Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)

Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
distance by timing the propagation delay of VHF or UHF radio signals by sending and receiving pulse pairs two pulses of fixed duration and separation  invented by Edward George "Taffy" Bowen  ground stations are typically collocated with VORs 

DME system is composed of a UHF transmitter/receiver (interrogator) in the aircraft and a UHF receiver/transmitter (transponder) on the transponder) ground.

A radio pulse takes around 12.36 microseconds to travel one nautical mile to and from, this is also referred to as a radar-mile. radar-

. The time difference between interrogation and reply minus the 50 microsecond ground transponder delay is measured by the interrogator's timing circuitry and translated into a distance measurement in nautical miles which is then displayed in the cockpit.


DME interrogator uses frequencies from 1025 to 1150 MHz  DME transponders transmit on a channel in the 962 to 1150 MHz range and receive on a corresponding channel between 962 to 1213 MHz  The band is divided into 126 channels for interrogation and 126 channels for transponder replies  The interrogation and reply frequencies always differ by 63 MHz  DME facilities identify themselves with a 1350 Hz morse code three letter identity  .

the physical distance from the aircraft to the DME transponder  depends trigonometrically upon both the altitude above the transponder and the ground distance from it  .


Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) provides the user with a distance and bearing from a ground station  provides the following pieces of information:  Bearing .provides magnetic bearing to the station you are tuned to Distance .slant range to the station up to 390 nautical miles To/From . Beacon Identifier Tone (BIT) .warning flag information lets you know if the system is reliable .flying away or towards your information consists of a morse code trail for identification of the station you are tuned to Reliability .

 TACAN station with no aircraft initially modulates squitter onto the carrier. So basically. you end up with a signal which is simply noise: . which is basically random noise generated so that the waveform is the proper length.

 When an aircraft flies into range which is transmitting distance interrogations. the station will pick these interrogations up and generate an appropriate response by pulse modulating DME data into the waveform.  every 30 seconds. the station modulates station identification in the form of BIT data onto the carrier: .

 RF energy from the TACAN transmitter is fed to the antenna  Parasitic elements positioned around it are electronically rotated at 15 revolutions per minute The distance of the parasitic element are chosen to obtain a radiation pattern that looks like this:  .

the waveform is variable for aircraft at different the reflector moves. but all aircraft receive the reference signal at the same time  . the outward lobe of the cardioidcardioid-like radiation pattern moves around  this creates a physically amplitude modulated signal. which each aircraft sees differently.  Because of the rotating radiation pattern.

 the aircraft determines its bearing from the station by looking at the waveform of the signal and where the main reference burst is pulse encoded. .

TACAN uses the same principle again to calculate fine bearing. This comes in the form of 9 auxillary reference bursts:  And. you still have your main reference burst: . Yet another rotating element with 9 reflectors produces even more amplitude variations. of course. To provide more accurate bearing information. there is a reference point for the variable amplitude variations. Again.

Distance Measurement Equipment 5. at 30 second intervals:   composite signal (listed below in order of priority): 1. MRB . ARB . BIT . DME .Main Reference Burst 2. DME responses: And BIT. 2700Hz Squitter/Filler Squitter/Filler .Auxillary Reference Bursts 3.1350Hz Beacon Identification Tone 4.


and warns pilots of the presence of other transpondertransponderequipped aircraft which may present a threat of mid-air midcollision  It is an implementation mandated by International Civil Aviation Organization to be fitted to all aircraft with maximum take-off mass over 5700 kg or authorised to takecarry more than 19 passengers.  . independent of air traffic control.Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) an aircraft collision avoidance system designed to reduce the incidence of mid-air collisions between aircraft mid monitors the airspace around an aircraft for other aircraft equipped with a corresponding active transponder.

and all other craft reply to other  it determines if a potential collision threat exists  automatically negotiating a mutual avoidance maneuver between the conflicting aircraft  avoidance maneuvers are communicated to the flight crew by a cockpit display and by synthesized voice instructions  .TCAS involves communication between all aircraft equipped with an appropriate transponder  Each TCAS-equipped TCASaircraft "interrogates" all other aircraft in a determined range about their.

TCAS I monitor the traffic situation around a plane (to a range of about 40 miles) and offer information on the approximate bearing and altitude of other aircraft It can also generate collision warnings in the form of a "Traffic Advisory "Traffic does not offer any suggested remedy . Passive Collision Avoidance systems which rely on transponder replies triggered by ground and airborne systems generally have a range of less than 7 nautical miles  B.Versions of TCAS  A.

TCAS III "next generation" of collision avoidance technology had the capability to offer traffic advisories and resolve traffic conflicts using horizontal as well as vertical manouevring directives currently suspended and there are no plans for its implementation . TCAS II offers all the benefits of TCAS I offer the pilot direct. vocalized instructions to avoid danger. known as a "Resolution Advisory TCAS II systems coordinate their resolution advisories before issuing commands to the pilots vertical separation advisories  D.Versions of TCAS  C.

TCAS Limitations      limited to supporting only vertical separation advisories ATC isn't automatically informed about resolution advisories TCAS lacks automated facilities. increases pilot workload Lack of terrain/ground awareness information TCAS is not fitted to many smaller aircraft mainly due to the high costs .

Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) .

Most RMI incorporate two direction needles. Typically. Heading indicator direction of the aircraft in relation to magnetic north Bearing indicator the actual bearing to the station . single-barred singleneedle is connected to an ADF/TACAN and the other thicker and/or double-barred is connected to doublea VOR. the thin.Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)      displays aircraft heading and bearing to selected radio navigation aids.

Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) / Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) .

Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS)      Invention of Don Bateman alert pilots if their aircraft is in immediate danger of flying into the ground. GroundGround-Collision Warning System (GCWS) the system is purely reactive and can not look ahead at terrain can not always give pilots sufficient time to predict and plan avoidance maneuvers .

AGL altitude  and AGL rate-of-change.  Mode 1 . and will warn the captain with visual and audio messages if the aircraft is in certain defined flying configurations ("modes").3 dots below an ILS glideslope  Mode 3 .Excessive Terrain Closure Rate Monitors airspeed. calculates trends.  Mode 4 .Landing Configuration provides an alert when the gear is down and the flaps are not in landing position Mode 5 . ("modes").Unsafe Terrain Clearance Mode 4a .Excessive Decent Rate Has two (2) boundaries and is independent of vehicle configuration. Mode 4b .Below Glideslope Deviation Alert alerts you of a descent of more than 1. MSL rate-ofaltitude and vehicle configuration.A computer then keeps track of these readings.Altitude Loss After Takeoff Or Rejected Landing  Provides an alert if a decent is made during initial climb or climb after rejected landing Mode 6 .Excessive Bank Angle For Altitude alerts when descending through selected decision height with gear down .Clean Configuration terrain clearance mode with the gear retracted and is armed after take off upon climbing through 215 meters AGL  Mode 2 .

 .  Pilots will receive much more timely cautions and warnings of any obstructions to the aircraft's path.Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System the EGPWS displays the surrounding terrain (up to 320 NM) on an EFIS screen or weather radar CRT. and provides alerts about a minute's flight time or more away from terrain  On-board computers can compare its current location Onwith a database of the Earth's terrain.

The Black Box .

One generator is a 28-volt DC power source. 400-hertz (Hz) AC power 115400source  . 28and the other is a 115-volt.  Data from both the CVR and FDR is stored on stacked memory boards inside the crash-survivable memory unit crash(CSMU)  The black box is powered by one of two power generators that draw their power from the plane's engines." aviation recorders are actually painted bright orange.The Black Box Although they are called "black boxes.

Flight Data Recorder   first prototype FDR was produced in 1957 by Dr David Warren typically double wrapped.A. in strong corrosioncorrosionresistant stainless steel or titanium. with highhightemperature insulation inside .

violent crashes and tons of pressure.Survivable Memory Unit a cylindrical compartment on the recorde  device is engineered to withstand extreme heat.Crash . In older magnetic-tape magneticrecorders. the CSMU in a solid-state solidblack box insulates and protects the stack of memory boards that store the digitized information  .  Using three layers of materials. the CSMU is inside a rectangular box.

Aluminum housing . This is what keeps the memory boards safe during post-accident fires.64 cm) thick.Three Layers of Crash .The high-temperature insulation Stainlesshighmaterial is contained within a stainless-steel cast shell stainlessthat is about 0. Titanium can be used to create this outer armor as well. Stainless-steel shell .Survivable Memory Unit 1.There is a thin layer of aluminum around the stack of memory cards.25 inches (0. High-temperature insulation .54 cm) thick and provides high-temperature highthermal protection.This dry-silica material is 1 Highdryinch (2. 2. post3. .

25-inch steel pin protruding from the bottom onto the CSMU from a height of 10 0. SaltSalt-water submersion . Static crush .Researchers shoot the CSMU down an air cannon to create an impact of 3.Various CSMU components are placed into a variety of aviation fluids.400 Gs.400 Gs (1 G is the force of Earth's gravity.25feet (3 m). 2.For five minutes.Researchers place the unit into a propane-source fireball. Crash impact . 3. The FAA requires that all solid-state recorders be able to survive at least one hour at this temperature. researchers apply 5. Fluid immersion . 5.000 degrees Fahrenheit (1. honeycomb target at a force equal to 3. fire- .400 times its weight. This impact force is equal to or in excess of what a recorder might experience in an actual crash.100 C) for one hour. with 500-pounds behind it. At 3. 7. 4. including jet fuel. cooking it using three propaneDeepDeep-sea submersion .The CSMU is placed into a pressurized tank of salt water for 24 hours. lubricants and fire-extinguisher chemicals. burners. which determines how much something weighs).To test the unit's penetration resistance. Pin drop . the CSMU hits an aluminum. impacts the CSMU cylinder's most vulnerable 500axis. researchers drop a 500-pound (227-kg) 500(227weight with a 0. This pin.The CSMU must survive in a salt water tank for 30 days. There are several tests that make up the crash-survival sequence: crash- 1. The unit sits inside the fire at 2.000 pounds per square-inch (psi) of crush squareforce to each of the unit's six major axis points. solid- Fire test . 6.

position of each thrust reverser. rudder pedal position. 1994. and the relative time of radio transmissions to and from air traffic controllers. 1969. vertical acceleration.FDR Record Parameters prior to September 30. and engine thrust indications.  Airplanes certificated after that date were required to record a total of 11 parameters. control wheel position.  Then. time of day. adding to the list: pitch attitude. and leading-edge flap position. roll attitude. it had to record 17 parameters on any flight after May 25. controlcontrolcolumn position. The six additional parameters included: pitch trim position. record six flight parameters: altitude. leading . airspeed. longitudinal acceleration. trailing-edge trailingflap position. heading.

Control and actuator positions.Magnetic heading -Control-column position .Fuel flow .Pressure altitude .Engine information .Rudder-pedal position . there are 88 parameters required as a minimum  a few of the parameters recorded by most FDRs: .Airspeed .Horizontal stabilizer .Control-wheel position .Vertical acceleration .FDR Record Parameters  Currently. .Time .

Black boxes are installed in the tail of the plane. in the aft cargo hold or in the tail cone that covers the rear of the aircraft. Sometimes they are located in the ceiling of the galley. The precise location of the recorders depends on the individual plane. . The entire front of the aircraft acts as a "crush zone" to reduce the shock that reaches the recorder.FDR Location  Black boxes are usually sold directly to and installed by the airplane manufacturers.

.5 kilohertz (kHz) that cannot be heard by human ears but is readily detectable by sonar and acoustical locating equipment. The investigator can then visualize the airplane's attitude. Black boxes are also equipped with an Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB). instrument readings.Retrieving Data     With the data retrieved from the FDR. power settings and other characteristics of the flight. This animation enables the investigating team to visualize the last moments of the flight before the accident. it activates the beacon. computer animated video reconstruction of the flight. this beacon sends out an ultrasonic pulse at 37. There is a submergence sensor on the side of the beacon that looks like a bull's-eye. If a plane crashes into the water. When water touches this bull'ssensor. the Safety Board can generate a computer animated video reconstruction of the flight.

where it can pick up audio alerts and other sounds . Near the center of the cockpit. Pilot's headset 2. The positions of the four microphones are: 1.B. Co-pilot's headset Co3. where the recordings are digitized and stored. There is also another device in the cockpit. Headset of a third crew member (if there is a third crew member) 4. COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER   There may be up to four microphones in the plane's cockpit. called the associated control unit that provides pre-amplification for audio going to the preCVR. each connected to the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) Any sounds in the cockpit are picked up by these microphones and sent to the CVR.

They use a continuous loop of tape that completes a cycle every 30 minutes. the oldest material is replaced. solid-state magneticsolidrecorders also record over old material . CVRs that used solidsolid-state storage can record two hours of audio. Most magnetic-tape CVRs store the last 30 minutes of magneticsound. Similar to the magnetic-tape recorders. As new material is recorded.

 This committee creates a written transcript of the CVR audio to be used during the investigation. is formed to listen to the recording. and the time at which certain events occur can often be determined. automated radio weather briefings. system failures. and conversation between the pilots and ground or cabin crew are also recorded  .  The CVR records the flight crew's voices. parameters such as engine rpm. speed. Communications with Air Traffic Control.Retrieving Data A CVR committee usually consisting of members from the NTSB. manufacturer of the airplane. and the pilots union. manufacturer of the engines. as well as other sounds inside the cockpit. FAA. operator of the aircraft.  From the sounds.

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