Integrated Watershed Management & Rainwater Harvesting

Prof. T. I. Eldho ,, Department of Civil Engineering, Prof. T. I. Eldho

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay/ India.

•Contents
• India’s Water Resources
• Watershed Development & Modelling • Integrated Watershed Management • Water Conservation & Harvesting • Successful Case Study

Integrated Water Resources Development and Management: IWRDM. Integration of - River basin resources- surface and ground. - Demands - consumptive and non-consumptive, and supplies. - Facilities - mega to micro. - Human and eco-systems. - S&T and engineering with social, economic, synergic needs.

INDIA’S LAND RESOURCE, IRRIGATION AND FOOD PRODUCTION
• India has 2% of world’s land, 4% of freshwater, 16% of population, and 10% of its cattle. • Geographical area = 329 Mha of which 47% (142 Mha) is cultivated, 23% forested, 7% under non-agri use, 23% waste. • Per capita availability of land 50 years ago was 0.9 ha, could be only 0. 14 ha in 2050. • Out of cultivated area, 37% is irrigated which produces 55% food; 63% is rain-fed producing 45% of 200 M t of food. • In 50 years (ultimate), proportion could be 50:50 producing 75:25 of 500 M t of required food.

SOME INFERENCES FROM RIVER BASIN STATISTICS • Himalayan Rivers Water: 300 utilizable, 1200 BCM available. • Himalayan large dams presently store 80 BCM. New dams under consideration could store 90 BCM. • Peninsular Rivers Water: 400 utilizable, 700 BCM available. • Peninsular large dams presently store 160 BCM. New dams under consideration could store 45 BCM. • In all, large dams presently store 240 BCM. New dams under consideration could store 135 BCM. Total storage thus could be 375 BCM only.

2050. AVAILABILITY India’s Yearly Requirement in 2050 (Km3 = BCM) • For growing food and feed at 420 to 500 million tonnes = 628 to 807 BCM • Drinking water plus domestic and municipal use for rural population at 150 lpcd and for urban population at 220 lpcd = 90 to 110 BCM •Hydropower and other energy generation = 63 to 70 BCM •Industrial use = 81 to 103 BCM •Navigational use = 15 BCM •Loss of water by evaporation from reservoirs = 76 BCM •Environment and ecology = 20 BCM Total Availability 970 to 1200 BCM 1100 to 1400 BCM .WITHDRAWAL OF WATER.

import food. reduce evaporation. •Water productivity .inter-basin transfer •Groundwater .increase in efficiency.increases in crop per drop •Trade (virtual water).Where does the water come from? •New dams . .underdeveloped •Demand Management •Water savings .

 Need for proper planning and management. Integrated watershed development approach  Digital revolution  Recent advances in watershed modelling . Development & Modelling Watershed is the basic scientific unit.use of computer models. .Part 2: Watershed  Limited water resources.more demand.

00.000-2.000 100-1.000-50.WATERSHED Development Watershed Characteristics. Hydrology of watershed.000 10-100 Classification Watershed Sub-watershed Milli.watershed Micro-watershed Mini-watershed . Watershed (ha) 50.000 1.000 10.000-10.

WATERSHED Development … Parameters of Watershed • Size •Shape •Physiography •Climate •Drainage •Land use •Vegetation •Geology and Soils •Hydrology •Hydrogeology •Socioeconomics .

Transform function .WATERSHED MODELLING … Watershed modelling steps 1. Calibration/verification 3. Input function 2. Output function 3. Formulation 2. Application Watershed model constitutes 1.

1989) .WATERSHED MODELLING … ET Precipitation Interception Storage ET Surface Storage Surface Runoff Infiltration Interflow Direct Runoff Percolation Groundwater Storage Baseflow Channel Processes Fig Flowchart of simple watershed model (McCuen.

g.g.e. i. e. .WATERSHED MODELLING … General Classification of Models Broadly classified into three types Black Box Models: These models describe mathematically the relation between rainfall and surface runoff without describing the physical process by which they are related. Stanford Watershed Model Distributed Models: These models are based on complex physical theory. based on the solution of unsteady flow equations. Unit Hydrograph approach Lumped models: These models occupy an intermediate position between the distributed models and Black Box Models. e.

• This type of development not only called into question • the adequacy of water resources schemes but triggered the urgent • search for more effective and appropriate management strategies. indebtedness raising economic pressure and jeopardising future development. consequences • The failure of such projects. contributed to indebtedness. • Traditional water harvesting systems have suffered sever neglect. .Part 3: Integrated Watershed Management Background • Large water resources development projects in India have adverse socio-economic and environmental consequences. • Indiscriminate expansion of marginal lands and over-utilisation of existing water resources for irrigation. • Major response to follow “Integrated Watershed Management Approach”.

 Water should be managed at the lowest appropriate level.  The application of principles of demand management for efficient utilisation. . a delivery mechanisms and a monitoring schedule that evaluates program performance. .  Ensure that mechanisms and policies are established that enables long term support. and to determine the linkage between water resources and the impacts on environment.  Equitable access to water resources for water users.  Prevention of further environmental degradation (short term) and the restoration of degraded resources (long term). to assess the resource base through modelling and development of DSS.  Water should be recognised and treated as an economic good.  Recognise that the development of water resources may require research.Concepts and Principles of IWM Objectives:  Water has multiples uses and must be managed in an integrated way. viable sustainable future for basin stake holders. Strategies:  A long term. Implementation Programs:  Comprise an overall strategy that clearly defines the management objectives.  Water allocation should take account of the interests of all who are affected. socio-economy.

design. Community led water users groups have led the implementation efforts. water conservation. participation Public Participation High Socio-economic with water conservation Project success Low 1970 1980 1990 2000 Watershed development program Social issues are addressed through involvement of women and minority. implementation Mainly water conservation .Integrated Watershed Approach IWM is the process of planning and implementing water and natural resources …… an emphasis on integrating the bio-physical. Socio-economic. socio-economic and institutional aspects. Public participation planning.

•The four engineering and management tools for effective and sustainable development of water resources in semi-arid rural India: • Appropriate technologies • Decentralised development system • Catchment based water resources planning • Management information system •In past the efforts were more on the soil conservation and taking measures on the land where as we used to neglect the welfare of the land users. • For sustainable watershed management there is need to integrate the social and economic development together with soil and water conservation .

IWA – Modeling through Advanced Technologies .

Part 4: Water Conservation & Harvesting Total water management for sustainable development?. .

See that there are no leaking taps. What you can do to conserve water? Use only as much water as you require.Water Conservation Important step for solutions to issues of water and environmental conservation is to change people's attitudes and habits Conserve water because it is right thing to do!. . open it only when you require it. While brushing or other use. Use a washing machine that does not consume too much water. Close the taps well after use. Do not leave the taps running while washing dishes and clothes. do not leave the tap running.

Water in which the vegetables & fruits have been washed .  At the end of the day if you have water left in your water bottle do not throw it away. pour it over some plants.Water Conservation… Install small shower heads to reduce the flow of the water.use to water the flowers & plants. Re-use water as much as possible Change in attitude & habits for water conservation Every drop counts!!! .

underground storagegroundwater • Hydrological Cycle . • Rain Water Harvesting RWH.Rain Water Harvesting?. reservoirs. conveying & storing water from rainfall in an area – for beneficial use. • Storage – in tanks.process of collecting.

•As RWH .Rain Water Harvesting?.neither energy-intensive nor labourintensive •It can be a cost-effective alternative to other wateraccruing methods. • With the water table falling rapidly. post-evaporation. For an average rainfall of 1. & concrete surfaces and landfill dumps taking the place of water bodies. • RWH . approximately four million litres of rainwater can be collected in a year in an acre of land (4.yield copious amounts of water.047 m2).000mm. RWH is the most reliable solution for augmenting groundwater level to attain self-sufficiency .

Private. Office & Industrial buildings • Pavements.RWH – Methodologies • Roof Rain Water Harvesting • Land based Rain Water Harvesting • Watershed based Rain Water harvesting • For Urban & Industrial Environment – • Roof & Land based RWH • Public. Gardens & other open spaces . Lawns.

Provides self-sufficiency to water supply 2.Improves the quality of ground water through dilution when recharged 5. RWH only relief 8.Rain Water Harvesting– Advantages 1.The rooftop rain water harvesting is less expensive & easy to construct. soft and low in minerals 4. In saline or coastal areas & Islands. In desert.Reduces the cost for pumping of ground water 3.Provides high quality water. operate and maintain 7.Reduces soil erosion & flooding in urban areas 6. rain water provides good quality water .

Part 5: Successful Case Study Catchment Area = 1800 km2 .

Area – 1800 sq. ~ 20-30 events during June-September ~ Classified as drought prone region. Moisture deficit during January to May months each year.km Highly undulating.Jhabua Watershed: Case Study Madhya Pradesh ( INDIA ). ~ 57% arable land including cultivable fellow and ~ 18% notified as forest land. sparsely distributed forest cover. Average rainfall ~ 750 mm per annum. . ~ altitude of 380 m to 540 m.

Predominantly tribal population. 92% engaged in agriculture. Gram. Oil seeds. Soyabeans. Black beans.Jhabua watershed: Case study Major crops: Maize. ~ high seasonal migration ~ economically one of the most backward district . Peanuts. Cotton.

Yearly rainfall departure from the mean for rainfall station Jhabua Seasonal rainfall departure are extremely variable. .

Development Issues •Subsistence of rain-fed mono-cropping farming system with low agriculture productivity •Undulating topography and soil erosion due to overgrazing causing degradation of land. •Degradation of forestry land due to absence of community involvement in protection of the forest. •High pressure of population on the agriculture land leading to substantial poverty causing immigration. •Absence of decentralized water resources and basic infrastructure facilities. .

Planning & Implementation A Three step IWMA model approach 1. Appropriate Technology 3. Management Information System . Resources Mapping Information System using Geographical 2.

5 km2  Channel porosity = 20%  Depth of wetting front = 4. .8 x106 m3.0 m Total storage capacity = 14.Resources mapping: Ground water dynamics Total alluvium area= 18.

3 x 106 m3 Reservoir in main channel Reservoir in main channel .Resources mapping: Surface water storage Total number of reservoirs = 144 Storage capacity = 81.

Appropriate Technology Water conservation and groundwater recharge techniques Water harvesting cum supplementary irrigation techniques in Jhabua .

Water Conservation Water conservation interventions includes contour trenches. gully plugging. percolation tanks. Type of land ownership for soil and water conservation measures 25% 45% 2% 5% 28% 65% Contour bunding Staggered trenching Gully plugging Level terraces 30% Private land Fallow land Forest land Techniques of soil and water conservation measures . Overall land treatment against potential area is varying between 40-60%. vegetative and field bunding.

.Joint Forest Management Redevelopment of forest is essential for catering socioeconomics needs of the people and ecological needs of the region. Forest committees are formed for forest protection and part of area is made available for grazing on rotation basis. Implementing agencies promoted the concept of “Social Fencing” people protecting the forest and grazing land.

Community participation and local capacity building Development of new village level institutions and local capacity building. regulation of financial matters. and conflict resolution. . Operation & maintenance of structures.

.Discussion Success interventions reside in integration of appropriate technical and managerial measures. IWM approach may be characterised by •Community management built on existing social structure. measures People’s participation in the entire process are most important. organisations •Joint forest management with community participation. Efficient utilisation of funds. The benefits of water harvesting and water conservation definitely reached. Limitation: 100% drought proofing for every water use can not be achieved. •Self-help water user groups and community based banking institutions. structure •Project management drawn from village level organisations. Thus. only 10-15% spent on non-project costs.

• Restore ecological balance through community participation and cost affordable technologies for easy acceptance.Concluding Remarks The integrated watershed management approach have the following major components: • Promote sustainable economic development through optimum utilisation of natural resources and local capacity building. • Improving living conditions of the poorer through more equitable resources distribution and greater access to income generating activities. .

Concluding Remarks • About 2-4 meter water level increase is observed in selected wells. • Watershed management can easily cope with climate change impacts. • The benefits of water harvesting and water conservation not only for drinking water security but also for agriculture definitely reached. • Water security through IWM . •Efficient utilisation of funds as only 10-15% of the total budget spent on non-project costs.

Fax: 25767302 http://www.in . India.ac. Department of Civil Engineering.in Phone: (022) – 25767339.ac.civil. Mumbai. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. 400 076. I. Email: eldho@iitb.iitb.Dr. Eldho Associate Professor. T.

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