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Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)

Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
distance by timing the propagation delay of VHF or UHF radio signals by sending and receiving pulse pairs two pulses of fixed duration and separation  invented by Edward George "Taffy" Bowen  ground stations are typically collocated with VORs 

DME system is composed of a UHF transmitter/receiver (interrogator) in the aircraft and a UHF receiver/transmitter (transponder) on the transponder) ground.

A radio pulse takes around 12.36 microseconds to travel one nautical mile to and from, this is also referred to as a radar-mile. radar-

. The time difference between interrogation and reply minus the 50 microsecond ground transponder delay is measured by the interrogator's timing circuitry and translated into a distance measurement in nautical miles which is then displayed in the cockpit.


DME interrogator uses frequencies from 1025 to 1150 MHz  DME transponders transmit on a channel in the 962 to 1150 MHz range and receive on a corresponding channel between 962 to 1213 MHz  The band is divided into 126 channels for interrogation and 126 channels for transponder replies  The interrogation and reply frequencies always differ by 63 MHz  DME facilities identify themselves with a 1350 Hz morse code three letter identity  .

the physical distance from the aircraft to the DME transponder  depends trigonometrically upon both the altitude above the transponder and the ground distance from it  .


provides magnetic bearing to the station you are tuned to Distance .flying away or towards your station.slant range to the station up to 390 nautical miles To/From .Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) provides the user with a distance and bearing from a ground station  provides the following pieces of information:  Bearing . Beacon Identifier Tone (BIT) .audio information consists of a morse code trail for identification of the station you are tuned to Reliability .warning flag information lets you know if the system is reliable .

you end up with a signal which is simply noise: . TACAN station with no aircraft initially modulates squitter onto the carrier. So basically. which is basically random noise generated so that the waveform is the proper length.

 When an aircraft flies into range which is transmitting distance interrogations.  every 30 seconds. the station will pick these interrogations up and generate an appropriate response by pulse modulating DME data into the waveform. the station modulates station identification in the form of BIT data onto the carrier: .

 RF energy from the TACAN transmitter is fed to the antenna  Parasitic elements positioned around it are electronically rotated at 15 revolutions per minute The distance of the parasitic element are chosen to obtain a radiation pattern that looks like this:  .

but all aircraft receive the reference signal at the same time  . which each aircraft sees differently.  Because of the rotating radiation the reflector moves. the outward lobe of the cardioidcardioid-like radiation pattern moves around  this creates a physically amplitude modulated signal. the waveform is variable for aircraft at different radials.

 the aircraft determines its bearing from the station by looking at the waveform of the signal and where the main reference burst is pulse encoded. .

there is a reference point for the variable amplitude variations. Yet another rotating element with 9 reflectors produces even more amplitude variations. you still have your main reference burst: . To provide more accurate bearing information. Again. of course. This comes in the form of 9 auxillary reference bursts:  And. TACAN uses the same principle again to calculate fine bearing.

at 30 second intervals:   composite signal (listed below in order of priority): 1. DME responses: And BIT. ARB . MRB . DME .1350Hz Beacon Identification Tone 4.Distance Measurement Equipment 5.Auxillary Reference Bursts 3. 2700Hz Squitter/Filler Squitter/Filler . BIT .Main Reference Burst 2.


 . independent of air traffic control. and warns pilots of the presence of other transpondertransponderequipped aircraft which may present a threat of mid-air midcollision  It is an implementation mandated by International Civil Aviation Organization to be fitted to all aircraft with maximum take-off mass over 5700 kg or authorised to takecarry more than 19 passengers.Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) an aircraft collision avoidance system designed to reduce the incidence of mid-air collisions between aircraft mid monitors the airspace around an aircraft for other aircraft equipped with a corresponding active transponder.

and all other craft reply to other  it determines if a potential collision threat exists  automatically negotiating a mutual avoidance maneuver between the conflicting aircraft  avoidance maneuvers are communicated to the flight crew by a cockpit display and by synthesized voice instructions  .TCAS involves communication between all aircraft equipped with an appropriate transponder  Each TCAS-equipped TCASaircraft "interrogates" all other aircraft in a determined range about their.

TCAS I monitor the traffic situation around a plane (to a range of about 40 miles) and offer information on the approximate bearing and altitude of other aircraft It can also generate collision warnings in the form of a "Traffic Advisory "Traffic does not offer any suggested remedy .Versions of TCAS  A. Passive Collision Avoidance systems which rely on transponder replies triggered by ground and airborne systems generally have a range of less than 7 nautical miles  B.

known as a "Resolution Advisory TCAS II systems coordinate their resolution advisories before issuing commands to the pilots vertical separation advisories  D. vocalized instructions to avoid danger. TCAS III "next generation" of collision avoidance technology had the capability to offer traffic advisories and resolve traffic conflicts using horizontal as well as vertical manouevring directives currently suspended and there are no plans for its implementation . TCAS II offers all the benefits of TCAS I offer the pilot direct.Versions of TCAS  C.

increases pilot workload Lack of terrain/ground awareness information TCAS is not fitted to many smaller aircraft mainly due to the high costs .TCAS Limitations      limited to supporting only vertical separation advisories ATC isn't automatically informed about resolution advisories TCAS lacks automated facilities.

Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) .

Typically. single-barred singleneedle is connected to an ADF/TACAN and the other thicker and/or double-barred is connected to doublea VOR. the thin. Heading indicator direction of the aircraft in relation to magnetic north Bearing indicator the actual bearing to the station . Most RMI incorporate two direction needles.Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)      displays aircraft heading and bearing to selected radio navigation aids.

Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) / Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) .

Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS)      Invention of Don Bateman alert pilots if their aircraft is in immediate danger of flying into the ground. GroundGround-Collision Warning System (GCWS) the system is purely reactive and can not look ahead at terrain can not always give pilots sufficient time to predict and plan avoidance maneuvers .

Altitude Loss After Takeoff Or Rejected Landing  Provides an alert if a decent is made during initial climb or climb after rejected landing Mode 6 .3 dots below an ILS glideslope  Mode 3 .  Mode 4 .  Mode 1 . and will warn the captain with visual and audio messages if the aircraft is in certain defined flying configurations ("modes").Landing Configuration provides an alert when the gear is down and the flaps are not in landing position Mode 5 .Below Glideslope Deviation Alert alerts you of a descent of more than 1. AGL altitude  and AGL rate-of-change.Unsafe Terrain Clearance Mode 4a . calculates trends. Mode 4b .Excessive Bank Angle For Altitude alerts when descending through selected decision height with gear down .Clean Configuration terrain clearance mode with the gear retracted and is armed after take off upon climbing through 215 meters AGL  Mode 2 . ("modes").Excessive Decent Rate Has two (2) boundaries and is independent of vehicle configuration. MSL rate-ofaltitude and vehicle configuration.Excessive Terrain Closure Rate Monitors airspeed.A computer then keeps track of these readings.

 Pilots will receive much more timely cautions and warnings of any obstructions to the aircraft's path.  . and provides alerts about a minute's flight time or more away from terrain  On-board computers can compare its current location Onwith a database of the Earth's terrain.Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System the EGPWS displays the surrounding terrain (up to 320 NM) on an EFIS screen or weather radar CRT.

The Black Box .

 Data from both the CVR and FDR is stored on stacked memory boards inside the crash-survivable memory unit crash(CSMU)  The black box is powered by one of two power generators that draw their power from the plane's engines.The Black Box Although they are called "black boxes. One generator is a 28-volt DC power source. 400-hertz (Hz) AC power 115400source  . 28and the other is a 115-volt." aviation recorders are actually painted bright orange.

in strong corrosioncorrosionresistant stainless steel or titanium. Flight Data Recorder   first prototype FDR was produced in 1957 by Dr David Warren typically double wrapped.A. with highhightemperature insulation inside .

the CSMU is inside a rectangular box. the CSMU in a solid-state solidblack box insulates and protects the stack of memory boards that store the digitized information  .Survivable Memory Unit a cylindrical compartment on the recorde  device is engineered to withstand extreme heat. In older magnetic-tape magneticrecorders. violent crashes and tons of pressure.  Using three layers of materials.Crash .

64 cm) thick. Aluminum housing . . This is what keeps the memory boards safe during post-accident fires. High-temperature insulation .Three Layers of Crash . Titanium can be used to create this outer armor as well. Stainless-steel shell . post3.There is a thin layer of aluminum around the stack of memory cards.The high-temperature insulation Stainlesshighmaterial is contained within a stainless-steel cast shell stainlessthat is about 0.Survivable Memory Unit 1.54 cm) thick and provides high-temperature highthermal protection.This dry-silica material is 1 Highdryinch (2.25 inches (0. 2.

3. 7. Static crush .400 Gs. 2. SaltSalt-water submersion .For five minutes. Crash impact .25-inch steel pin protruding from the bottom onto the CSMU from a height of 10 0. The unit sits inside the fire at 2.100 C) for one hour. the CSMU hits an aluminum. At 3. 4.Researchers shoot the CSMU down an air cannon to create an impact of 3.Researchers place the unit into a propane-source fireball. There are several tests that make up the crash-survival sequence: crash- 1.000 degrees Fahrenheit (1. lubricants and fire-extinguisher chemicals.To test the unit's penetration resistance.The CSMU is placed into a pressurized tank of salt water for 24 hours. 6. fire- .Various CSMU components are placed into a variety of aviation fluids. impacts the CSMU cylinder's most vulnerable 500axis. cooking it using three propaneDeepDeep-sea submersion . This impact force is equal to or in excess of what a recorder might experience in an actual crash. which determines how much something weighs). including jet fuel. honeycomb target at a force equal to 3. The FAA requires that all solid-state recorders be able to survive at least one hour at this temperature. researchers drop a 500-pound (227-kg) 500(227weight with a 0. 5.000 pounds per square-inch (psi) of crush squareforce to each of the unit's six major axis points. This pin. researchers apply 5. Pin drop .400 times its weight.400 Gs (1 G is the force of Earth's gravity. burners.The CSMU must survive in a salt water tank for 30 days. solid- Fire test .25feet (3 m). Fluid immersion . with 500-pounds behind it.

airspeed. record six flight parameters: altitude. longitudinal acceleration. vertical acceleration. it had to record 17 parameters on any flight after May 25. time of day. and the relative time of radio transmissions to and from air traffic controllers. roll attitude. rudder pedal position. position of each thrust reverser. controlcontrolcolumn position.FDR Record Parameters prior to September 30. trailing-edge trailingflap position. heading. and engine thrust indications. and leading-edge flap position.  Then. control wheel position. 1969. adding to the list: pitch attitude.  Airplanes certificated after that date were required to record a total of 11 parameters. leading . 1994. The six additional parameters included: pitch trim position.

Time .Engine information .Fuel flow .Vertical acceleration .Control and actuator positions.Control-wheel position .FDR Record Parameters  Currently.Horizontal stabilizer .Airspeed . .Pressure altitude . there are 88 parameters required as a minimum  a few of the parameters recorded by most FDRs: .Rudder-pedal position .Magnetic heading -Control-column position .

FDR Location  Black boxes are usually sold directly to and installed by the airplane manufacturers. Sometimes they are located in the ceiling of the galley. in the aft cargo hold or in the tail cone that covers the rear of the aircraft. The precise location of the recorders depends on the individual plane. The entire front of the aircraft acts as a "crush zone" to reduce the shock that reaches the recorder. Black boxes are installed in the tail of the plane. .

the Safety Board can generate a computer animated video reconstruction of the flight. This animation enables the investigating team to visualize the last moments of the flight before the accident. There is a submergence sensor on the side of the beacon that looks like a bull's-eye. If a plane crashes into the water. Black boxes are also equipped with an Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB).5 kilohertz (kHz) that cannot be heard by human ears but is readily detectable by sonar and acoustical locating equipment. When water touches this bull'ssensor. power settings and other characteristics of the flight. . computer animated video reconstruction of the flight. instrument readings. it activates the beacon. The investigator can then visualize the airplane's attitude. this beacon sends out an ultrasonic pulse at 37.Retrieving Data     With the data retrieved from the FDR.

where it can pick up audio alerts and other sounds . The positions of the four microphones are: 1. each connected to the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) Any sounds in the cockpit are picked up by these microphones and sent to the CVR. called the associated control unit that provides pre-amplification for audio going to the preCVR. Near the center of the cockpit. There is also another device in the cockpit.B. Pilot's headset 2. Headset of a third crew member (if there is a third crew member) 4. Co-pilot's headset Co3. where the recordings are digitized and stored. COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER   There may be up to four microphones in the plane's cockpit.

solid-state magneticsolidrecorders also record over old material . CVRs that used solidsolid-state storage can record two hours of audio. They use a continuous loop of tape that completes a cycle every 30 minutes. the oldest material is replaced. As new material is recorded. Similar to the magnetic-tape recorders. Most magnetic-tape CVRs store the last 30 minutes of magneticsound.

and the time at which certain events occur can often be determined. is formed to listen to the recording. system failures. automated radio weather briefings. Communications with Air Traffic Control. FAA. parameters such as engine rpm. manufacturer of the engines. and conversation between the pilots and ground or cabin crew are also recorded  .Retrieving Data A CVR committee usually consisting of members from the NTSB. speed. manufacturer of the airplane. as well as other sounds inside the cockpit. and the pilots union.  From the sounds.  This committee creates a written transcript of the CVR audio to be used during the investigation. operator of the aircraft.  The CVR records the flight crew's voices.