UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINING PROCESS

ABRASIVE WATER JET MACHINING. . .

A Brief Study..

In this paper. the development of an AWJ machining simulation is reported on. It is based on an AWJ process unit event. The obtained results are in good agreement in the engraving regime of AWJ machining. The geometrical characteristics of the unit event are measured on a physical model of the AWJ process. The measured dependences and the proposed model relations are then implemented in the AWJ machining process simulation. The nature of the mechanisms involved in the domain of AWJ machining is still not well understood but is essential for AWJ control improvement. .Abrasive water jet (AWJ) machined surfaces exhibit the texture typical of machining with high energy density beam processing technologies. which in this case represents the impact of a particular abrasive grain. It has a superior surface quality in the upper region and rough surface in the lower zone with pronounced texture marks called striations.

shaping. and reaming. . carving. The process is essentially the same as water erosion found in nature but accelerated and concentrated by orders of magnitude. It has found applications in a diverse number of industries from mining to aerospace where it is used for operations such as cutting. It is often used during fabrication or manufacture of parts for machinery and other devices.An Abrasive water jet cutter is a tool capable of slicing into metal or other materials using a jet of mixture of water and an abrasive substance.

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.History In the 1950s. cavitation jets and hybrid jets. the technology did not advance notably until the 1970s when Dr. Many types of water jets exist today. However. abrasive water jets. percussive water jets.[1] Today the water jet is unparalleled in many aspects of cutting and has changed the way many products are manufactured. forestry engineer Dr. including plain water jets. Mohamed Hashish created a technique to add abrasives to the water jet cutter. Norman Franz experimented with an early form of water jet cutter to cut lumber.

‡There are few materials that cannot be effectively cut with a water jet cutter. can assist in this process.‡The cutter is commonly connected to a high-pressure water pump (a local water main does not supply sufficient pressure) where the water is then ejected from the nozzle. one of these is tempered glass. Certain ceramics are also resistant to water jet cutting. research was discontinued. Because the nature of the cutting stream can be easily modified. cutting through the material by spraying it with the jet of high-speed water. . regardless of the cutting technology used. such as garnet and aluminum oxide. which shatters when cut. The penetrating power of these tools has led to the exploration of their use as anti-tank weapons but. due to their short range and the advent of composite armor. ‡Additives in the form of suspended grit or other abrasives. water jets can be used to cut diverse materials. from prepared foods to metals. and are capable of cutting materials over twelve inches (30 cm) thick. ‡Water jet cuts are not typically limited by the thickness of the material.

508 mm). or width. as well as the type and size of abrasive. ‡Typical abrasive cuts are made with a kerf in the range of 0.02" (0.27 mm).016 to 1. ‡Non-abrasive cuts are normally 0. The kerf. but can be as narrow as 0.05" (1.‡Water jet cutters are also capable of producing rather intricate cuts in material.007" to 0. ‡These small cutters can make very small detail possible in a wide range of applications.04" to 0.013" (0. which is approximately the size of a human hair. of the cut can be changed by changing parts in the nozzle. .076 mm).33 mm).178 to 0.003" (0. but can be as small as 0.

Benefits An important benefit of the water jet cutter is the ability to cut material without interfering with the material's inherent structure as there is no "heat-affected zone" or HAZ. . Minimizing the effects of heat allows metals to be cut without harming or changing intrinsic properties.

Availability ‡Commercial water jet cutting systems are available from manufacturers all over the world. in a range of sizes. ‡Typical water jet cutting machines have a working envelope as small as a few square feet.000 psi (600 MPa) . or up to hundreds of square feet. and with water pumps capable of a range of pressures.000 psi (276 MPa) up to 87. Ultra-high pressure water pumps are available from as low as 40.

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With its new waterjet system.C.C. and mixed with an abrasive.000 psi. is pleased to announce that Reuel Inc.. of Goldsboro. Inc. Reuel is now capable of cutting complex parts from virtually any material with water that has been pressurized to 60. has installed Jet Edge's latest ultra-high pressure waterjet cutting system.. . the Jet Edge Mid Rail Gantry. Dec.. 29/PRNewswire/ -Jet Edge. N. GOLDSBORO.. N.Latest news about Water Jet System.

.Then How about comparing Abrasive Water Jet Machining with Laser Cutting«.

and flame cutting. arc welding. electrochemical. squarely and with a good edge finish. Inconel. . vapor deposition. cladding. and shock hardening. scribing. tool steel. titanium. annealing. This process generates significant noise. trimming. ceramics. the water is mixed with an abrasive like garnet that enables more materials to be cut cleanly to close tolerances. Water jet cutting is a process used to cut materials using a jet of pressurized water as high 60. aluminium. abrasive water jet cutting. granite. heat treating. Often. engraving. welding. Water jets are capable of cutting many industrial materials including stainless steel. and electric discharge machining (EDM). water jet cutting Laser manufacturing activities currently include cutting. and armor plate. Laser manufacturing processes compete both technically and economically with conventional and nonconventional manufacturing processes such as mechanical and thermal machining.000 pounds per square inch (psi). plasma cutting.Standard metal cutting processes: laser cutting vs.

2" ± 0. fiber-transmission not feasible for CO2 laser Gas jet.Fundamental process differences Method of imparting energy Source of energy How energy is transmitted Light 10.04".6 µm (far infrared range) Gas laser Beam guided by mirrors (flying optics). regulation and Z-axis necessary The working area and pump can be located separately 8' x 4' to 13' x 6.5' 1500 to 2600 Watts Water High-pressure pump Rigid high-pressure hoses transmit the energy A high-pressure water jet expels waste material Approximately 0. distance sensor. distance sensor. plus additional gas expels material Approximately 0.5' 4 to 17 kilowatts (4000 bar) How cut material is expelled Distance between nozzle and material and maximum permissable tolerance Physical machine set-up Range of table sizes Typical beam output at the workpiece . regulation and Z-axis necessary Laser source always located inside machine 8' x 4' to 20' x 6.004".12" ± 0.

drilling. engraving. ablation. ceramics.6 µm ~0. glass.12" to 0.4" to 2. ablation. and metals of greater thickness .Typical process applications and uses Typical process uses 3D material cutting Cutting.4" depending on material ~0. but there is a danger of delamination Limited ability Limited due to the small distance between the nozzle and the material Materials able to be cut by the process Material combinations Sandwich structures with cavities Cutting materials with liminted or impaired access Properties of the cut material which influence processing Material thickness at which cutting or processing is economical Absorption characteristics of material Material hardness is a key factor at 10. welding Difficult due to rigid beam guidance and the regulation of distance All metals (excluding highly reflective metals). and wood can be cut Materials with different melting points can barely be cut This is not possible with a CO2 laser Rarely possible due to small distance and the large laser cutting head Cutting. all plastics.0" Common applications for this process Cutting of flat sheet steel of medium thickness for sheet metal processing Cutting of stone. structuring. structuring Partially possible since residual energy behind the workpiece is destroyed All materials can be cut by this process Possible.

gas nozzles.000+ Water jet nozzle.5' x 4' table Protective glass. and all high-pressure components such as valves. N2): 500-2000 l/h $300. plus both dust and the particle filters Assume a 1500 Watt CO2 laser: Electrical power use: 24-40 kW Laser gas (CO2. and seals Assume a 20 kW pump: Electrical power use: 22-35 kW Water: 10 l/h Abrasive: 36 kg/h Disposal of cutting waste Average energy consumption of complete cutting system . hoses.000 with a 20 kW pump.Initial investment and average operating costs Initial capital investment required Parts that will wear out $300. and a 6. He): 2-16 l/h Cutting gas (O2. focusing nozzle. N2.

02" The cut surface will appear to have been sand-blasted. depending on cutting speed Cut surface will show a striated structure Good.006". there is a "tailed" effect in curves in the case of thicker materials Approximately 0. occasionally will demonstrate conical edges Approximately 0. tempering and structural changes may occur in the material Gas pressure poses problems with thin workpieces. small parts can thus only be processed to limited degree . distance cannot be maintained 0.Precision of process Minimum size of the cutting slit Cut surface appearance 0.008" No burring occurs No thermal stress occurs Degree of cut edges to completely parallel Processing tolerance Degree of burring on the cut Thermal stress of material Forces acting on material in direction of gas or water jet during processing High: thin. depending on the cutting speed Good.002" Only partial burring occurs Deformation.

ear protection. and protection against contact with high pressure water jet are needed Not applicable for water jet cutting Unusually high High clean up Production of smoke and dust during processing Noise pollution and danger Machine cleaning requirements due to process mess Cutting waste produced by the process Does occur.Safety considerations and operating environment Personal safety equipment requirements Laser protection safety glasses are not absolutely necessary Protective safety glasses. plastics and some metal alloys may produce toxic gases Very low Low clean up Cutting waste is mainly in the Large quantities of cutting form of dust requiring vacuum waste occur due to mixing extraction and filtering water with abrasives .

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