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February 10, 2003 CVEN 444

Analysis and

Lecture Goals

Resistance Factors and Loads Design of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beam

Unknown section dimensions Known section dimensions

**Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams and Slab Sections
**

Analysis: Analysis Versus Design: Given a cross-section, fc , reinforcement sizes, location, fy compute resistance or capacity Given factored load effect (such as Mu) select suitable section(dimensions, fc, fy, reinforcement, etc.)

Design:

u factored load effect J Mn u Mu .Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams and Slab Sections ACI Code Requirements for Strength Design Basic Equation: factored resistance Ex.

. approximations in strength equations.ACI Code Requirements for Strength Design J n u u Mu = Moment due to factored loads (required ultimate moment) Mn = Nominal moment capacity of the cross-section using nominal dimensions and specified material strengths. J = Strength reduction factor (Accounts for variability in dimensions. material strengths.

Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams and Slab Sections Required Strength (ACI 318. sec 9.2) U = Required Strength to resist factored loads D = Dead Loads L = Live loads W = Wind Loads E = Earthquake Loads .

shrinkage compensating. T = Effect of temperature.etc. F = Pressure or weight Loads due to fluids with well defined densities and controllable maximum heights. differential settlement. sec 9.Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams and Slab Sections Required Strength (ACI 318.ground water. .2) H = Pressure or Weight Loads due to soil. shrinkage. creep.

5 (Lr or S or R) = 1.Factored Load Combinations U = 1. U U U U U = 1.6W +1.6(L + H) + 0.6 L Always check even if other load types are present.8W) = 1.2 D +1.6H = 0.5(Lr or S or R) = 0.6 (Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.2(D + F + T) + 1.9 D + 1.9 D + 1.6H .0L + 0.2D + 1.0E +1.2D + 1.6 W + 1.

3.2 Strength Reduction Factors [1] Flexure w/ or w/o axial tension The strength reduction factor. . will come into the calculation of the strength of the beam. J.Resistance Factors. J ACI Sec J 9.

90 J= 0.65 .2 Strength Reduction Factors [2] Axial Tension [3] Axial Compression w or w/o flexure (a) Member w/ spiral reinforcement (b) Other reinforcement members *(may increase for very small axial loads) J= 0. J ACI Sec J 9.Resistance Factors.3.70 J= 0.

3.4 J factors for regions of high seismic risk .2 Strength Reduction Factors [4] Shear and Torsion [5] Bearing on Concrete J= 0.3.75 J= 0.65 ACI Sec 9.Resistance Factors. J ACI Sec J 9.

Background Information for Designing Beam Sections 1. Location of Reinforcement locate reinforcement where cracking occurs (tension region) Tensile stresses may be due to : a ) Flexure b ) Axial Loads c ) Shrinkage effects .

Construction formwork is expensive .try to reuse at several floors .Background Information for Designing Beam Sections 2.

moment over a support to set depth of a continuous beam. Beam Depths ACI 318 . h based on l (span) (slab & beams) Rule of thumb: hb (in) $ l (ft) Design for max. .Background Information for Designing Beam Sections 3.5(a) min.Table 9.

Concrete Cover Cover = Dimension between the surface of the slab or beam and the reinforcement .Background Information for Designing Beam Sections 4.

factories. . etc. Concrete Cover Why is cover needed? [a] Bonds reinforcement to concrete [b] Protect reinforcement against corrosion [c] Protect reinforcement from fire (over heating causes strength loss) [d] Additional cover used in garages.Background Information for Designing Beam Sections 4. to account for abrasion and wear.

7) Sample values for cast in-place concrete Concrete cast against & exposed to earth . 5 and smaller .1. Concrete (formed) exposed to earth & weather No. No. 18 bars .5 in .3 in.2 in.Background Information for Designing Beam Sections Minimum Cover Dimensions (ACI 318 Sec 7. 6 to No.

5 in .Background Information for Designing Beam Sections Minimum Cover Dimensions (ACI 318 Sec 7. 18 bars . 11 bar and smaller . Columns .1.1.5 in No. joists No. walls.7) Concrete not exposed to earth or weather .75 in .0.Beams. 14 and No.Slab.

. space = smaller of ¯ 18 ° in.Maximum spacing of flexural reinforcement in walls & slabs ®3 t Max. Bar Spacing Limits (ACI 318 Sec.Minimum spacing of bars .Background Information for Designing Beam Sections 5.6) . 7.

Minimum Cover Dimension Interior beam. .

Minimum Cover Dimension Reinforcement bar arrangement for two layers. .

3 Nominal maximum aggregate size. . 1/5 narrowest dim.3. 1/3 slab depth.Minimum Cover Dimension ACI 3.. 3/4 clear space.

fy = 40 ksi and c/d = 0.Singly Reinforced Beam Design a singly reinforced beam. Mu = 225 k-ft.Example .275 Use a b = 12 in. which has a moment capacity. and determine whether or not it is sufficient space for the chosen tension steel. . fc = 3 ksi.

Singly Reinforced Beam From the calculation of Mn a¸ ¨ Mn ! C ©d ¹ 2º ª a¸ a ¨ 1 ¨ a ¸¸ ¨ ! 0.85 f cba © d ¹ ! 0. k d ! F1 © ¹ ! ©1 d ª 2 º ªdº ¨ 1 ¸ 2 ! 0.85 f cbd d ©1 © ¹ ¹ 2º d ª 2 ª d ºº ª a ¨ 1 d ¸ ¨c¸ 2 ! 0.Example .85 f c k d k d{ ©1 ¹ bd 23 1 4 44 2ª 4 4 4 º size Ru .85 f cbd k d k ¹ where.

Singly Reinforced Beam Compute k¶ and determine Ru k ¨c¸ F1 © ¹ 0.85 .Example .

85 .275 ªdº 0.23375 ¨ k ¸ 0.0.85 f c k ©1 ¹ 2º ª ¨ 0.23375 ¸ 0.

3 ksi .

0.23375 ©1 ¹ 2 ª º 0.5264 ksi Ru .

t © t ¹ ¹ ª º¹ © 0.5264 ksi 5699 in 3 .9 bd 2 M Ru ¨M ¸ © J ¹ ª º Ru ¨ ¨ 12 in ¸ ¸ © 225 k.Example .275 J =0.9 © ¹ © ¹ ª º 0.Singly Reinforced Beam Calculate the bd 2 and by selecting c/d =0.

so that h = 25 in. 12 in Use d =22.275 .275d ! 0.Singly Reinforced Beam Calculate d.5 in. c ! 0..Example . 5699 in 3 d2 ! ! 440.79 in.67 in 2 d ! 21. if b = 12 in.

5 in ! 6.22.1875 in. .

Example .Singly Reinforced Beam Calculate As for the beam 0.85 .85 f cb F1c As ! fy ! 0.

3 ksi .

.12 in.

0.85 .

40 ksi 2 ! 4.02 in .6.1875 in.

Singly Reinforced Beam Chose one layer of 4 #9 bars As ! 4 .Example .

in 2 ! 4.00 in 2 1.00 in V! ! bd .0 Compute V 2 As 4.

0 in .12.

014815 .5 in ! 0.22.

014815 " 0.Example .Singly Reinforced Beam Calculate Vmin for the beam V min 200 ® 200 ± f ! 40000 ! 0.005 3 ± f c ! 3 3000 ! 0.005 y ± !¯ V min ! 0.005 .00411 ± fy 40000 ° The beam is OK for the minimum V 0.

The diameter of the #9 = 1.128 in.Example .Singly Reinforced Beam Check whether or not the bars will fit into the beam. b ! 4d b 3s 2 « cover d stirrup » ½ ! 4 .

1.128 in. 3 .

128 in. 0.A ! 11.1. works. .65 in So b =12 in. 2 ?1.375 in.5 in.

Singly Reinforced Beam Check the height of the beam.Example . db h ! d «cover dstirrup » ½ 2 .

? A 2 ! 24.375 in.128 in. 0.94 in Use h = 25 in.5 in. 1.5 in. . ! 22.1.

Example .Singly Reinforced Beam Find a a! As f y 0.85f cb ! 4.0 in 2 .

40 ksi .

0.85 .

3 ksi .

23 in.12.0 in. . ! 5. Find c a 5.23 in. c! ! F1 0.15 in.85 ! 6.

¸ It ! © ¹ I cu ! © ¹ . 6.Singly Reinforced Beam Check the strain in the steel ¨ d c¸ ¨ 22.5 in.15 in.Example .

! ! 0.15 in.00797 u 0.15 in.0. ª c º ª º ! 0.005 c 6.5 in.003 6.9 .2733 d 22. J is 0. Therefore.

Example . ¸ ¨ ! .23 in.Singly Reinforced Beam Compute the Mn for the beam a¸ ¨ M N ! As f y © d ¹ 2º ª 5.

0 in .4.

9 .6 k-in Calculate Mu 2 MU ! JMN ! 0.5 in.40 ksi © 22. ¹ 2 º ª ! 3186.

4 k-in .3186.6 k-in ! 2863.

Example .2733 d .Singly Reinforced Beam Check the beam Mu = 225 k-ft*12 in/ft =2700 k-in 2863.15 in.05% 2700 Over-designed the beam by 6% c 6. ! ! 0.4 2700 *100% ! 6.

5 in. Use a smaller c/d ratio .22.

Homework Problem 5. 5.5 .4.

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