closes after delivery. Foramen ovale ± allows blood to flow from right atrium to left atrium.` Ductus Venosus ± connects umbilical vein and inferior vena cava. Closes functionally at birth because of the increase pressure in the left atrium --. closes after birth. by passing fetal lungs. Ductus arteriosus ± allows blood flow from pulmonary artery to the aorta. ` ` . by passing portal circulation. bypassing the lungs.anatomical closes takes several days or months.


The blood then reaches the inferior vena cava. . Most of this blood is sent through the ductus venosus. a major vein connected to the heart.Oxygen and nutrients from the mother's blood are transferred across the placenta to the fetus. The enriched blood flows through the umbilical cord to the liver and splits into three branches. also a shunt that passes highly oxygenated blood through the liver to the inferior vena cava and then to the right atrium of the heart. A small amount of this blood goes directly to the liver to give it the oxygen and nutrients it needs.

instead of going back through the foramen ovale. goes into the right ventricle. the chamber on the upper right side of the heart. After circulating there. (the large artery coming from the heart). From the aorta. the blood returns to the right atrium of the heart through the superior vena cava. blood is sent to the heart muscle itself in addition to the brain and arms. When the blood enters the right atrium. Very little of this less oxygenated blood mixes with the oxygenated blood and. .Blood enters the right atrium. Blood then passes into the left ventricle (lower chamber of the heart) and then to the aorta. most of it flows through the foramen ovale into the left atrium.

Most of this blood is shunted through the ductus arteriosus to the descending aorta. carbon dioxide and waste products are released into the mother's circulatory system. and oxygen and nutrients from the mother's blood are released into the fetus' blood. In the placenta. .This less oxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle into the aorta. This blood then enters the umbilical arteries and flows into the placenta. A small amount of the blood continues on to the lungs.

the alveoli in the lungs are cleared of fluid. . which decrease the pressure in the right atrium. An increase in the baby's blood pressure and a significant reduction in the pulmonary pressures reduces the need for the ductus arteriosus to shunt blood. These changes increase the pressure in the left atrium of the heart. As the lungs expand. These changes promote the closure of the shunt. the lungs begin to expand. The shift in pressure stimulates the foramen ovale to close.With the first breaths of life.

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