Seema Ansari


TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 2 . the bitrate depends on the rate at which the analog signal is sampled and the coding scheme.DIGITAL TRANSMISSION RATES OF THE TELEPHONE SYSTEM : ‡ When Analog signals are transmitted digitally. an analog signal can be accurately transmitted if sampled at a rate of atleast twice the highest frequency contained in that signal. ‡ According to the sampling theorem.

TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 3 . y The coding procedure uses 8 bits to describe the amplitude of each sample so that a total of y ( 8000x8=64kbps) 64 kbps are transmitted for a single telephone message.DIGITAL TRANSMISSION RATES y For this reason the standard 4-Khz telephone channel is sampled 8000 times (2x4k=8k) a second.

‡ The hierarchy for the Asynchronous Digital telephone Network used in the United States is shown in the Table on the next slide.The hierarchy for the Asynchronous Digital telephone Network ‡ By using Multiplexing / De-Multiplexing several messages can be transmitted at a higher bitrate. It carries 24 Voice messages. and the no. TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 4 . their designation. ‡ For example the basic block is the T1 (Transmission at level-1) system. of Voice Channels. ‡ Shown are the information rates.

053 Mbps 274.ASYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL TELEPHONE HIERARCHY No.312 Mbps 44.175 Mbps 405 Mbps 565 Mbps 5 .152Mbps 6.736 Mbps 91.544 Mbps 3. of Voice Transmission Signaling Channels Designation Designation Datarate 1 24 48 (2T1) 96 (4 T1 ) 672 (7T2) 1344 (2T3) 4032 (6T3) 6048 (9 T3) TE-TX-SP-08 8064 (12T3) T1 DS-1 T1 C DS-1 C T2 DS-2 T3 DS-3 T3 C DS-3C T4 DS-4 ----Seema Ansari ----- 64kbps 1.

the designation DS-1 (Digital Signal at level-1) is appropriate.7. and 2.3Gbps. y The T2 level is formed by combining 4T1 so that 4(24)=96 messages can be carried. y For example Systems have been designed with individual fiber line rates of 1. y Multigigabit line rates (tens of thousands of Voice channels) can be achieved using fibers.ASYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL TELEPHONE HIERARCHY y When the digital signaling is used.2. y Fiber capabilities are so great that systems with even greater capacities can be constructed. TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 6 . 1.

y A newer Transmission standard intended for world-wide use is SONET. TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 7 . y The basic SONET Transmission rate is OC-1 (Optical Carrier at level-1) at 51.8 Mbps. y The electrical equivalent is STS-1 (Synchronous transport Signal at level-1).SONET ³Synchronous Optical network´. y SONET stands for ³Synchronous Optical network´.

52 Mbps.84 Mbps. and Video over WAN connections at speeds in excess of 2 Gbps. for a speed of 155. ‡ The base OC-1 is rated at 51. an OC-3 would be 3x51. ‡ Each Additional OC level is calculated by taking the level and multiplying it by the OC-1 speed.84 Mbps. ‡ It is a physical layer standard that defines the transfer of data over fiber Optic media. data.g. ‡ SONET links are rated in what are called Optical carrier levels (OC). TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 8 .SYNCHRONOUS OPTICAL NETWORK ( SONET ): ‡ SONET specifies how to deliver Voice. E.

TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 9 .SONET SONET is considered to be the underlying architecture for most ATM implementations at telephone companies.

52 622.08 1244.28 y STS-1: Synchronous transport signal at level-1 y OC-1: (Optical Carrier at level-1) TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 10 .16 2488.84 155.Higher level SONET rates are shown in table below: TRANSMISSION (ELECTRICAL) DESIGNATION (OPTICAL) DATA RATE (Mbps) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ STS-1 STS-3 C STS-12 STS-24 STS-48 OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-24 OC-48 51.

BISDN ‡ ----------------------------------------------------- TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 11 .WAN TECHNOLOGY ‡ TOPICS: y SDH & SONET STANDARDS FOR HIGH SPEED DIGITAL NETWORKS. y ISDN.

TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 12 .SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY (SDH): y SDH was developed initially by Bellcore in the United States under the title of SYNCHRONOUS OPTICAL NETWORK (SONET).

and is known as ³ Synchronous Transport Module level-1´ signal or simply STM-1.52 Mbps-abbreviated to 155 Mbps. TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 13 .4 Gbps) are also defined. y In the SONET hierarchy the term synchronous transport signal (STS) or sometimes Optical Signal OC is used to define the equivalent of an STM Signal.SDH y The Basic Transmission rate defined in the SDH is 155. Higher rates of STM-4 (622 Mbps) and STM-16 (2.

TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 14 .SDH yIn SONET the lower rate of 51.84 Mbps forms the first level signalSTS-1 / OC-1 Signal. yAn STM-1 signal is produced by Multiplexing three such signals together and hence is equivalent to an STS-3/OC-3 signal.

12 1244. STM-16-16 STM-1(MUXED) or 4 STM-4 MUXED Signals.08 933.52 466.g.32 SDH BITRATE STM-16 E.56 622. Seema Ansari 15 TE-TX-SP-08 .16 1866.SDH ‡ SONET (Mbps) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ STS-1 / OC-1 STS-3 / OC-3 STS-9 / OC-9 STS-12 / OC-12 STS-18 / OC-18 STS-24 / OC-24 STS-36 / OC-36 STS-48 / OC-48 STM-1 STM-4 51.84 155.24 2488.

SDH was introduced. y To meet these needs.SDH---WHY? y The demand for high bitrate leased Circuits is expanding rapidly as new bitrate networks are introduced. Most leased circuits that require higher order Multiplex rates are now derived from SDH circuits. TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 16 .

SONET FRAME FORMAT: ‡ The frame Format of an STS-1 Signal is shown below. y Path over head is contained with in the information payload. y Each frame consist of 9 rows of 90 bytes each. y The Transport overhead is itself composed of section overhead and line overhead.Ansari TE-TX-SP-08 Seema 17 . y The first three bytes of each row are allocated to transport overhead with the balance available for path overhead and payload mapping.

Octets Transport Overhead 3-Octets SO 6-Octets LO 87 Octets (SPE) Path Overhead(1-Octet) SPE : Synchronous payload environment SO: Section Overhead TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 18 LO: Line Overhead .STS-1 FRAME FORMAT 90 Octets 3.

840 Mbps TE-TX-SP-08 Seema Ansari 19 . y STS-1 rate = Overhead + Information envelope rate y STS-1 rate = 9 (3) (8) (8000) + 9 (87) (8) (8000) = 51.STS-1 FRAME FORMAT y 9 rows of ³Information payload ³ is also called ³Envelope Capacity´.

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