Metal ±Casting Processes

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Metals processed by casting 
Sand

casting ± 60%  Permanent mold casting ± 11%  Die casting ± 9%  Investment casting ± 7%  Centrifugal casting ± 7%  Shell mold casting ± 6%

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

2008 .5 Schmid. S.Types of Parts Made Engine blocks  Pipes  Jewelry  Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Schmid.5rd Edition. Additional references in the last slide . Materials. Kalpakjian and S..

2 principles of fluid flow are relevant to gating design: Bernoulli¶s theorem and the law of mass continuity. Kalpakjian and S. Additional references in the last slide . Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials..5 Schmid. 2008 .5rd Edition. Materials.Mold Features The following is a gravity casting system. S. Schmid.

5rd Edition. 2008 .. Additional references in the last slide .Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid. Materials.5 Schmid. S.

Materials.Ferrous casting alloys Cast irons represent the largest amount of all metals cast and can cast into complex shapes.5rd Edition. 2008 .5 Schmid. Types of irons:        Gray cast iron Ductile iron (nodular iron) White cast iron Malleable iron Compacted-graphite iron Cast steels Cast stainless steels Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.. Additional references in the last slide . S. Schmid. Kalpakjian and S.

Kalpakjian and S. S. Additional references in the last slide . Schmid.. Materials.Nonferrous casting alloys Types of alloys:      Aluminum-based alloys Magnesium-based alloys Copper-based alloys Zinc-based alloys High-temperature alloys Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 2008 .5 Schmid.5rd Edition.

5rd Edition.Components of Casting       Path: Sprue -> Well -> Runner -> Mold cavity Riser: Compensate volume loss due to shrinkage Location of riser? Core: Make holes Core print Draft: Prevent collapse of sand Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.. Materials. S. Additional references in the last slide . 2008 . Kalpakjian and S. Schmid.5 Schmid.

Additional references in the last slide .Expendable-Mold Permanent-Pattern Casting Processes Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian and S.5rd Edition.. 2008 .5 Schmid. Schmid. Materials. S.

cold-box. better accuracy and surface finish.5rd Edition. Additional references in the last slide .5 Schmid. and water and is inexpensive. 2008 .. Schmid. clay. and no-bake molds. castings has high strength.  In no-bake mold process.Sand Casting Types of sand molds  3 types: green-sand.  Green molding sand is mixture of sand. Materials. Kalpakjian and S. a synthetic liquid resin is mixed with the sand and hardened in room temperature.  In skin-dried method. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. S.

Materials. Schmid.5rd Edition.Sand Casting Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Additional references in the last slide .5 Schmid. Kalpakjian and S.. S. 2008 .

Schmid. Materials. S. 2008 .5rd Edition. Additional references in the last slide ..5 Schmid.Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian and S.

2008 .5 Schmid. Schmid. Additional references in the last slide . S.5rd Edition.Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian and S.. Materials.

Materials. Additional references in the last slide . 2008 .5 Schmid. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5rd Edition. Schmid. S.Shell-mold casting    Can produce castings with close dimensional tolerances Good surface finish Low cost. Kalpakjian and S..

. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Additional references in the last slide .5rd Edition. Schmid.18 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. 2008 .Ceramic Mold Manufacture FIGURE 5. Materials. S. Kalpakjian and S.5 Schmid.

Function ± Sub function Reference Date Author

Shape Material

Conserve Material

Consolidation

Alting,Leo. ³Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide.´ 1994 April 2003 Horacio Elizondo

Description: Green Sand Casting

Capabilities

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Expendable-Mold, Expendable-Pattern Casting Processes

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid,

2008 , Additional references in the last slide

Expendable-pattern casting (lost foam)
Evaporative Pattern Casting

FIGURE 5.20 Schematic illustration of the expendable-pattern casting process, also known as lost-foam or evaporative-pattern casting.
Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials,5rd Edition., S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Materials,5 Schmid, 2008 , Additional references in the last slide

. Additional references in the last slide .5rd Edition. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid. 2008 . Materials.5 Schmid. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. S. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.Investment Casting (lost-wax process) Source: Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost wax process).

5 Schmid. Materials.Function ± Sub function Reference Date Author Shape Material Conserve Material Consolidation Alting. Schmid.Leo.5rd Edition. Kalpakjian and S.´ 1994 April 2003 Horacio Elizondo Description: Investment Casting Capabilities Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Additional references in the last slide . S.. 2008 . ³Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide.

2008 ..5 Schmid. S.Investment Casting Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Materials. Kalpakjian and S. Additional references in the last slide .5rd Edition. Schmid.

5rd Edition. Additional references in the last slide . Schmid.Permanent-Mold Casting Processes Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5 Schmid. Materials. S. Kalpakjian and S.. 2008 .

2008 . Schmid. Source: Courtesy of Hazelett Strip-Casting Corp.. S.5rd Edition.5 Schmid.Continuous-Casting (a) The continuous-casting process for steel. Note that the platform is about 20 m (65 ft) above ground level. Kalpakjian and S. Source: American Foundrymen's Society. Additional references in the last slide . Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Materials. (b) (b) Continuous strip casting of nonferrous metal strip.

5 Schmid. 2008 .5rd Edition. Materials.Function ± Sub function Reference Date Author Shape Material Conserve Material Consolidation Alting. ³Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide. Kalpakjian and S. Additional references in the last slide . S.´ 1994 April 2003 Horacio Elizondo Description: Permanent Mold Casting Capabilities Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Schmid..Leo.

5rd Edition. Additional references in the last slide . Source: Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.23 The pressure casting process.. utilizing graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels.5 Schmid. 2008 . Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian and S.Pressure & Hot-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. FIGURE 5. Materials. Schmid.24 Schematic illustration of the hotchamber die-casting process. S.

´ 1994 April 2003 Horacio Elizondo Description: Hot Chamber Die Casting Capabilities Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian and S.. Additional references in the last slide . Schmid.Leo. ³Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide. S.5rd Edition.Function ± Sub function Reference Date Author Shape Material Conserve Material Consolidation Alting. 2008 . Materials.5 Schmid.

These machines are large compared to the size of the casting.. S. Materials. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5 Schmid. 2008 .25 Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process. because high forces are required to keep the two halves of the die closed under pressure. Kalpakjian and S. Additional references in the last slide .5rd Edition.Cold-Chamber Die Casting FIGURE 5. Schmid.

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.. S. Kalpakjian and S. Materials. 2008 . Additional references in the last slide .5rd Edition.5 Schmid. Schmid.

Schmid. Materials.. 2008 . Additional references in the last slide . Kalpakjian and S. S.5rd Edition.5 Schmid.Die Casting Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 2008 . S. Schmid. and similarly shaped hollow parts can be cast by this process.Centrifugal Casting FIGURE 5.5 Schmid. Additional references in the last slide . Kalpakjian and S. Materials.5rd Edition. Pipes.26 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process.. cylinder liners.

2008 .5 Schmid. Additional references in the last slide . S.Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian and S..5rd Edition. Schmid. Materials.

Additional references in the last slide .5 Schmid.. Materials. 2008 . Schmid. S. Kalpakjian and S.5rd Edition.Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

2008 .. Materials. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Additional references in the last slide . and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal forces.27 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. S. Schmid.Semicentrifugal Casting FIGURE 5. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine.5rd Edition. Kalpakjian and S.5 Schmid.

Schmid. Additional references in the last slide .5 Schmid. Materials.5rd Edition. Kalpakjian and S. S.Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 2008 ..

Additional references in the last slide .Properties of Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 5.5 Schmid.. S.6 Properties and typical applications of common die-casting alloys. Materials. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 2008 . Kalpakjian and S. Schmid.5rd Edition.

. Materials. 2008 . Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. ASM International. Schmid. Additional references in the last slide .Rotor Microstructure FIGURE 5. S.5rd Edition. Kalpakjian and S. 25.22 Microstructure of a rotor that has been investment cast (top) and conventionally cast (bottom).5 Schmid. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes. October 1990. p.

Materials. S. 2 p 2 v2 p1 v12 h1   ! h2   f Vg 2 g Vg 2 g Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5rd Edition. Kalpakjian and S.Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Bernoulli¶s theorem  Based on . Additional references in the last slide .principle of conservation of energy .5 Schmid. 2008 .. Schmid.frictional losses in a fluid system p v2 h  ! Constant Vg 2 g h = elevation p = pressure at elevation v = velocity of the liquid = density of the fluid  Conservation of energy requires that.

Q ! A1v1 ! A2 v2  Q = volumetric rate of flow A = cross-sectional area of the liquid stream v = velocity of the liquid Subscripts 1 and 2 pertain to two different locations in the system. Kalpakjian and S. 2008 .Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer .5rd Edition. S. Schmid. Additional references in the last slide ..5 Schmid.Fluid flow Mass continuity  States that for an incompressible liquid the rate of flow is constant. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Materials.

2008 . gate velocity is v ! c 2g h  x Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5rd Edition. Materials.Fluid flow Sprue profile  Relationship between height and cross-sectional area at any point in the sprue is given by A1 ! A2  h2 h1 Velocity of the molten metal leaving the gate is v ! c 2 gh  When liquid level reached height x. S.5 Schmid.Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer . Kalpakjian and S. Schmid. Additional references in the last slide ..

Kalpakjian and S.Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer . Higher the Re. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.. Additional references in the last slide .5 Schmid. is used to characterize this aspect of fluid flow. Re. Materials.Fluid flow Flow characteristics Reynold¶s Number  Ratio of momentum (inertia) to viscosity  Fluid flow in gating systems is turbulence. v = velocity of the liquid vD Re ! L  D = diameter of the channel = density n = viscosity of the liquid. Schmid. greater the tendency for turbulent flow. 2008 . as opposed to laminar flow. S. (Which flow is preferred?)  Reynolds number.5rd Edition.

000 ± very turbulent Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 2008 .Critical Reynold¶s Number ‡ Re ~ 2.5rd Edition.. Materials. S. Schmid.5 Schmid. Kalpakjian and S. Additional references in the last slide .000 ± Laminar to turbulent transition ± Eddies begin to form ‡ Re > 20.

6oC) vDV Re ! L v v 0. Additional references in the last slide Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.) 2008 . Kalpakjian and S. S.254 v1430 Re ! 18. Materials.040 m/s (This ignores shear thinning. in diameter need to be turbulent? Density ( ) = 1..43 g/cm3 (at 20oC) Viscosity (L) = 189 poise (at 20.9 Re = 2.9 turbulent flow transition Re ~ 2.000 = 1.Example 1 How fast would a stream of honey 1 in.5rd Edition.000 V = 1.5 Schmid. .0254/18.430 * V * 0. Schmid.

The top of the sprue has a diameter of 20 mm and its length is 200 mm.01 m3/min.2 Design and analysis of a sprue for casting The desired volume flow rate of the molten metal into a mold is 0.Example 5.004 N-s/m2 Solution Since d1 = 0.02 m T 2 T 2 A1 ! d ! . What diameter should be specified at the bottom of the sprue in order to prevent aspiration? What is the resultant velocity and Reynolds number at the bottom of the sprue if the metal being cast is aluminium and has a viscosity of 0.

531 m/s 4 A1 3. S.14 v 10 Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Schmid.01 m3/min = 1.667×10-4 m3/s Therefore Q 1. Kalpakjian and S.667 v 104 v1 ! ! ! 0.14 10  4 m 2 4 4 1Top.0.002 ! 3. Materials.5rd Edition. 2008 . 2 bottom The metal volume flow rate is Q= 0. Additional references in the last slide .5 Schmid..

2 p2 v2 p1 v12 h1   ! h2   f Vg 2 g Vg 2 g 2 patm . and recognizing that the pressure at the top and bottom of the sprue is atmospheric Thus.Assuming no frictional losses.

2  Vg 2.0.531 patm v2  !  0 0.

9.81 Vg 2.

. Materials.5rd Edition. Kalpakjian and S.9.45 1. Schmid. Additional references in the last slide .15 10 4 A2 ! 1. S.15 v 10 4 m 2 T 2 ! d 4 d ! 12 mm Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5 Schmid.45 m/s Q ! A2 v2 T 2 A2 ! d 4 1. 2008 .667 v10 4 ! A2 v1.81 2 v2 ! 1.

Kalpakjian and S.. Additional references in the last slide vDV . As stated above. S. representing a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow An Re value of up to 2000 represents laminar flow  An Re Between 2000 and 20.000 represent severe turbulence. 2008 .000 it is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow and is generally regarded as harmless in gating systems for casting Re values in excess of 20. Materials.5 Schmid. Schmid.In calculating the Reynolds number V ! 2700kg / m3 v = velocity of the liquid D = diameter of the channel = density n = viscosity of the liquid.5rd Edition. this magnitude is typical for casting molds. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

45 . .

0.012 .

2700 1 Re ! ! ! 11.745 L 0.004 .

Kalpakjian and S.Physical Properties of Materials TABLE 3. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.. 2008 . Materials.3 Physical Properties of Various Materials at Room Temperature. Additional references in the last slide . S.5rd Edition. Schmid.5 Schmid.

. Temperature distribution in the mold-liquid metal interface is shown below. 2008 . Additional references in the last slide . Materials. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Heat transfer   Heat flow depends on casting material and the mold and process parameters. Schmid. Kalpakjian and S. S.5 Schmid.5rd Edition.

Casting © t!¬ ¬ 4 © Tmelting _ po int  Tmold . k mold << k « ¨ V Casting (.Solidification time (t) for an insulating mold ( mold << casting) casting.initil ­ ª ¸ ¹ ¹ º 2 »¨ v 1 ¼© casting k mold V mold cmold ¼© Acasting ½ª ¸ ¹ ¹ º 2 Solidification time (t) for a conducting mold (Biot # =hl/k < 0.17) ¨ ¸¨ vcasting V Casting (. Casting ¹© t !© © h.

initil ¹© Acasting ª ºª ¸ ¹ ¹ º 2 H = latent heat for the process = Hf + Ci T Hf = latent heat of solidification (fusion) V = volume A = area h = heat transfer coefficient C = specific heat = density Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Schmid.5rd Edition.. Tmelting _ po int  Tmold . S. 2008 . Kalpakjian and S. Additional references in the last slide . Materials.5 Schmid.

17) t! vcasting V casting Acasting h casting ¨ ln © © ª old  casting .Cooling time (t) for a solid object for a small Biot number (Biot # =hl/k < 0. Materials. Kalpakjian and S.. 2008 . Schmid.5rd Edition. S.5 Schmid.initil elting _ po int  casting . final ¸ ¹ ¹ º Chvorinov¶s rule for solidification time for an insulating mold ¨V t ! K© ©A ª t = cooling time K = a constant V = volume A = area ¸ ¹ ¹ º 2 Chvorinov¶s rule for solidification time for a conducting mold t = K (V/A) Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Additional references in the last slide .

Filling time for a bottom-gated mold 2 Amold tf ! Agate 2 g For no aspiration .

volume t! Agate v gate Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.of . Schmid.of . sprue ! vtop . Additional references in the last slide . S.sprue vbotto . sprue ! h pouring ..ba sin htotal Mold filling time estimate Mold .of . Kalpakjian and S.5rd Edition.h total  htotal  hmold Abotto .5 Schmid. spreue Atop .of . Materials. 2008 .

5 Schmid.Material properties: Data for solid materials at room temperature Material Specific heat (C) (kJ/kg-oC) Density ( ) (kg/m3) Thermal conductivity (k) (W/m-oC) Sand Aluminum Nickel Magnesium Copper Gray cast iron 1. S.60 202 92 156 385 42.44 1. 2008 .5rd Edition.39 0.. Additional references in the last slide . Materials. Schmid.07 0.441 1500 2700 8910 1700 8970 7125 0.16 0.7 Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.90 0. Kalpakjian and S.

Additional references in the last slide .04 2.. Materials.25 Aluminum Nickel Copper Gray cast iron Magnesium 650 Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid. 2008 .38 0.34 1.05 0.3 --1.5 Schmid.Data for liquid materials Material Melting point Latent heat of Specific heat (C) Viscosity (oC) solidification (kJ/kg-oC) (L) (mPa-s) (fusion) (Hf) (kJ/kg) 660 1453 1083 1251 396 297 384 220 211 1.5rd Edition.73 1.1 5.52 0.

Materials. Additional references in the last slide . 2008 . Kalpakjian and S.5 Schmid.5rd Edition. S.Solidification time  Solidification time is a function of the volume of a casting and surface area (Chvorinov¶s rule).. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Schmid. ¨ Volume ¸ Solidification time ! © ¹ Surface Area º ª n C = constant n=2  Effects of mold geometry and elapsed time on skin thickness and its shape are show.

One is a sphere.3 Solidification times for various solid shapes Three pieces being cast have the same volume but different shapes. and the other a cylinder with a height equal to its diameter. Which piece will solidify the fastest and which one the slowest? Use n = 2.Example 5. one a cube. Solution The volume is unity 1 .

54 t sphere ! 0. Additional references in the last slide .033C Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5rd Edition. Kalpakjian and S. 2008 ..84 Respective solidification times t are ylinder : A ! 2Tr 2  2Trh ! 5.043C t cube ! 0.5 Schmid.028C tcylinder ! 0. S.Surface area 2 ¨ 3 ¸ Sphere : A ! 4T © ¹ 4T º ª ube : A ! 6a 2 ! 6 2/3 Solidification time w Respective surface areas are ! 4. Materials. Schmid.

Additional references in the last slide . Schmid.5 Schmid. For L->S. 3. 2008 .5rd Edition.Shrinkage   Shrinkage in casting causes dimensional changes. 2. Materials.. Kalpakjian and S. S. Cracking is a result of: Contraction of the molten metal Contraction of the metal during phase change Contraction of the solidified metal 1. always think of Solidification Shrinkage!! Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Additional references in the last slide . Kalpakjian and S.. 2008 .Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. S.5 Schmid. Materials. Schmid.5rd Edition.

Additional references in the last slide . Fluxes are inorganic compounds that refine the molten metal by removing dissolved gases and various impurities. Kalpakjian and S.5rd Edition.. The metal charge may be composed of commercially pure primary metals. Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. which can include remelted or recycled scrap.Melting Practice and Furnaces    Melting has a direct bearing on the quality of castings.5 Schmid. Materials. 2008 . S. Schmid.

Kalpakjian and S.. Schmid.5 Schmid.P.5rd Edition.Casting Alloys Source : Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. S. Materials. Additional references in the last slide .P File Prepared by the author and publisher and other sources 2008 . P.

Kvav et al. Schmid.Jean-Loup. T. King Abdulaziz University. Wiley Publishing Company 2003. Prentice Hill 2008 Materials and Processes in Manufacturing. E. Y.T. ³ Non-Destructive Testing´. TECNOLOGI CO DE MONTERREY Mechanical Manufacturing. . Harmer E.. J.1988. Halmshaw R. 1987. 1982.. Colton . Geoffrey Boothroyd. McGraw-Hill Book Company.2007. Doyle. Fundamentals of Metal Machining and Machine Tools. Jonathan S. Metal Forming . Ohio: ASM International.F. Mansour . McGrraw-Hill Book Company. Pohlandt K. McGrraw-Hill Book Company. Cold and Hot Forging Fundamentals and Applications. Georgia Institute of Technology. and George F.5rd Edition. 1990.Y Springer 1989. Lawrence E.. ³ Material Testing for Metal forming Industry´.Wiley. ³ Mechanical Behavior of Materials´. T. 2009. 10th Edition. Serope Kalpakjian . E. Manufacturing Technology. McGraw-Hill. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ³ The Testing of Engineering Materials´. Courtney. ³Manufacturing Process And Materials For Engineers´.2007.. Y.al.Robert H. T. 1991. N. George E. Schey. ASM. Wagoner. John E. Ronald A. EL-Midany & M.. H.. 1982. Taylan Altan . Hosford Robert M. Courtney. Prentice-Hall.. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.. ³Introduction To Manufacturing Processes´ McGraw-Hill Book Company. ³ Mechanical Behavior of Materials´. Machine Tool Operations. Fundamentals of Metal Forming . George E. and George F. S. N. Manufacturing Engineering & Technology . E. Professor Arturo Molina . Manufacturing Processes and Engineering. Edward Arnold. 1990. H. October 2004. ³Hardness Tests´..1997. McGraw-Hill. Black.Bibliography (References) . Prentice Hall. Metals Park. ³ The Testing of Engineering Materials´. N. S.A.second Edition. PTR. . Kalpakjian and S.Willam F.. 1993. ³Materials And Processes in Manufacturing´. 6th Edition.2009. Paul DeGarmo et al. T. Paul DeGarmo. Third Edition.. Kohser.

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