Locomotion – Skeletal and Muscular Systems

 Movement

based on Muscles acting on a rigid skeleton animals employ the use of muscles

is

 All

Types of Skeletons
 Hydrostatic

Fluid filled cavity encircled by muscle fibers Soft-bodied invertebrates
 Exoskeleton

Body encased in hard shell chitin most be shed for growth limits body size as exoskeleton has to grow increasingly thicker and heavier
 Endoskeleton

Types of Skeletons
 Endoskeletons

- rigid internal skeleton to which muscles are attached
composed of cartilage or bone  vertebrate skeleton
axial skeleton - forms axis of body and supports organs of the head, neck, and chest  appendicular skeleton - includes bones of the limbs, pectoral and pelvic girdles

Exoskeleton and Endoskeleton

Skeleton
Functions

Overview
Connective

Homeostatic

Tissue

Ca+ and P+ reservoir Attachment for muscles Protective covering brain and spinal cord

Extracellular

Biomechanical

matrix with collagen fibers (flexible) impregnated with crystals of Calcium phosphate (rigidity)
Dynamic

– reconstruction

Bone Tissue Structure

Consists of Haversian System
 

Run length of bone Nerves/blood

  

Osteoblasts - matrix Osteocytes – encased Osteoclast breakdown Concentric lamellae

  

Around canal

Lacunae Canaliculi

(articulations)
Joints – places where 2 bones are attached TYPES  Immovable joints – dense connective tissue little movement - sutures  Slightly movable joints – held together by cartilage Some flexibility not much (intervertebral and symphyses)  Freely movable Synovial Joints Capsule with fluid

Types of Joints

Types of Joints

Types of Joints

Levers for movement

     

Muscles attach to bone to allow movement – contraction = movement Origin – nonmoving Insertion – moving Attach via tendons Muscles oppose each other – Antagonistic Muscles that cause the same action synergists Isotonic contraction - muscle and all fibers shorten in length thus force of contraction remains relatively constant Isometric contraction - tension is absorbed by tendons and other

Flexor and Extensor Muscles

Muscle Structure
    

Muscle Muscle fascicle Muscle fibers = cell Myofibrils Thick and thin myofilaments Myosin and Actin

Muscle Structure (Cont’d)
Striated due to dark and light bands  Pattern = organization of myofilaments  Repeating structure “Sarcomere” Dark bands = “A” myosin Light bands = “I” actin Z line = actin attachment H zone = myosin only

Sliding Filament Mechanism
Mechanism of muscle contraction No shortening - sliding

The Players

Preparing for Sliding
muscle relaxed – myosin heads cocked – unable to Bind to actin due to sites blocked by protein - tropomyosin In order to contract tropomyosin must be moved to expose binding sites on actin Requires a regulatory protein troponin – troponin binds to tropomyosin changes the structure and exposes binding sites Troponin regulated by Calcium stored in the muscle cells If low calcium no binding sites exposed , if high calcium - exposed

ATP is required

Rigor mortis – body not make ATP (DEAD) cross-bridges cannot be broken

What causes sliding?
 

Nervous system involvement When stimulated, electrical impulse travels down T-tubules Causes sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca++

Control of Muscle Contraction
 Nerves

stimulate contraction

Somatic motor neurons stimulate skeletal muscles.

Axon extends from neuron cell body and branches to make synapses with a number of muscle fibers.

Control of Muscle Contraction
 Somatic

motor neuron stimulates contraction:
releasing acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh).  impulses spread along membrane and carried into the muscle fibers through the T tubules  T tubules conduct impulse toward the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which releases Ca++

 Excitation-contraction

coupling

Control of Muscle Contraction
 Motor

units and recruitment

set of muscle fibers innervated by all axonal branches is defined as a motor unit

division of muscle into motor units allows muscle’s strength of contraction to be finely graded
– most muscles contain motor units in a variety of sizes

recruitment - nervous system’s use of increased numbers and sizes of motor units to produce a stronger contraction

Number and Size of Motor Units

Types of Muscle Fibers
 Muscle

fiber twitches

muscle stimulated with a single electric shock

A second electrical shock delivered immediately after the first will produce a second twitch that may partially piggyback on the first (summation).
– At a particular frequency of stimulation, there is no visible relaxation between successive twitches (tetanus).

Summation

Types of Muscle Fibers
 Skeletal

muscle fibers can be divided on the basis of their contraction speed:
Type I – slow-twitch fibers

rich capillary supply, numerous mitochondria, and high concentration of myoglobin pigment (red fibers) fewer capillaries and mitochondria and not as much myoglobin (white fibers)

Type II – fast-twitch fibers

Types of Muscle Fibers
 Muscle

metabolism during rest and exercise
Skeletal muscles at rest obtain energy from aerobic respiration of fatty acids.
Skeletal muscles respire anaerobically for the first 45-90 seconds of moderate to heavy exercise.  Maximum rate of oxygen consumption in the body is called maximal uptake or aerobic capacity.

Types of Muscle Fibers
 Muscle

fatigue and physical training

Muscle fatigue refers to the use-dependent decrease in the ability of a muscle to generate force.

usually correlated with the production of lactic acid by the exercising muscles
– also related to depletion of muscle glycogen

Types of Muscle Fibers
 Endurance-trained

athletes have a high aerobic capacity, and thus can perform more exercise before lactic acid production and glycogen depletion cause muscle fatigue.

Weight training (resistance training) causes muscle fibers to become thicker as a result of increased size and number of myofibrils.

cause skeletal muscles to grow by

Modes of Animal Locomotion
 In

large animals, active locomotion is almost always produced by appendages that oscillate (appendicular locomotion) or by bodies that undulate, pulse, or undergo peristaltic waves (axial locomotion).

Modes of Animal Locomotion
 Locomotion

in water

Buoyancy reduces the influence of gravity.
The primary force retarding forward movement is frictional drag.
– Swimming uses the body or its appendages to push against the water.

Locomotion in Water

Modes of Animal Locomotion
 Locomotion

on land

Mollusks slide along a path of mucus.  Vertebrates and arthropods have a raised body and move forward by pushing the ground with a series of jointed appendages.

Vertebrates have four limbs, while arthropods have six or more.
– basic walking pattern of all tetrapod vertebrates LH – LF – RH – RF

Locomotion on Land
 Both

arthropods and vertebrates achieve faster gaits by overlapping leg movements.  The highest running speeds of tetrapod vertebrates are obtained with asymmetrical gaits.

galloping horse never supported by more than two legs, occasionally by none

reduces friction against ground

 Many

vertebrates use peristaltic locomotion.

Modes of Animal Locomotion
 Locomotion

in air

Flight has evolved four times:
insects, pterosaurs, birds,and bats  propulsion achieved by pushing down against the air with wings

Raising and lowering wings is achieved by alternate contraction of extensor muscles and flexor muscles.

Modes of Animal Locomotion
 In

some insect orders, flight muscles are not attached to the wings, but rather to the stiff wall of the thorax.

Summary
 Characteristics  Tissue

of Epithelial Tissue

Types  Types of Skeletons  The Structure of Bone  Types of Joints  Actions of Skeletal Muscles  Sliding Filament Mechanism of Contraction  Control of Muscle Contraction  Types of Muscle Fibers

Muscle Tissue Types

Smooth Muscle

Striated Muscle Skeletal Cardiac

Striated Muscle

Skeletal

Cardiac

Skeletal Muscle

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