Basic research
to contribute to fundamental knowledge and theory

Applied research
to illuminate a social concern

Evaluation research
Summative evaluation ---to determine program effectiveness Formative evaluation --- to improve program

Action research
to solve a specific problem

The purpose
knowledge for the sake of knowledge to understand and explain

Within specific disciplines
physics; biology; psychology; economics; geography; sociology

The most prestigious contribution to knowledge takes the form of a theory that explains the phenomenon under investigation Works to generate new theories or test existing theories Interested in formulating and testing theoritical construct and its propositions that ideally generalize across time and space The finding are published in scholarly books, journals, and disertations Qualitative inquiry contributes to basic research through inductive theory development --- “grounded theory”

What is the nature of culture? How does culture emerge? How is it transmitted? What are the functions of culture?

Why do individuals behave as they do? How do human beings behave, think, feel, & know? What is normal & abnormal in human development & behavior?

What holds groups & societies together? How do various forms of social organization emerge & what are their functions? What are the structures & processes of human social organizations?

Political science
What is the nature of power? How is power organized, created, distributed & used?

How do societies & groups generates & distributed scarce resources? How are goods & services produced & distributed? What is the nature of wealth?

What is the nature of & variations in the earth’s surface & atmosphere? How do various forms of life emerge in & relate to variations in the earth? What is the relationship between the physical characteristics of an area & the activities that take place in that area?

What is the nature of life? What are variations in the forms of life? How have life forms emerged & how do they change?

Communications (tentatively)
What is the nature of symbols & interaction? How is symbol organized, created, distributed & used in interaction?

Work on human and societal problems The purpose
To contribute knowledge that will help people understand the nature of a problem in order to intervene, thereby allowing human beings to more effectivelly control their environment

Offen guided by the findings, understandings, and explanations of basic research Conduct studies that test applications of basic theory and disciplinary knowledge to real-world problems and experiences The results are published in specialis journals Applied interdiciplinary fields are especially problem oriented rather than discipline oriented The findings typically are limited to a specific time, place, and condition

Applied economic anthropology
How can the prosperous economy of an isolated, small minority group be preserved when that group encounters new competition from the encroaching global economy?

Applied social psychology
How can a group within a large organization develop cohesion & identity within the mission & values of its parent structure & culture?

Applied political geography
How can people of previously isolated towns, each with its own history of local governance, come together to share power & engage in joint decision making at a regional level?

Applied educational & organizational development
How can students from different neighborhoods with varied ethnic & racial backgrounds be integrated in a new magnet school?

Applied communication (tentatively)
How can public relations tools increase awareness of organizational members to support all the organization activities?

Examine and judge the processes and outcomes aimed at attempted solutions Study of programs, policies, personnel, organizations, and products Can be conducted on virtually any explicit attempt to solve problems or bring about planned change

 Summative evaluations
Serve the purpose of rendering an overall judgment about effectiveness of a program, policy, or product for the purpose of saying that the evaluand (thing being evaluated) is or is not effective and, therefore, should or should not to be continued, and has or does not have the potential of being generalizable to other situations Qualitative data typically add depth, detail,

 Formative evaluations
Serve the purpose of improving a specific program, policy, group of staff or product Aim at forming (sharping) the thing being studied Rely heavily on process studies, implementation evaluation, case studies, and evaluability assessment Formal design and the data are collected and / or analyzed, at least in part, by evaluator

Aims at solving specific problems within a program, organization, or community Explicitly and purposefully becomes part of the change process by engaging the people in the program or organization in studying their own problems in order to solve those problems Focus on specific programs at specific points in time Design and data collection tend to be more informal The people in the situation are often directly involved in gathering the information and then studying themselves, and the result are used internally to attack specific problems within a program, organization, or community

The findings of formative evaluation and action research are seldom disseminated beyond the immediate program or organization within which the study takes place Publication and dissemination of findings are more likely to be through briefings, staff discussions, and oral communications

Basic research
What are variations in types of family & what functions do those variations serve?

Applied research
What is the divorce rate among different kinds of families in the US & what explain different rates of divorce among different groups?

Summative evaluation
What is the overall effectiveness of a publicly funded educational program that teaches family members communication skills where the desired program outcomes are enhanced communications among family members, a greater sense of satisfaction with family life, effective parenting practices, & reduced risk of divorce?

Formative evaluation
How can a program teaching family communications skills be improved? What are the program’s strengths & weakness? Who do participants like & dislike?

Action research
A self-study in a particular organization (e.g., church, neighborhood center) to figure out what activities would be attractive to families with children of different ages to solve the problem of low participation in family activities



FOCUS OF RESEARC H Questions deemed important by one’s discipline or personal intellectual interest Questions deemed important by society


DESIRED LEVEL OF ORGANIZAT ION Across time & space (ideal)

KEY ASSUMPTIO NS The world is patterned; those patterns are knowable & explainable


STANDA RD FOR JUDGING Rigor of research, universalit y& verifiabilit y of theory Rigor & theoretica l insight into problem

Knowledge as an end in itself; discovered truth

Contributio n to theory

Major refereed scholarly journals in one’s discipline, scholarly books Specialized academic journals, applied research journals within disciplines, interdiscipli nary problemfocused journals


Understand the nature & sources of human & societal problems

Contributio ns to theories hat can be used to formulate problemsolving programs & interventio ns

Within as general a time & space as possible, but clearly limited application context

Human & societal problems can be understood & solved with knowledge





DESIRED LEVEL OF ORGANIZA TION All intervention s with similar goals





Determine effectivene ss of human interventio ns & actions (programs, policies, personnel, products) Improve an interventio n: A program, policy, organizatio n, or product

Goals of interventio n


Strengths & weaknesse s of the specific program, policy, product, or personnel being studied

Judgment & generaliza tions about effective types of interventi ons & the conditions under which Recomme those ndations efforts are for effective improvem ents

What works one place under specified conditions should work elsewhere

Evaluation reports for program funders & policymake rs, specialized journals

Generaliz ability to efforts & to other programs & policy issues

Limited to specific setting studied

People can & will use information to improve what they’re doing

Oral briefings; conference s; internal reports; limited circulation to similar programs, other evaluators

Usefulnes s to & actual use by intended users in the setting studied









Solve problems in a program, organizati on, or communit y

Organizatio n& community problems

Immediate action; solving problems as quickly as possible

People in a setting can solve problems by studying themselves

Interperson al interactions among research participants ; informal unpublishe d

Feelings about the process among research participants , feasibility of the solution generated

A discussion of design strategies and trade-offs is necessited by the fact that THERE ARE NO PERFECT RESEARCH DESIGNS Trade-offs:
Breadth vs Depth
No rule of thumb exists to tell a researcher precisely how to focus a study The extent to which a research or evaluation study is broad or narrow depends on purpose, the resources available, the time available, and the interests of those involved There are not choices between good and bad but choices among alternatives, all of which have merit

Units of analysis
The key issue in selecting and making decisions about the appropriate unit of analysis is to decide what it is you want to be able to say something about at the end of study

The logic and power of purposeful sampling lie in selecting information-rich cases for study in depth Studying information-rich cases yields insights and in-depth understanding rather than empirical generalizations Purposeful sampling is sometimes called purposive or judgment sampling Select information-rich cases strategically & purposefully; specific type & number of cases selected depends on study purposes &

Extreme or deviant case sampling
Learning from unusual manifestations of the phenomenon of interest Example: outstanding successes/ notable failures; top of the class/ dropouts; exotic event; crises Ethnomethodology

Intensity sampling
Information-rich cases that manifest the phenomenon intensely, but not extremely Example: good students/ poor students; above average/ below average Heuristic research

Maximun variation (heterogenity) sampling
Document unique or diverse variations that have emerged in adapting to different conditions Identify important common patterns that cut across variations (cut through the noise of variation) Aims at capturing and describing the central themes that cut across a great deals of variation A small sample of great diversity will yield two kinds of findings:
High-quality, detailed descriptions of each cases, which are useful for documenting uniquenesses Important shared pattern that cut across cases and derive their significance from having emerged out of heterogeneity

Homogeneous samples
Focus; reduce variation; simplify analysis; facilitate group interviewing The purpose is to describe some particular subgroup in depth FGD are based typically on homogeneous groups

 Typical case sampling
Illustrate or highlight what is typical, normal, average The purpose is to describe and illustrate what is typical to those unfamiliar with the setting – not to make generalized statements about the experiences of all participants The cases are selected with the cooperation of key informants or using survey data, a demographic analysis of average or other statistical data that provide a normal distribution of characteristics from which to identify

Critical case sampling
Permits logical generalization & maximum application of information to other cases because if it’s true of this one case, it’s likely to be true of all other cases “if it happens there, it will happen anywhere” “if that group is having problems, then we can be sure all the groups are having problems” A small or “N of 1” sample To pick the site that would yield the most information and have the greatest impact on the development of knowledge

Snowball or choin sampling
Identify cases of interest from sampling people who know people who know people who know what cases are information rich, that is, good examples for study, good interview participants An approach for locating information-rich to informants or critical cases

 Criterion sampling
The logic of criterion sampling is to review and study all cases that meet some predetermined criterion of importance A strategy common in quality assurance efforts Picking all cases that meet some criterion Quality assurance Example: all children abused in a treatment facility

Theory-based sampling, operational construct sampling, and theoritical sampling
Finding manifestations of a theoretical construct of interest so as to elaborate & examine the construct & its variations A more conceptually oriented version of criterion sampling Operational construct sampling simply means that one samples for study real-world examples (i.e., operational examples) of the constructs in which one is interested Theoritical sampling is what grounded theorists

Confirming and disconfirming cases
Elaborating & deepening initial analysis; seeking exceptions; testing variation In the early part of qualitative fieldwork, the evaluator is exploring – gathering data and watching for patterns to emerge. Over time, the exploratory process gives way to confirmatory fieldwork The sample determines what the evaluator will have something to say about – thus the importance of sampling carefully and thoughtfully

Stratified purposeful sampling
Illustrate characteristics of particular subgroups of interest; facilitate comparisons Samples within samples

 Opportunistic or emergent sampling
Following new leads during fieldwork; taking advantage of the unexpected; flexibility On-the-spot decision about sampling to take advantage of new opportunities during actual data collection

 Purposeful random sampling (small sample size)
Add credibility when potential purposeful sample is larger than one can handle Reduce bias within a purposeful category (not for generalizations or representativeness) In advande of knowledge of how outcomes would appear The purpose is credibility, not representativeness

 Sampling politically important cases
Attract attention to the study (or avoid attracting undesired attention by purposefully eliminating from the sample politically sensitive cases) Evaluation is inherently and inevitably political

 Convenience sampling
Do what’s easy to save time, money & effort Poorest rationale; lowest credibility Yields information-poor cases While convenience and cost are real considerations, they should be the last factors to be taken into account Is neither purposeful nor strategic

Combination or mixed purposeful sampling
Triangulation; flexibility; meet multiple interests & needs

Representativeness: sample size a function of population size & desired confidence level Simple random sample
Permit generalization from sample to the population it represents

Stratified random & cluster samples
Increase confidence in making generalizations to particular subgroups

THERE ARE NO RULES FOR SAMPLE SIZE IN QUALITATIVE INQUIRY The validity, meaningfulness, and insights generated from qualitative inquiry have more to do with the information richness of the cases selected and the observational/ analytical capabilities of the researcher than with sample size The redudancy is the primary criterion

Strengthens a study by combining methods

 Types of triangualtion
Data triangulation
the use of a variety of data sources in a study

Investigator triangulation
the use of several different researcher or evaluator

Theory triangulation
the use of multiple perspectives to interpret a single set of data

Methodological triangulation
the use of multiple methods to study a single problem or program

Understanding inconsistencies in findings across different kinds of data can be illuminative Finding such inconsistencies ought not be viewed as weakening the credibility of results, but rather as offering opportunities for deeper insight inti the relationship between inquiry approach and the phenomenon under study Triangulation within a qualitative inquiry strategy can be attained by: combining both interviewing and observations mixing different types of purposeful samples examining how competing theoritical perspectives inform a particular analysis (eg, the trancendental phenomenology of Husserl vs the hermeneutic phenomenology of Heidegger) A study can also be designed to cut across inquiry approaches and achieve triangulation by combining qualitative and quantitative methods

Mixing Data, Design, and Analysis Approach
The ideal-typical qualitative methods strategy is made up of three parts Qualitative data A holistic-inductive design of naturalistic inquiry Content or case analysis The traditional hypothetico-deductive approach to research, the ideal study would include Quantitative data from Experimental (or quasi-experimental) design Statistical analysis

Mixing Data, Design, and Analysis Approach Mixed form
Experimental design Statistical analysis Experimental design Content analysis Naturalistic inquiry – Statistical analysis Naturalistic inquiry – Statistical analysis - Qualitative data – – Qualitative data – Qualitative data – Quantitative data –

Mixing Data, Design, and Analysis Approach Guba and Lincoln (1988) have argued that: The internal consistency and logic of each approach, or paradigm, mitigates (mengurangi/ meredakan) againts methodological mixing of different inquiry modes and data collection strategies

Mixing Data, Design, and Analysis Approach
Patton (2002; 1981; 1987a):

Mixing parts of different approaches is a matter of philosophical and methodological controversy. Yet, the practical mandate in evaluation to gather the most relevant possible information for evaluation users outweighs (lebih berat daripada) concerns about methodological purity based on epistemological and philosophical arguments The intellectual mandate to be open to what the world has to offer surely includes methodological opennes. In practice, it is altogether possible, as we have seen, to combine approaches, and to do so creatively The spirit of adaptability and creativity in designing studies is aimed at being pragmatic, responsive to real-world conditions and, when doing evaluations, to meeting stakeholders information needs

Design and Methods Decisions
In qualitative inquiry, the problem of design poses a paradox Term design suggest a very specific blueprint, but “design in the naturalistic sense ... means planning for certain broad contingencies without, however, indicating exactly what will be done in relation to each (Lincoln and Guba, 1985) A qualitative design needs to remain sufficiently open and flexible to permit exploration of whatever the phenomenon under study offers for inquiry Qualitative designs continue to be emergent even after data collection begins

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