Kevin Lane Keller Tuck School of Business Dartmouth College


2 .Measuring Brand Equity    MultiMulti-dimensional concept Many different measures required The ultimate value of a brand depends on the underlying components of brand knowledge and sources of brand equity 10.

3 .Comparative Methods    BrandBrand-based comparative approaches MarketingMarketing-based comparative approaches Conjoint analysis 10.

BrandBrand-Based Approaches      The marketing element under consideration is fixed. 10. Consumer response is examined based on changes in brand identification. Application example: Blind testing Advantage: Isolates the value of the brand Disadvantage: The totality of what is learned depends on how many applications are examined.4 .

etc. brand extensions. Applications: Explore price premiums· effect on switching. Advantage: Ease of implementation Disadvantage: Difficult to determine whether consumer responses are caused by brand knowledge or generic product knowledge 10.5 . consumer evaluations of marketing activities.MarketingMarketing-Based Approaches     The brand is held fixed and consumer response is examined based on changes in marketing programs.

6 . analyze brand/price trade-off tradeAdvantage: Allows for different brands or different aspects of the product to be analyzed simultaneously Disadvantage: May violate consumers· expectations based on what they already know about brands 10.Conjoint Analysis      A survey-based multivariate technique that enables surveymarketers to profile the consumer decision process with respect to products and brands Helps researchers determine the trade-offs consumers trademake between brand attributes Applications: Assess advertising effectiveness and brand value.

Holistic Methods    Attempt to place an overall value on the brand in either abstract utility terms or concrete financial terms Net out various considerations to determine the unique contribution of the brand Holistic methods: Residual approaches  Valuation approaches  10.7 .

especially from a financially oriented perspective Disadvantage: Static view. Limited diagnostic value for strategic decision making 10.8 .Residual Approaches    Examine the value of the brand by subtracting consumers· preferences based on physical product attributes alone from their overall brand preferences Advantage: Useful benchmark for interpreting brand equity.

Valuation Approaches    Attempt to place a financial value on brand equity for accounting purposes Useful in cases of mergers and acquisitions. and brand management decisions Valuation approaches: Accounting background  Historical perspectives  General approaches  Interbrand·s brand valuation methodology  10. brand licensing.9 . fund raising.

Accounting Background   Intangible assets are typically lumped under the heading of goodwill and include things such as patents. In an acquisition.10 . which. the goodwill item often includes a premium paid to gain control. in certain instances. may even exceed the value of tangible and intangible assets. and licensing agreements. 10. trademarks. as well as ´softerµ considerations such as the skill of the management and customer relations.

firms avoid such accounting maneuvers. Such a charge would severely hamper firm profitability. British firms used brand values primarily to boost their balance sheets. 10. In the United States.Historical Perspectives    In Australia Rupert Murdoch·s News Corporation included a valuation of some of its magazines on its balance sheets in 1984. generally accepted accounting principles (blanket amortization principles) mean that placing a brand on the balance sheet would require amortization of that asset for up to 40 years.11 . as a result.

12 . firms can choose from three main approaches:    Cost approach: Brand equity is the amount of money that would be required to reproduce or replace the brand Market approach: The present value of the future economic benefits to be derived by the owner of the asset Income approach: The discounted future cash flow from the future earnings stream for the brand 10.General Approaches  In determining the value of a brand in an acquisition or merger.

Interbrand·s Brand Valuation   Assumes that brand value is the present worth of the benefits of future ownership Follows five valuation steps:      Market segmentation Financial (role of branding) analysis Demand (brand strength) analysis Competitive benchmarking Brand value calculation  Brand value calculation : Calculate the brand value as the net present value (NPV) of the forecast brand earnings.13 . discounted by the brand discount rate 10.

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