WIND ENERGY: THE NEW ALTERNATIVE

07/15/11

1

By Md.Azher uddin 08MES-37 , B.tech (Mechanical) Faculty of Engg. & Tech. Jamia Millia Islamia

DESCRIPTION OF WIND TURBINES

Converts wind kinetic energy into electrical power Numerous industrial turbine designs, for example horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines Clean energy alternative, with little to no environmental impact Affects environmental aesthetic integrity, some migratory bird patterns, and downwind wind velocity.

07/15/11

2

HISTORY OF WIND POWERED TURBINES

200 B.C. – Wind powered machines utilized by Persians. 1888 – Charles F. Brush developed first energy producing windmill in Cleveland, Ohio. 1980s - First modern wind turbines were constructed. Past 20 years – Newer, better designed wind turbines have been developed.
3

07/15/11

FUTURE WIND ENERGY CAPACITY

Increasing exponentially 3 to 5 times larger energy capacity over next 6 years 20% of electrical energy supplied by wind energy by 2030

07/15/11

World Wind Energy Capacity Approximation (Wiki, 2008)

4

TURBINE POWER

Directly proportional to density of air, factor area of rotor blades, (kg/m³) and cube of velocity
turbine (m) (m/s) Efficiency of internal parts affects maximum power available

07/15/11

where,

P = power (W) α = design efficiency ρ = density of air r = radius of wind v = velocity of wind

Limited to 59% maximum efficiency

5

COMPARISONS TO OTHER ENERGY SOURCES
07/15/11

Environmentally friendly Large resource supply Cheap operating costs, 1cent/kW·hr Wind – $55.80/MWh Coal – $53.10/MWh Natural Gas – $52.50/MWh
6


Wind

vs.

Coal

Natural Gas

HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT)
07/15/11

Most common industrial design today Wind sensors to rotate tower in yaw direction Many found in West Texas where wind velocities are high
7

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Design

HAWT ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Advantages Disadvantages
07/15/11

Variable wind pitch to optimize amount of wind absorbed.  Able to increase height of tower to harness higher wind velocities at higher altitudes.  Already the major design for industrial wind power generation.

Inefficient close to ground level due to turbulence  Must be large scale making expensive construction costs  Must be comprised of strong materials (carbon fiber and steel) to deal with high winds

8

VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (VAWT)
07/15/11

Gearbox and generator at base of vertical rotor shaft. Utilizes wind flow in all directions (360°). Constructed on buildings to avoid ground level turbulence.
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

9

VAWT ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Advantages Disadvantages
07/15/11

Cheaper due to less height needed for effective operation.  No motor is needed to turn rotor blades.  Routine maintenance easy due to components being situated under vertical rotor shaft  Little chance of structural failure

Create only half the amount of energy of a comparable HAWT  Cannot harness higher winds at higher altitudes due to smaller height.  Complete deconstruction for maintenance.

10

CONCLUSIONS

Horizontal axis wind turbine the preferred design for future industrial use. Future efforts in wind energy technology. Combination of wind energy with current energy infrastructure.

07/15/11

Airborne Wind Generator

11

REFERENCES

Hansen, Martin O.L. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines, 2nd Ed. Earthscan Publications Ltd, January 2008.
07/15/11

 

Hau, Erich and H. von Renouard. Wind Turbines: Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics, 2nd Ed. Springer, October 1, 2005. McCabe, W.L. and J.C. Smith. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th Ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. Ragheb, M. “Theory of Wind Machines, Betz Equation.” 16 Nov. 2008 <https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/mragheb/www/NPRE%20498WP %20 Wind%20Power%20Systems/Theory%20of%20Wind %20Machin es%20Betz%20Equation..pdf>. "Wind Power." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 10 Nov. 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power>. "Wind Turbine." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 17 Nov. 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_turbine>.

 

 

 

 

12