treatment Public works Public works for electric power Subgrade stabilization Asphalt filler Backfilling in coal mines 2/22/2011 Total

Electric Power Utilities Qty
4816 103 109

General Industries Qty
2069 174 0

Total Qty
6885 277 109

%
61.64 1.32 1.4

%
72.75 6.12 0

%
62.61 2.6 1.02

5028

64.35

2243

78.87

7271

66.23

209 506 46 136 10 203

2.68 6.48 0.59 1.74 0.13 2.6

102 35 0 162 0 0

3.59 1.23 0 5.7 0 0

311 541 46 298 10 203

2.92 5.08 0.43 2.8 0.09 1.9

1110 14.21 299 Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

10.51

1409

13.22

12

Cont
Construction works Construction board Lightweight aggregate Concrete product Others Total Agriculture, forestry & fisheries Fertilizer Soil improvement Thawing material Total Others Sewage Iron manufacture Others Total Disposal 2/22/2011 Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office
227 0 29 0 2.91 0 0.37 0 138 0 1 0 4.85 0 0.04 0 365 0 30 0 3.42 0 0.28 0

256

3.28

139

4.89

395

3.71

50 10 0

0.64 0.13 0

22 79 0

0.77 2.78 0

72 89 0

0.68 0.64 0

60

0.77

101

3.55

161

1.31

2 11 1346

0.03 0.14 17.23

1 1 60

0.04 0.04 2.11

3 12 1406

0.03 0.11 13.19

1359

17.39

62

2.18

1421

13.33

2.8

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Utilization of Ash in Canada; Different avenues (based on CIRCA, 2010)

Cement 12%

Concrete / Grout M 7% Application 1% Road Base / Subbase 2% Wall Board 5% er 3%

sposal 70%

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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Cont
Total Production Uses Area Cement Concrete / Grout Mining Application Road Base / Subbase Wall Board Other Disposal 6.4 Fly Ash
0.638 0.472 0.089 0.017 0 0.084

Mt Bottom Ash
0.147 0 0 0.094 0 0.006

FGD Gypsum
0.01 0 0 0 0.313 0.043

Other
0 0 0 0 0 0.039

Total
0.795 0.472 0.089 0.111 0.313 0.172 4.45

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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Utilization of Ash in China; Different avenues (based on Wang & Wu, 2004)

r r Cv g r g ,8% R D 6,8% r 6, % gr ,8% r , % r

In some developed areas, Shanghai, Nanjing and Nantong of Jiangsu Province and Nanchang of Jiangxi Province, the utilization rate of produced fly ash was 100% in the past five years and used extensively in geotechnical engineering 2/22/2011 of road construction and wallboard materials 16 Subhash Chandra Sr.
Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

Fly ash in high value added applications
Category High value-added applications

Alumina Mineral extraction Magnetite Iron Carbon Cenospheres Other minor and trace items

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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Cont
Category High value-added applications Construction Enhanced Pozzolana cement and Oil Well Cement engineering Decorative glass Ceramic Fibers Glazed floor and wall tiles Ash alloys Synthetic marble High ware resistance ceramic tile Reflective material Ultra light hollow sphere for arid zone Continuous casting mould powder Domestic cleaning powder Synthetic wood
2/22/2011 Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office 18

Cont
Category Filler High value-added applications Mineral fillers Distemper Plastic fillers Fire Bricks Fire abatement applications Glass Ceramics Foam insulation products Anti-corrosion coating Mineral Wool FGD Adsorbent Synthetic Zeolites Activated Cenospheres
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Protective material

Waste treatment material

Agriculture Cultivation 2/22/2011 Subhash Chandra fertilizer Potassium silicate Sr.
Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

Cont

These kinds of high value added products consume lower volume of fly ash than that of construction, back fill and road pavement applications However, they have the potential in generating considerable sales revenues for power plants and manufacturers, which helps to prompt the development of different high level Ash technologies

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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EcoEco-Industry Park
(A conceptual model)
EIP derived from the idea of industry symbiosis could be realized to optimize and maximize the use of Ash

Ash generated from the power plants are used as feed stocks for various applications and the produced electricity is supplied to those plants as primary energy source
2/22/2011 Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office 21

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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Conclusion
There is a need for concerted effort to promote the "technically sound", "environmentally safe", and "economically justified" utilization of Ash. A number of researches and projects on high levels utilization of Ash have been carried out in many part of world, however, the majority of which have not yet been commercialized. It should be emphasized that transforming such laboratory- or pilot-scale technologies into industrial productivity is of the highest priority for increased use of Ash.
2/22/2011 Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office 23

Fly ash should be considered as an essential ingredient of concrete and not merely for replacement of cement or reduction in cost

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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ThanQ?

2/22/2011

Subhash Chandra Sr. Engineer AUD NTPC Noida Office

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