You are on page 1of 31

IALA MARITIME BUOYAGE SYSTEM

IALA means International Association of Lighthouse Authorities


IALA BUOYAGE 1

IALA MARITIME BUOYAGE SYSTEM


Two forms of the IALA System :
IALA System A-Europe, Africa, and Asia. Green buoys mark the starboard side of a channel in the A system. IALA System B -North, Central, and South America, Korea, and the Philippines. Green buoys mark the port side of the channel in system B.
IALA BUOYAGE 2

IALA REGION

IALA BUOYAGE

DIRECTION OF BUOYAGE
Defined in one of two ways: The general direction - approaching a harbour, river, estuary or other waterway from seaward, or Determined by the appropriate authority. In principle, it follows a clockwise direction around land masses. Is indicated in appropriate nautical documents.
IALA BUOYAGE 4

IALA MARITIME BUOYAGE SYSTEM


Five types of navigation buoys: Lateral Cardinal Isolated danger Safe water Special
IALA BUOYAGE 5

LATERAL MARKS

IALA BUOYAGE

LATERAL MARKS
used in conjunction with a conventional direction of buoyage. used for well defined channels. indicate the port and starboard sides of the route to be followed. Where a channel divides, a modified lateral mark may be used to indicate the preferred route. Differ between buoyage regions A and B.
IALA BUOYAGE 7

Port hand Marks Region A


Colour : Red Shape (Buoys): Cylindrical (can), pillar or spar Topmark (if any) : Single red cylinder (can) Light (when fitted) Red, any other than composite group flashing (2+1) Retroreflector: Red band or square
IALA BUOYAGE 8

Starboard hand Marks Region A


Colour : Green Shape (Buoys): Conical, pillar or spar Topmark (if any) : Single green cone, point upward Light (when fitted): Green, any other than composite group flashing (2+1) Retroreflector: Green band or triangle
IALA BUOYAGE 9

LATERAL MARKS Region A


Port Hand Colour Shape Top Mark Light Red Stbd Hand Green Cylindrical (can), pillar Conical, pillar or spar or spar Single red cylinder (can) Red, any other than composite group flashing (2+1) Red band or square Single green cone, point upward Green, any other than composite group flashing (2+1) Green band or triangle
10

Retro reflector
IALA BUOYAGE

CARDINAL MARKS

IALA BUOYAGE

11

CARDINAL MARKS
The four quadrants (North, East, South and West) are bounded by the true bearings NW-NE, NE-SE, SE-SW, SW-NW, taken from the point of interest. A cardinal mark is named after the quadrant in which it is placed. The name of a cardinal mark indicates that it should be passed to the named side of the mark.
IALA BUOYAGE 12

CARDINAL MARKS
Used to: indicate that the deepest water in that area is on the named side of the mark to indicate the safe side on which to pass a danger to draw attention to a feature in a channel such as a bend, a junction, a bifurcation, or the end of a shoal
IALA BUOYAGE 13

North Cardinal mark


Colour : Black above yellow Shape (Buoys) : Pillar or spar Topmark (if any) : 2 black cones, points upward Light (when fitted) : White, VQ or Q Retroreflector: Blue above yellow
IALA BUOYAGE 14

East Cardinal mark


Colour : Black with single broad horizontal yellow band Shape (Buoys) : Pillar or spar Topmark (if any) : 2 black cones, base to base Light (when fitted) : White, VQ(3) every 5 sec or Q(3) every 10 sec Retroreflector: Two blue band
IALA BUOYAGE 15

South Cardinal mark


Colour : Yellow above black Shape (Buoys) : Pillar or spar Topmark (if any) : 2 black cones, points downward Light (when fitted) : White, VQ(6) + long flash every 10 sec or Q(6) + long flash every 15 sec Retroreflector: Yellow above blue
IALA BUOYAGE 16

West Cardinal mark


Colour : Yellow with single broad horizontal black band Shape (Buoys) :Pillar or spar Topmark (if any) : 2 black cones, point to point Light (when fitted) : White, VQ(9) every 10 sec or Q(9) every 15 sec Retroreflector: 2 yellow band
IALA BUOYAGE 17

ISOLATED DANGER MARK


Mark erected on, or moored on or above, an isolated danger which has navigable water all around it.
Colour : Black with one or more horizontal red bands Shape (Buoys) : Pillar or spar Topmark (if any) : 2 black spheres, one above the other Light (when fitted) : White, Group Flashing (2) Retroreflector: Blue above Red band
IALA BUOYAGE 18

SAFE WATER MARKS


Indicate that there is navigable water all round the mark; include centre line marks and mid-channel marks. an alternative to a cardinal or a lateral mark to indicate a landfall.
IALA BUOYAGE 19

Safe Water Mark


Colour : Red and white vertical stripes Shape (Buoys) : Spherical; pillar or spar with spherical topmark Topmark (if any) : Single red sphere Light (when fitted) : White. Isophase, Occulting, one Long flash every 10 sec or Morse A Retroreflector: Red and White stripes or band
IALA BUOYAGE 20

SPECIAL

MARKS


IALA BUOYAGE

Not primarily intended to assist navigation but which indicate a special area or feature. Example: Ocean Data Acquisition Systems (ODAS) marks; Traffic Separation marks Spoil Ground marks; Military Exercise Zone marks; Cable or pipe line marks; Recreation Zone marks.
21

SPECIAL

MARKS

Colour : Yellow Shape (Buoys) : Optional, but not conflicting with navigational marks Topmark (if any) : Single yellow X shape Light (when fitted) : Yellow. Note: If can, cone or spherical Any rhythm not used for shape is used, will indicate white lights. which side to pass. Retroreflector: Yellow band or an X
IALA BUOYAGE 22

Preferred channel
At the point where a channel divides, when proceeding in the conventional direction of buoyage, a preferred channel may be indicated by modifying Port or Starboard lateral marks.

IALA BUOYAGE

23

Preferred channel to Stbd : Region A


Colour : Red with one broad green horizontal band Shape (Buoys) : Cylindrical (can), pillar or spar Topmark (if any) : Single red cylinder (can) Light (when fitted) : Red, Composite group flashing (2+1) Retroreflector: Red band or square
IALA BUOYAGE 24

Preferred channel to Port Region A


Colour : Green with one broad red horizontal band Shape (Buoys) : Conical, pillar or spar Topmark (if any) : Single green cone, point upward Light (when fitted) : Green. Composite group flashing (2+1) Retroreflector: Green band or triangle
IALA BUOYAGE 25

Preferred channel
TO STBD Colour Shape Top Mark Light Retro reflector
IALA BUOYAGE

TO PORT
Green with one broad red horizontal band Conical, pillar or spar Single green cone, point upward Green. Composite group flashing (2+1) Green band or triangle
26

Red with one broad green horizontal band Cylindrical (can), pillar or spar Single red cylinder (can) Red, Composite group flashing (2+1) Red band or square

NEW DANGERS
To describe newly discovered hazards not yet shown on charts naturally occurring obstructions (sandbanks or rocks) man-made dangers (wrecks).

IALA BUOYAGE

27

NEW DANGERS
Marking rules:
In the case of an especially grave danger, one of the marks may be duplicated. have an appropriate cardinal or lateral V.Qk.FI. or Qk.FI. light character. A duplicate mark will be identical to its partner in all respects. A duplicate mark may carry a racon, coded Morse D. The duplicate mark will be removed when the new danger has been sufficiently promulgated.
IALA BUOYAGE 28

PHASE CHARACTERISTIC
Isophase (Iso):
This Light has equal duration between light and darkness. A period consists of both a light and a dark interval. Also called Equal Interval (E Int).

IALA BUOYAGE

29

PHASE CHARACTERISTIC
Group Flashing (Gp Fl(x+x)):
Combination of two patterns in one period. Example 'Gp Fl(2+3). the first 2 flashes followed by the pattern of 3 flashes.

Occulting (Occ):
Occulting is the opposite of flashing, the light is more on then off.

IALA BUOYAGE

30

The End
Thank You.

IALA BUOYAGE

31