KNOWLEDGE CREATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE

Lecture Three (Chapter 3, Notes; Chapter 4, Textbook)

Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Review of Lecture 2
Challenges in building KM Systems Compare KMSLC and CSLC Knowledge Management System Life Cycle (8 Stages)

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

This Week¶s Topics
Knowledge Creation and Sharing Knowledge Infrastructure Knowledge Management Architecture Build versus Buy Decision

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

KNOWLEDGE CREATION
Dynamic activity that can
enhance organization success and economic well-being

Driver of innovation
Involves knowledge

acquisition, selection, generation and sharing Maturation - translates
experience into knowledge
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Knowledge Creation and Transfer via Teams
Initial knowledge Outcome is realized Team performs a job New knowledge reusable by same team on next job Knowledge captured and codified in a form usable by others New experience/ knowledge gained Outcome compared to action

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Impediments to Knowledge Sharing
Compensation Recognition Ability utilization Creativity Good work environment Autonomy Job security Moral values Advancement Variety Achievement Independence Social status
Personality Organizational culture Lack of Vocational reinforcers

Knowledge sharing
Company strategies and policies

Attitude

Work Norms

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Nonaka¶s Model of Knowledge Creation and Transformation
TACIT TO TACIT (SOCIALIZATION) e.g., Individual and/or Team Discussions TACIT TO EXPLICIT (EXTERNALIZATION) e.g., Documenting a Team Meeting

EXPLICIT TO TACIT (INTERNALIZATION) e.g., Learn from a report and Deduce new ideas

EXPLICIT TO EXPLICIT (COMBINATION) e.g., Create a Website from some form of explicit knowledge; Email a Report
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Key to Knowledge Creation
The model focuses on tacit knowledge and use of technology to generate or transmit such knowledge to others The key to knowledge creation lies in the way knowledge is being mobilized and converted through technology
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

KNOWLEDGE INFRASTRUCTURE
Content core: Identify knowledge centres People core: Evaluate employee profiles Technical core: The totality of technology (S/W and H/W) required to operate the knowledge environment
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People

Content

Technology

Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Identifying Knowledge Centers
Job skills, Training Competition data, Sales volume, Leader sales data HUMAN RESOURCES

SALES

CUSTOMER SERVICES Strategies Tools R&D Advertising MARKETING Complaint rate, Satisfaction survey

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Stages of KMSLC
Evaluate Existing Infrastructure Form the KM Team Knowledge Capture

Iterative Rapid Prototyping

Design KM Blueprint Verify and validate the KM System Implement the KM System Manage Change and Rewards Structure Post-system evaluation

KM Architecture

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture
.....

Layer
1

User1

User2
User Interface

«

Usern

(Web browser software installed on each user¶s PC)

2

Authorized access control
(e.g., security, passwords, firewalls, authentication)

3

Collaborative intelligence and filtering
(intelligent agents, network mining, customization, personalization)

Knowledge-enabling applications 4
(customized applications, skills directories, videoconferencing, decision support systems, group decision support systems tools)

5

Transport
(e-mail, Internet/Web site, TCP/IP protocol to manage traffic flow)

Middleware 6
(specialized software for network management, security, etc.)

The Physical Layer
(repositories, cables)

7

Databases

Legacy applications (e.g., payroll)

Groupware (document exchange, collaboration)

Data warehousing (data cleansing, data mining)

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

KM Architecture
Visualize the building blocks of a KM system in the form of layers User Interface being the least technical, and data repository the most technical These layers represent internal technologies of the company
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

The User Interface (Layer 1)
Interface between users and the KM system Usually as a web browser The goal is to remove barriers to information and tacit (made explicit) knowledge represented in the data repositories
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

The User Interface (Layer 1)
User interface should be consistent, relevant, visually clear, easy to navigate, and easy to use Usability testing by the actual users is the final test of acceptability
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Authorized Access Control (Layer 2)
Maintains security and ensures authorized access to the knowledge stored in company¶s repositories Access points can be intranet, Internet, and extranet

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Authorized Access Control (Layer 2)
Internet
Public

Extranet Intranet
Company Clients ySuppliers yVendors yPartners yCustomers
‡ Product

‡News/events ‡Marketing ‡E-commerce ‡Careers

‡Human resource information ‡Production information ‡Sales information ‡Strategic plans

information

‡Sales information ‡Collaboration/cooperation

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Collaborative Intelligence and Filtering (Layer 3)
Personalized views based on roles and stored knowledge Intelligent agents to reduce search time for needed information
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Knowledge-Enabling Application (Layer 4)
Referred to as value-added layer Provides knowledge bases, discussion databases, automation tools, etc. Ultimate goal: demonstrate by knowledge sharing how employees¶ performances are improved
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Transport Layer (Layer 5)
Most technical layer to implement Includes LANs, WANs, intranets, extranets, and the Internet Ensures that the company will become a network of relationships Considers multimedia, URLs, graphics, connectivity speeds, and bandwidths
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Middleware (Layer 6)
Focus on interfacing with legacy systems and programs residing on other platforms Designer should address databases and applications with which KM system interfaces Makes it possible to connect between old and new data formats
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Physical Repositories (Layer 7)
Bottom layer in the KM architecture Represents the physical layer where repositories are installed Includes data warehouses, legacy applications, operational databases, and special applications for security and traffic management
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Build In-House, Buy, or Outsource?
Trend is toward ready-to-use, generalized software packages Outsourcing is also a trend, releasing technological design to outsiders Regardless of choice, it is important to set criteria for the selection Question of who owns the KM system should be seriously considered

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

End of Lecture Three

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

In Class Discussion Exercise
Assume you are the person responsible for making decision on a KM project How would you decide to build or buy? Based on the key elements compared, and The current state of your organization preparedness (thinking in terms of maturity in layers of KM architecture)
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

CHALLENGES IN BUILDING KM SYSTEMS
Culture
² getting people to share knowledge

Knowledge evaluation
² assessing the worth of knowledge across the firm

Knowledge processing
² documenting how decisions are reached

Knowledge implementation
² organizing knowledge and integrating it with the processing strategy for final deployment

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Conventional System Life Cycle
Recognition of Need and Feasibility Study Functional Requirements Specifications Logical Design (master design plan) Physical Design (coding) Testing

versus

KM System Life Cycle
Evaluate Existing Infrastructure Form the KM Team Knowledge Capture Design KMS Blueprint Verify and validate the KM System

Iterative

Iterative

Implementation (file conversion, user training) Operations and Maintenance

Implement the KM System Manage Change and Rewards Structure Post-system evaluation

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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Users Versus Experts
Attribute User Dependence on system High Cooperation Usually cooperative Expert Low to nil Cooperation not required High Average/low Knowledge/expertise No

Tolerance for ambiguity Low Knowledge of problem Contribution to system System user Availability for system builder High Information Yes

Readily available

Not readily available
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

KM System Development Life Cycle (8 Stages)
Evaluate existing infrastructure Form the KM team

Knowledge capture Design KM blueprint (master plan) Test the KM system
Implement the KM system Manage change and reward structure Post-system evaluation
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Build vs. Buying
Option Cost In-house Usually high development Time Factor Much shorter than development by user Customization High, depending on quality of staff

Development Usually low by end users

Depends on skills High to the user set, system priority, specifications and so forth High

Outsourcing Medium to high Shorter than in-house Off-the-shelf Low to medium Nil Solution

Usually up to 80% usable
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Chapter 3: Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture

Knowledge Sharing Via Teamwork
Initial knowledge Outcome is realized Team performs a job Outcome compared to action

New knowledge reusable by same team on next job Knowledge captured and codified in a form usable by others New experience/ knowledge gained

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